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by: Tressa Jenkins


Tressa Jenkins
GPA 3.64


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Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tressa Jenkins on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MBUS 4100 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see /class/202226/mbus-4100-university-of-georgia in Music Business at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
MBUS4100 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE BarbeFall 2010 MIDTERM EXAM INFORMATION Key member the member or members of a group to whom a label contract is tied CrossCollateralization taking money earned as royalties from subsequent releases or in some case subsequent deals to pay back costs incurred during earlier ones Buyon When a label is willing to pay a headline act to accept a lesserknown act as an opener rather than the opener getting paid In a typical recording contract the following is covered of royalties withheld for reserves of the gross withheld for packaging of SLRP or PPD paid to an artist after expenses SoundScan Company that measures how many records are sold at retail Foreign merch 80 of US Business manager payment 5 of gross hourly accountant rate monthly fee Personal manager payment 15 of gross Booking agent payment 10 of artist39s take for each show booked NOT including merch Franchising union regulation of booking agencies A group39s most important asset its name Label releases are subject to unsold product returns Releases are sent to distributors at a 100 return privilege 360 dl record companies require that artists cut the company in other areas of income besides record sales Manager and Booking Agent typically involved in deciding when concert tix are released for sale Hall fees of nightly concert tour merch paid to the venue JOBS Tour Managerhandles settle Agentroutes shows Business Manageradvances the budget Promoteradvertises the show Tax on concert gross is NOT calculated postexpense it is deducted from gross along with other expenses ie facility charges The U2 360 Tour earned 316M in 44 show but was not incredibly profitable Pay or Play an option that the record company has either to release music or pay artist off If unrecouped an artist39s advance from a label may never get repaid because advances are nonrefundable It is the risk of the company Delivery requirements Commercially satisfactory Record label only has to take recordings it thinks will sell 39 Technically satisfactory lfthe recording is technically wellmade the label has to take it rare nowadays Escalations provisions for increased royalty rate when certain sales numbers are reached merch and recording P amp D Deal Pressing and Distribution Tour support money that record companies give artists to make up for touring losses Papering the hallhouse promoter gives away free tix to make venue look full Versus deal SUPERSTAR touring Artist gets a guarantee against of net profit or show39s gross whichever is higher 8515 and 9010 are typical splits artist85 net promoter15 net Artist payment formula N ET X 85 GUARANTEE Formula for net after taxes GROSS 1 tax Artists pays the producer and mixer in an quotAllInquot royalties deal Merchandise advance isn39t normally returned EXCEPT tours starting late failure to reach performance minimum Merch per head sales Average spent by every head based ONLY on people who pay to get in People who get in free may or may not be devout enough fans to buy merchandise and are excluded RECORD COMPANY JOB TASKS New Mediacare and feeding of all things digital Business AffairsLegal contract negotiation Promotion get songs on radio Production overSEES manufacturing Sales Get records on shelves Marketing advertising lnternational overSEAS manufacturing Finance compute and pay royalties Product Manager coordinates efforts of all departments on an individual release AampR talent scoutartist liason In a group agreement it is reasonable that members might be paid different ages for different income streams due to different levels of participation clout songwriting or if one member is a quotkey memberquot Pros and Cons of having many team members interconnected in one large company Minimized timeeffort easier communication resources easier to obtain Less special attention to artists interconnection can be too close leaving artist out of certain affairs andor used as a puppet EMAILS 0 Difference between Passive Interests and Active Interests in a 360 deal 39 Passive Interest company has no control over rights artist makes whatever deal they want then hands parent company check for their share Active Interest control over rights and get a cut of it 0 Artist Manager deductions before the commission is calculated PSI Recording producer cowriter tour support costs of collection soundlights opening acts 0 Window in Pro Tools that displays the start end and length quotThe Edit Event Windowquot 0 Microphone shapes circle omnidirectional picks up sound from all around Any nearby sound will be picked up number 8bidirectional picks up sound in the front and the back but not from the sides heartshaped quotcardioquotcardioid only picks up what is in front of the mic Useful if you wanted to keep some other sound out of the microphone and just have it focused on the sound at which it is aimed TEXTBOOK REVIEW B THE TEAM Members Personal manager Business Manager Attorney Agent 0 PERSONAL MANAGER JOBS record deals art work manage producer promomarketing tourrecord production scheduling Iiason wrecord company timing of record releases touring strategy DEAL POINTS Commission 1520 gross Not commissionable recording costs producer fees opening acts cowriting tour support cost of collection Exclusions Area of career separate from relationship EX Established in UK different manager in US or artist switching to acting Term 35 years album cycles recordingtour end based on performance Earnings after term 0 sunset clauses terminate commissions Records Recorded amp released during term only or 50 commission on recordings during term released after Publishing Final cutoff key man person at record company with whom you have a relationship power of attorney provision to look out for power to act for you BUSINESS MANAGER JOBS handle money pay bills taxes monitor contracts royalty recoupment budgeting permitslicensing audits regulate record publishing spending DEAL POINTS DON39T sign checks noterm international experience audits send someone to check up on them PAYMENT 5 commission hourly or at fee ATTORNEY JOBS Negotiatedocument deals FEES expensive and hourly or value billing with retainer against it value billing when the deal is finished lawyer asks for a fee based on size of dealcontribution retainer set monthly fee credited against ultimate fee or flat fee covering all services con ict of interest clients get into a situation or argument AGENT JOB Book shows live appearances endorsement movie soundtracks collect deposits manage legalities refunds cancellations security concert settlement There are no guarantees Regulated by AFM American Federation of Musicians FEES 10 deductions from gross or net TERM Shorterbetter 3 years EXCLUSIONS records songwriting publishing sometimes commercials NEW TRENDS Sometimes double as promoter 360 Deals consolidation LiveNation merch thru agents RECORD DEALS STRUCTURE OF RECORD BUSINESS Majors AampR Sales Marketing Promo Product Management New Media Production Finance BusinessLegal International Distributors Music on shelvesdigital 4 majorsEMl Sony Universal and WEA Independents Majordistributed Signs artists wmajor label all functions except recording True Independents financed by ownersinvestors go thru independent distributors RETAILERS big box retailers wal mart target best buy Record both audio and audiovisual devices Master 1 Original studio recording from which all others slaves are made multitrack reduced down to a twotrack Editing cutting out bad parts Mixing Getting the right levels per track EQ Sound enhancement adjustment of bass etc 2 Recording of one particular song cuts 10 Masters10 songs ROYALTIES FOR DISTRIBUTION Artist of wholesale or PPD published price to dealers for each record SOLD CD PRICE x ROYALTY ROYALTY Royalty known as a point Wrinkles Free goods promotion copies return privilege 100 reserves company keeps portion of royalty until sales to retailer are final ROYALTY CALCULATIONS FOR DISTRIBUTION SRLP suggested retail list price approximate price listed by retailer NOT price received by label RETAIL PRICE PACKAGING FEE 25 ROYALTY BASE PRICE Phony Free Goods giving away of records free less paid to artist ADVANCES AND RECOUPMENT advance company pays sum to artist and keeps royalties until repaid recouped Unrecouped de cit in the red Crosscollateralization two albums two deals REAL VALUES New artist Signed and under 100000 records sold Midlevel artist 250000500000 records Superstar 1000000 records per release gold album sells 500000 units platinum 1 mill bullet Next to ranking on a chart indicates rapid increase allin deal artist is responsible for paying producer and mixer Producers 34 of PPD formula automatically increase deal ifyou39re successful decrease if op 0 RECORD COMPANY SHARE 1035 net income 0 OTHER MAJOR DEAL POINTS pay or play provision play music or pay you off rms albums to which label is committed demo dwl farm deal record demos to see ifthey like you or not Term of periods 0 GUARANTEED RELEASE you can get out of deal ifthey don39t sell your records 0 INDEPENDENT LABELS Less advance 50 profits instead of royalty no overseas wants 360 rightspublishing PRODUCER AND MIXER DEALS 0 Demo deals First refusal after recording demo they have period to decide ifthey like you If so you must negotiate a deal rst negotiation if not company gets rst refusal if you get another deal must go back to first company and see ifthey can match it override must reimburse company for demo costs and funder gets 1 or 2 of record royalties exclusive can39t make records with other labels rerecording restriction can39t rerecord any song recorded during term of deal or after 0 Album artwork consultation vs approval SPEAKERS D MATT HICKEY Frank Riley39s High Road Touring based in Sausalito lives in Austin Booked Bowery Ballroom amp Mercury Lounge NYC Vic Theatre Chicago Talent buyer and promoter 1200 showsyear for 40 clients Was a tour manager Facetoface communication Have to book 68 months in advance competition LiveNation is a mess Robert Cillerman bought a bunch of amphitheatres and sold them at 4X profit to Clear Channel 2 ways to book in US territory or artist Europeeasier Disco Demolition baseball game burned Disco records Sell what you believe in CHRIS RABOLD Sound engineer for Widespread Panic 1st thing you do Tune PA to surroundings Venues sound better w more people Engineering school at Middle TN State Don39t learn through observation Warren Haynes Christmas Jam Worked w Cut Copy Lady Gaga quotDon39t love the artist love the artquot quotSound is like politicsdifferent for everyonequot BEN ALLEN Producer Milk Money From Athens works windie hip hop RampB Lightspeed Cham pion MattampKim Diddy MGMT quotDo whatever you need to do to get the album made don39t take anything personallyquot Does own mixing but not mastering DAVID LOWERY Producer and Musician Cracker Camper Van Beethoven Taboo words gypsy lady and lover 1st thing to do get song in right key Counting crows SST and Virgin Funk Logic Masterizer placebo effect no real purpose but gets label off your back Importance of reading people AUDIO PRODUCTION SOUND Disturbance of air pressure How much amplitude measured in decibels dB How fast frequency measure in hertz 1 Hz I cyclesec COMPRESSION Turns down peaks which enables hotter overall level Threshold point in amplitude where compression begins Attack how fast it reacts when the sound hits the threshold Release time is takes for the compressor to return to its normal gain Ratio input over threshold vs output change A 41 ratio if a signal goes 4 dB over the threshold the compressor allows playback if only ldB over A compressor with a ratio of 101 or greater is a limiter MICROPHONES Types Ribbon more delicate smooth tone tonally balanced low output Dynamic Rugged Condenser detailed sounding need phantom power most expensive Pickuppolar patterns Omnidirectional picks up sound from all directions Cardioid Picks up sound that39s in front ofthe microphone Figure of 8bidirectional picks up sound from 2 ends Hypercardioid like cardioid but bigger on one end EX used if you want to get the sound of the instrument and echo off a wall BASIC TRACKSTRACKING recording music in the studio OVERDU BS additional recording after basic tracks are cut can add or subtract any ofthe instruments MIXING blending sound through console or interface to achieve optimal transfer level 3Track most important developmental in multitrack recording because it gave way to other formats despite its short lifetime PRO TOOLS AUDIO DRIVES Main Startup not recommended Internal Audio FireWire most professional USB Flash easiest FORMATTING HARD DRIVE wipe slate clean erase ash drive w Disk Utility TRASHING PREFERENCES reset factory defaults quottrashing the prefsquot Preferences are settings that track the way you work START gt NEW SESSION gt CHOOSE LOCATION gt CHOOSE AUDIO TYPE wav gt CHOOSE SAMPLE RATE amp BIT DEPTH sample rate times per second incoming audio is sampled bit


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