AMERICAN GOVERNMENT POLS 1101
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estelle Prosacco on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Sung in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/202227/pols-1101-university-of-georgia in Political Science at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Key Terms 7 EXAM 2 I Congress 1 Bicameralism two legislative chambers lower and upper house can be either asymmetric unequal power or symmetric equal power 1 The Connecticut Compromise tried to balance the largestate population advantage and the smallstate demand for equality in policymaking a House of Reps Lower house people s house equivalent to British House of Commons seats allocated by population members elected by citizenry b Senate Upper house represents territorial units state province region or interest aristocracy equivalent to British House of Lords 2 members from each state chosen by the state legislature 2 Congressional District 1 Census to determine seating in the HOR after 1st census in 1790 each state given 1 seat per 33000 people for a total of 105 seats 2 Total 435 Members in the 111th House of Representatives each state is guaranteed at least one seat average HOR member represents 699000 3 Range of Representatives California with the most 53 Ohio with the least 18 7 states have 1 atlarge member 5 states with 2 members 3 Equal Representation in the Senate 4 Virtual Representation for the Territories 1 0 Senators but 5 House delegates all democrats 2 Taxation without Representation activity in Washington DC 5 Differences between the House anc Senate House Senate Members chosen from local districts Members chosen from an entire state Twoyear term Sixyear term Originally elected by voters Originallyuntil 1913 elected by state legislatures Larger 435 voting members Smaller100 members Debate limited Debate extended libuster Local or narrow leadership National leadership 6 US Senate Election 1 Originally chosen by State legislatures 2 17m Amendment 1913 Democratic Correction Direct popular election of 2 US Senators per state 7 Characteristics of the 11th Congress mostly older white male Christian rich lawyers 8 Powers of Congress 1 Article I All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States which all shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives 2 Enumerated powers ie impose taxes coin money 3 Necessary and proper or the elastic clause a single most extensive grant of power in the Constitution b McCulloch v Maryland Congress chartered bank and then imposed taxes on it McCulloch refused to pay Legal Questions Did Congress have the authority to establish the bank Did the Maryland law unconstitutionally interfere with congressional power Conclusion Chief Justice John Marshall decided chartering the bank was valid because it bore a reasonable relationship to various constitutionallyenumerated powers of the government e g power to collect taxes borrow money regulate commerce etc 4 Foreign Affairs a Only Congress can declare war raise nance an armynavy and call out state militias b advise and consent capacity Senate ratifies treaties and confirms 391 iI It A 5 Advise and Consent Senate as advisory council to the president approves presidential appointments to the Supreme Court and top executive branch positions 9 Organizing Congress 1 Parties and party leaders a The Speaker of the House second in line to presidency after VP tend to come from larger states b President of Senate Vice President the 101 Senator possesses tie breaking vote c President Pro Tempore Senate usually held by most senior member of the majority party in the Senate presiding officer in the Senate in VP s absence 3r in line to presidency after VP and SOH tend to come from smaller states d Majority and Minority Leaders House and Senate e Whips House and Senate assistant leader positions count votes within congressional party and whipping up support for leadership position polling member preferences on bi s 10 Types of Committees 1 Standing Committees a permanent part of the House or Senate structure holding more importance and authorities than other committees cover particular subject matter received legislative proposals power to report legislation to Congress 2 Select Committees temporary legislative committee for a special purpose to examine issues that fall between jurisdictions of standing committees ex Assassination lack power to present legislation to full Congress often formed to investigate pres scandals 3 Joint Committees composed of members from both chambers of Congress currently 4 permanent joint committees library printing taxation economic lack power to report legislation essentially nonlegislation informationgathering committees 4 nnFPrPnre C 39 temp 39 to negotiate differences bt the House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation that has passed through both chambers members formally chosen by House Speaker and Senate leaders dissolves after complete work 11 Distributive Theory The idea that members of Congress will join committees that best serve the interests of their district and committee members will support each other s legislation Saxby Chambliss in on Ag Nutrition and forestry committees introduced legislation to recognize hardwood trees as sustainable resources 11 How a Bill Becomes a Law 1 Textbook Version of process 1 A member of Congress introduces the bill 2 A subcommittee and committee craft the bill 3 Floor action on the bill takes place in the first chamber House and Senate 4 Committee and floor action takes place in the second chamber 5 The conference committee works out any differences between the House and Senate versions of the bill 6 Final approval of the conference committee version by the floor of each chamber 7 The president either signs or vetoes the final version 8 If the bill is vetoed both chambers attempt to override the veto 2 Key Points Only member of Congress can introduce the bill A bill must be passed in identical form by both the House and Senate Conference Committee The Senate does not have a Rules Committee Filibuster and Cloture To override the president s veto it requires a twothirds vote in each chamber 3 Types of veto regular veto and pocket veto President can either sign the bill into law ignore the bill with the result that it becomes law in ten days excluding Sundays or veto the bill a Pocket Veto If Congress adjourns before the 10 days are up the bill fails putting a bill in one s pocket until Congress adjourns cannot be overridden 4 Deviations from the process bypass the 39 system 139 39 p quot summit meeting between the pres and congressional leaders omnibus legislation large bills that cover several topics and contain extraneous projects 5 Health Care Reform httpwwwthedailyshowcomwatchthufebruary112010the apparenttrap 111 Political Party 1 Definition Organizations that run candidates for political office and coordinate the actions of officials elected under the party banner a group of political activists who organize to win elections operate the government and determine public policy 2 Difference between political party and Interest groups Interest groups do not want to operate the government do not put forth political candidates tend to sharpen issues 3 Founder s unwanted offspring The Founders did not anticipate parties and this central aspect of American politics was UNPLANNED and had NO formal constitutional or legal status parties were widely considered to be a threat to good gov t and public order 4 Party systems 1 Party organization RNC and DNC 2 Party in government Caucus Democrats and Conference Republican in Congress a Polarization 3 Party in the electorate The group of citizens who identify with a specific political Party a Partisans 5 History of American Political Party 1 The first party system 17891828 a Federalists vs DemocraticRepublicans first American parties were not meant to be permanent However after the rati cation of the Constitution Americans came to realize that something more permanent than a faction would be necessary to identify candidates for office and represent political differences among the people b Era of good feelings 18171825 no opposition to the Democrats 2 The second party system 18291856 a Democrats Jackson vs Whigs Adams b Spoils system rewarding party supporters with bene ts like federal gov t positions c Slavery dealing with con icts between farmers and merchants over tariffs 3 The third party system 18561892 a Republican vs Democrats b Emergence of the Republican Party in 1854 aka the Party of Lincoln c Slavery until the end of the Civil War and then reconstruction and industrialization 4 The fourth party system 18931932 a Republican vs Democrats b William Jennings Bryan coalition of small farmers immigrants and industrial workers larger and active federal gov t c Industrialization and immigration 5 The fifth party system 19331968 a Republicans vs Democrats b New Deal Coalition African Americans Catholics Jews Union members white southerners c FDR d gov t involvement in the economy 6 The sixth party system l969present key issues are civil rights abortion and foreign policy neither party is dominant New Deal Coalition is no more but has not been fully replaced a Republican vs Democrats b Divided government the House Senate and presidency are not controlled by the same party vs unified government 6 Parties different issue positior s quot Democrats Tend to favor a smaller cheaper federal More inclined to regulate business in behalf of consumers and the government environment Advocate lower taxes More supportive of government programs designed to improve Less regulation of business domestic welfare Lower spending on social welfare Would spend less on national defense Let free enterprise ourish More concerned with fairness and equality More generous only to the Defense Support legal abortion Department Do not support official prayer in school Would ban abortion and gay marriage Allow official prayer in public schools 7 TwoParty System 7 South Park s controversy 1 Dualist Theory natural dualism about public responses to political issues voters are either for or against a policy choose only bt 2 opposing positions 2 Path Dependence It s tradition we have a 2 party system bc we have always had a 2 party system since the 1790s 3 Political Cultural 39 General of 1 J 39 values or structures of our system acceptance of the need for compromise a lack of extreme and divisive socialclass consciousness 4 Psychological Wasted Vote Phenomenon voters are less likely to waste a vote on a third party candidate when they perceive that the 2 main contenders are in a heated race 5 Bid Tent demopublicans and republicrats 6 Institutional barriers a Singlemember districts plurality winnertakeall principle Electoral College b Duverger s law Singlemember districts tend to produce two party while proportional representation produce multiple parties IV Constitution 1 Common Sense 1776 by Thomas Paine moved independence issue to center stage 1 P J t of 39 J J and l 39 quot Democracy as an alternative to monarchy 2 Declaration of Independence South Park s history assignment and Free Ice Cream day 1 Equality all men are created equal 2 Selfrule consent of the govemed gov t gains its legitimacy through regular elections in which the people living under that gov t participate to elect their leaders 3 Natural Rights or Unalienable rights Life liberty and the pursuit of happiness upholding these rights should be the gov t central purpose 3 Articles of Confederation 17811788 written by committee of the 2 Continental Congress 1 First Constitution decentralized government system in which the national government derives limited authority from the states rather than directly from the citizenry 2 No executive and judicial branch no president or executive leader 3 Each state held a single vote and veto power 4 Members of Congress were elected by state legislatures 5 Dissatisfaction due to a weak centralized government 6 Shays s Rebellion 4 Con icts in the Convention 1 Federalists favored strong national gov t over strong state gov t vs Antifederalists favored strong state gov t over strong national gov t 2 Key Issues a Majority rule vs minority rights protecting minority rights within a system ruled by the majority Madison s solutions factions should be set against each other to prevent the tyranny of any one faction separation of powers checks and balances pluralism the idea that having a variety of parties and interests within a government will strengthen the system ensuring that no group possesses total control b Small States vs Large States Debate over representation in the legislature Virginia plan A twohouse legislature with one house elected directly by the people the other chosen from among persons nominated by the states legislatures vs New Jersey plan Strengthening the Articles not replacing them Creating a onehouse legislature with one vote for each state with representatives chosen by state legislatures Great compromise Congress would have two houses a Senate with two legislators per state and a House of Representatives in which each state s representation would be based on population or Connecticut plan c Legislative vs Executive Power How much power should the president have relative to the legislative branch Single executive constrained the president s power through the system of checks and balances Electoral College system not direct election or direct appointment States play also key role in the election process d National vs StateLocal power 10th amendment The powers not expressly delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by it to the States are reserved to the States respectively or to the people National Supremacy Clause This Constitution shall be the supreme law of the land National laws take precedent over state laws if the two con ict e Slave vs Nonslave states Southern states vs northern states Southern states would not agree to any provisions limiting slavery Three fths Compromise each slave 35 of a person to determine number of House districts per state based on population 20year slave trade exemption slave trade was expended to 1808 after further negotiations between the states Fugitive slave clause Return runaway slaves from state to state and Logrolling northern states agreed to return runaway slaves and southern states agreed to allow Congress to regulate commerce and tax imports with a simple majority vote 5 Constitution directly from the people not from the states new outline of gov t indirectly acknowledged the weaknesses of the Articles of the Confederation optimistic goals of the Framers formal creation of a new gov t l Preamble of the US Constitution We the People of the United States in order to form a more perfect Union establish Justice insure domestic Tranquility provide for the common defense promote the general Welfare and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America 6 Living Constitution 1 Ignorance Irrelevant parts are simply ignored 2 Ambiguity by design and politically necessary a Necessary and proper or commerce 3 Amending 7 total 27 Amendments to the Constitution a Amending process Originate in either house of congress or in a national convention measure sent to the states must be ratified by 3A of state legislatures 38 by majority vote in each chamber or state conventions b President and Supreme Court have no role c No clear procedures for the convention d No direct popular participation no national referenda or initiative process e No time limits eX 27th Amendment 1992 originally proposed in 1789 4 Multiple interpreters a Implied powers powers supported by the Constitution that are not explicitly stated in it b Key players The Supreme Court Congress President the public c Constitutional absolutism strict Constitution gov t permitted nothing more than what is explicitly stated vs constitutional interpretivism up for interpretation V Federalism 1 Definition Political system created in the US Constitution in which power is divided between the national government and the state governments and in which independent states are bound together under one national government 2 Unitary vs Confederal government a Unitary Gov t most common system in which the national centralized gov t holds ultimate authority b Confederal Gov t opposition of unitary states hold power over a limited national gov t eX US under Articles of Confederation 3 Reasons why unitary systems is more common 1 The Federal systems are much more complicated 2 Negative impact on growth and budget deficits Producing slower economic growth Larger budget deficits 3 Promote regional and ethnic separation 4 NationalCentered Power Various powers granted to the national gov t in the main document 1 Supremacy Clause supreme Law of the Land if a con ict eXists bt state and national laws the national gov t prevails POLS 1101 Key Terms Prep for Exam 3 1 Civil Liberty 0 Civil liberties Basic Political freedoms that protect citizens from governmental abuses of power restrict what the gov t can do to you vs Civil Rights Protect you from discrimination both by the gov t and by individuals 0 Bill of Rights the 1st ten amendments to the Constitution over 120 amendments were proposed the final list of 12 was sent to the states which approved 10 applies only to the national gov t did not apply to the sta 0 Civil War Amendments 1315th Amendments The 13m abolished slavery sec 1 neither slavery nor involuntary servitude except as punishment for crime sec 2 congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation 15m male former slaves right to vote Sec 1 right to vote not denied based on race color or servitude Sec 2 congress power to enforce article 14m Due process clause 2 Elections 0 Trends in presidential and congressional elections Incumbent Advantage Turnout 0 Role of elections 1 Selecting Representatives Concurrence and nonconcurrence Incumbents vs Challengers 2 Accountability Retrospective evaluation A citizen s judgment of an of ce holder s job performance since the last election Prospective evaluation Judgement of a candidate based on what he pledges to do about certain issues if elected 0 Two Stages of Elections 1 Nomination Process Selection of a candidate to run for office in general election as a rep of hisher party competition within party 2 General Election voters cast ballots for House senators president vp competition between parties 0 Invisible Primary The period before the actual voting begins Path to the Nomination between Democrats and Republicans 0 Nomination Process Primary vs Caucus Primary a ballot vote in which citizens select a party s nominee for the general election can be open or closed Caucus local meetings in which party members select a party s nominee for the general election Ex Iowa Alaska Wyoming Idaho Congressional Caucus 18001824 National Convention the 1968 Democratic National Convention and Prima Caucus 1972 resent Frontloading states moving their presidential primaries or caucuses to take place earlier in the nomination process often in the hopes of exerting more in uence over the outcome Allocation Methods Proportional During the presidential primaries the practice of determining the number of convention delegates allotted to each candidate based on the percentage of the popular vote cast for each candidate Winnertakeall Allocations Assigning all of a given state s delegates to the candidate who receives the most popular votes statewide winner take all Different Allocation Methods between Democratic and Republican Party Since 1976 Democrats have allocated delegates on the basis of statewide amp congressional district proportional voting rather than winnertakeall to earn delegates a candidate must pass a 15 threshold Superdelegates Democratic members of Congress and party of cials selected by their colleagues to be delegates at the party s presidential nominating convention Republicans do not have superdelegates If no one wins a majority of delegates party convention decides winner In this case there is a crucial role for superdelegates In 2008 20 of delegates were superdelegates Governors senators members of the House of Representatives DNC members or Former Presidents Republicans leave it to states method variety statewide winnertakeal statewide winnertakeall amp district winnertakeall statewide winnertakeall or proportiona statewide proportional etc 0 National Convention parties most important national institution Role of National Convention where presidential and vice pres nominees are formally selected must win a majority of delegate votes to be nominated opposition party goes first Age of Democratic and Republican nominees Democrats 518 Republican 643 Vice President Selection Methods A balanced Ticket or Reinforcement Region experience Washington insider or outsider age gender religion policy race value etc Avg 10 year age gap 0 General Election Electoral College 538 electors 435 House 100 senators 3 DC at least 270 to win GA has 15 electors Electoral vote allocation WTA with exceptions 7 Nebraska and Main 2 votes to statewide winner 1 vote for each congressional district winner Problems of Electoral College System Misfires only 5 of 56 elections considered misfires Elections without winning the popular votes John Q Adams Hayes Harrison Bush Faithless Electors Candidate may win votes heshe did not eam electors not constitutionally bound to popular vote results Contingency Elections when no candidate receives a majority of electoral votes takes place in US house of Reps Who will consider the 2 candidates who are tied or the top 3 electoral vote leaders not popular vote leaders each state possesses one vote 0 Right to Vote Limited Suffrage Suffrage for AfricanAmericans 15Lh amendment Womenl9m and Young Voters 26th only about 12 of free adult male population was eligible to vote at the time the Constitution was adopted no taxation without representation A propertyholding white Protestant male Decoration of Independent all men are created equal Life Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness The Triumph of JacksonianDemocracy in 1840s Dropped quali cations for voting in most states Universal Suffrage for white men 0 Voting Behavior Issue Voters wellinformed about their own policy preferences and knowledgeable about the candidates use this info to decide how to vote Voting Cues Pieces of info about a candidate that are readily available easy to interpret and lead a citizen to decide to vote for a particular candidate incumbency partisanship personal characteristics etc 0 Role of Political Parties in Elections 1 Contesting Elections recruiting and nominating candidates 2 Campaign Assistance parties act as parties in service parties help candidates in a candidate centered era win elections 3 Campaign platforms Party platforms are the list of pledges about what candidates from a party stand for and will fight for if elected however candidates are not required to support the party platform and many ignore key provisions of it 0 Characteristics of American Political Parties Weak indiscipline decentralized bigtent and confederated American parties Example Joe Lieberman 0 Minor Parties Ideological Minor Parties parties whose members subscribe to a common belief systemworldview communist party socialist libertarian tendency great staying power but little impact or electoral success loyal members but not large membership SingleIssue Minor Parties advocate a particular issue antiMasonic party free soil party AmericanKnowNothing party prohibition party oldest 3r party Green party Tendency varying staying power some impact or electoral success
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