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by: Estelle Prosacco


Estelle Prosacco
GPA 3.84


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Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estelle Prosacco on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 2000 at University of Georgia taught by Marietta in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/202229/pols-2000-university-of-georgia in Political Science at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Authorities Occam s Razor the most reduced form of an explanation is the best form Induction vs Deduction induction is the use of gathered observation deduction is the use of logic to reach an outcome Rationality vs Nonrationality if you have stable preferences and you are acting on them and maximizing them then you are rationalizing irrational is when that behavior does not take place the nonrational viewpoint states that a human does irrational things because they operate on urges that are subconscious Individualism vs lnstitutionalism whether it is more vital to have an understanding of the individuals that guide institutions or the institutions that guide people individualism the parts equal the sum HIstory whether you accept or reject the idea that history is indicative of future human behavior either people just are who they are or they are very much shaped by the historical context preceding them and the one in which they live alternative is understanding generalized theories history is understanding in specific preceding instances Path Dependence once you go down a certain path you cannot stray from it and can certainly not go back on it Ontological vs Epistemic ontological things that exist in the real world epistemic things that exist only in the head Hegelian vs Marxism Hegel believed that it was ideas that moved history Marx believed that literal physical changes are what move the world Rationalism vs AntiRationalism the world is ordered and systematic there are uniformities and laws that are permanent and definite the systems that are driving the world may be hidden and complex to us AntiRationalism the world is chaotic a heap rather than an ordered system the consequence of this is the lack of understanding of the world How ordered is the world people from a Christian perspective will trend towards a rationalist perspective Exam 11 Study Guide Grade explanation 6 An A is a broad discussion of various facets of consideration and discussion Reading a Regression 66 LeftRight how real it is 66 UpDown how big it is Exam Layout 66 Several short form essays and a few de nitions Extensive 39T39 Causal Interpretivist V 6 Intensive Extensive vs Intensive 6 Extensive Surveys 66 large numbers you can make comparisons and nd effects 6 criticized for having arti cial designs7 not capturing nuances 6 Intensive Interviewing and intensive Psychometrics 6 include a greater understanding of individual thought patterns and processes 6 disadvantages include concerns about the reliability and generalizability C aus al vs Interpretive 6 Causal 6 ability to isolate causal mechanisms 66 internal validity is the demonstration of causality 6 lack of external validity 6 Interpretive 6 the more interpretivist an approach is the less concerned it is with falsi cation and the statistical inference approach 6 advantages include more precise concept formation and more indepth understanding leading to theory creation Considerations in Empirical Measurement 66 Validity 6 how accurate a measure is for what you re trying to learn is Reliability 6 whether something is consistently measured 6 Unobtrusive Measures 6 observing an occurance as if you re part of it 65 Concept Stretching 6 people have a tendency to try to stretch a concept to apply to their own beliefs Standards of C ausation 66 Temporality 6 for a to cause b it must precede it in time 6 Correlation 66 when a and b rise and fall together 66 Theory 6 explanation of mechanism relating a to b Explain the process of empirical social science research as we have discussed it 6 Normative Positive Epistemology Method 66 There is always a major normative question Why does it matter Is our system of representation working This takes you to 66 a positive question an empirical question The literal question Can people use their value systems to vote for the person that represents them Regressions 65 Interpretation of results 66 Limitations linear Experiments 66 control group 66 the group you don t do anything to 66 random assignment 6 the mathematiccaly random collection of experiment participants 66 internal vs external validity external is something s applicability to circumstances outside the lab internal validity is the demonstration of causality 6 IRB process 6 sophomores in the lab effect Surveys 66 survey measures 66 open vs closed measures them providing answers vs prewritten ones 66 order effects the rst questions of a set receive the best responses 66 double barreled questions asking more than thing in a single question 66 unobtrusive measures Away of getting someone to reveal something they don t want to reveal If a subject is touchy people lie about it History 66 political vs social history 66 political timelines etc 66 social lives of everyday people 66 narrative 6 people respond best to stories we get the most out of that 6 process tracing 6 The idea is to get as many ideas possible in the path as it actually occurred You can nd the cause within the paths that occurred 66 subject pool history 66 You have limited amounts of data of the present 66 You can treat historical people and events as a subject pool 6 Periodization which periods in history are similar enough to be compared 6 eX contemporary America postCivil Rights movement Ethnography amp Interpretivism 66 narrativity 6 the story is important the chain of events in which things happen is much more signi cant to understanding the situation 66 a basic human need is to tell stories right after humans nd shelter and food theywill exchange stories 6 humans will frame stories in a selfserving light 6 phenomenology 6 understanding people as they understand themselves 66 metaphor HISTORY AS A METHOD April 14 2011 Purpose of Understand History 0 To understand how we got here 0 The trajectory Elite or Political History 0 Very similar to what we experienced in high school I Important leaders events battles etc I One damn thing after another 0 It is somewhat limited 0 Very focused on the records of very important people Social History 0 The lived experience of everyday people is most important 0 Important contribution to this I Cultural history 0 The history of ideas 0 As belief systems shift over time o Dialectical Materialism Marxism Hegel ideas are what shift 8L shape the world I Marx ideas are just there not primary they don39t shape the world Great Man Theory in order to understand history you must understand what that important person did 0 Ex Hitler was the manifestation of what was going on in Germany just the guy who was there and did this Nature of Narrative People need to think and express narratives We need to tell stories This is how we understand the world 0 Tro e generalized storyline all history ts into these basic storylines Key to limited storylines Metaphor 0 Ex Balinese Cock ght 0 Ex The Birth of the Prison Michel Foucault I Used to understand contemporary Western Society I Did way more humane because we would just kill them I New way torture them for the rest of their lives by locking them up in a prison 0 Every decade public schools look more like prisons Processing tracing tracing the process of a political action 0 Ex how do laws get passed I Trace the process of the history ofa bill


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