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by: Estelle Prosacco


Estelle Prosacco
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estelle Prosacco on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Monogan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/202237/pols-1101-university-of-georgia in Political Science at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
POLS 1101 FINAL STUDY GUIDE Monogan Spring 2014 Material from Test OneLectures 1 7 Kollman Chapters 1 4 0 Collective Dilemmas O O O O Collective Action Problems a situation in which many people would be better off if they all cooperated however any individual has incentive to not cooperate as long as the others are Large scale prisoner39s dilemma FREE RIDING OCCURS Prisoner s Dilemma Situation neither person has an incentive to cooperate even though they would both be better off if they did sentences of jail time Coordination Problem2 or more people are all better off if they coordinate on a common course of action but there is more than one possible course of action to take a friend wants pizza you want ice cream It doesn t really matter where you go as long as you are together also it really doesn t matter which side of the road you drive on as long as you all do it Tragedy of Commonsacting independently and rationally according to each one s selfinterest behave contrary to the whole group39s longterm best interests by depleting some common resource 0 Coalitions Collective agreements O Unstable Coalitionan instance in which any voting coalition in favor of an alternative can be divided by consideration of another alternative Losers in the original coalition like to make a better offer for instance someone who really wants pizza could offer to pay for part of another person s lunch in order to change their vote 0 Institutionsformal constraints on behavior 0 Institutions help solve collective dilemmas Institutional design affects distribution of benefits in society 0 Constitutional Convention meeting to consider changes to the AOC 0 Constitution accomplished rule of law basic policy making outline responsibilities of government institutions amp determines who can serve in government positions Articles of Confederation AOC Congress had powers but could not enforcement lst US governing document ratified in 1781 Set up a weak central government Could not make states pay their share of debttaxes free rider problem Virginia plan Population Advantage of large states over small states stronger national government Established Bicameral Legislature NJ plan Equal representation Plural executive multiple members are executive by committee Connecticut Compromise Bicameral Legislature Slaves 35 Equal representation in Senate 2 per state 0 Three Major Cleavages 0f the Convention 1 Strength of National Government 2 Representation in the Legislature 3 Slavery 0 Features of the Constitution and Powers Enlisted 0 Federal Supremacy federal laws trump state laws 0 Elastic Clause Necessary and proper clause 0 Expressed Powers Article 1 Section 8 Congress 0 How to Amend the Constitution 0 23 of each legislative chamber plus 34 of state legislatures 0 23 of state legislatures can call for convention proposed amendments need 34 of state legislatures o Framer Concerns o Anti Federalists REJECT RATIFICATION OF CONSTITUITION o Federalist Papers Outlined what the constitution should accomplish Written by James Madison Federalist 10 Checks and Balances would constrain government it is a powerful force Rati cation 1788 9 small states ratified the constitution but big states still hadn t rati ed yet Virginia amp New York were big states in doubt both rati ed summer of 1788 0 Bill of RightsProtect the individual s rights 1 Freedom of religion speech press assembly and petition Right to bear arms No quartering of soldiers O Unreasonable search and seizures Due process of law freedom of selfincrimination double jeopardy Right to speedy and public trial Trial by jury in civil cases Excessive bail cruel and unusual punishments Other rights of people 10 Power reserved to states Slavery Abolished by 13th Amendment 0 Systems of Government 0 Federalism system of shared powers between 2 or more levels of government Dual Federalism Separate spheres of power national amp state gov Cooperative Federalism Shared spheres of power national and state gov oposgwmeww Intergovernmentalism mix of dual and cooperative federalism Limit of Federalism Court interpretation has changed over time States cannot coin money or negotiate treaties National laws trump state laws 0 Confederation System of shared powers between two or more levels of government AOC Unitary System All power is centralized with the national government UK State Governments Similar to federal government except Nebraska Local Governments More variation than state governments Mayor has considerable power CouncilManager 9 small to medium cities Commissioners are declining in number due to collective action problems 0 O O Federalism as Response to Collective Dilemmas Increased federal authority can help solve collective dilemmas o Prisoner s dilemma Prevent states from going to war w each other 0 Collective action problem Protect states from outside aggression 0 Free rider problem Set national standards for labor amp enviro laws Federalism and Competition 0 Experimentation in states can produce evidence for new effective policies 0 Competition for industry can reduce tax base End up relaxing regulations to where wages for workers aren t as high as they should be etc National Boundary Minimum Wage LiberalConservations have solutions but the federal government hasn t really adopted a solution to certain things 0 Arizona has adopted a harsh line on immigration Federal In uence on State Spending o Grants in Aid Most general fundingamp general programs 0 Categorical Grants have more strings attached school lunches 0 Revenue Sharing Joint endeavor where both invest money Block Grants loosen up the way a particular program is funded 1995 welfare reform 0 Contrast Unfunded Mandates Federal government will pass a law that is required and they are NOT going to pay but it still has to be done All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 drinking age 921 or no housing Civil Rights 0 Civil Rights Involve an active Gov role in giving something to citizens 0 Civil Liberties Try to hold Gov from infringing into freedoms Civil War Amendments l3 14 15 New Voting Groups 15 19 24 26 Judicial Interpretation 93911 amendment and privacy Rights and Liberty Failures 0 Alien and Sedition Acts violated the 1st amendment 0 Slavery and African Americans helped until the 13 14 amp 15 amendments were set 0 Jim Crow Era separate but equal segregation of facilities Court Legitimacy amp Major Court Rulings 0 Smith V Allwright 1944 ruled that Texas democratic party engaged in an unconstitutional act held voting foronly white men 0 Sweatt V Painter 1950Sweatt was an African American who applied to law school in Austin and the state set up that only taught white students Created a law school in Huston for blacks Ended up going to white school Separate and Unequal Civil Rights Movement 1950s 1960s amp Key Laws African American Rights Slavery Jim Crow 0 Civil Rights Act 1957 Added federal law to supplement 15th amendment 0 Civil Rights Act 1960 Permitted federal overseers appointed by the dept of justice to oversee voting processes to see if 15th amendment was being violated Civil Rights Act 1964 Banned Jim Crow equated 6th grade education with literacy Voting Rights Act 1965 Sent federal agents into southern states to register people to vote Women s Rights 19th amendment 0 O O o Affirmation Action Attempt to redress past wrongs 0 Full faith and credit clause laws in one state have to be recognized by other states 0 Military service Outright ban until 1993 Don t ask don t tell 199372010 Repealed in 2010 Incorporation process of applying Bill of Rights to the states Initially only applied to federal government Equal protection and due process clauses of 14th amendment Key Terms Agenda Setter an authority that controls what options are decided on by a group Authoritarianism no expectation that the Gov represents the people amp there is no direct voice in who is leading Bureaucracy An agency or office devoted to carrying out tasks for the government in a manner consistent with the law Collective Action Problem A situations in which people would be better off if they all cooperated O O O o Collective Dilemma A situation in which there is con ict between group goals and individual goals or selfinterest 0 Coordination Problem A situation in which two or more people are all better off if they coordinate on a common course of action but there is more than one possible course of action to take 0 Democracy rule by the people basic protection of civil liberties and rights Political System The way a society organized and manages its politics across various levels of public authority 0 Principle Agent ProblemMechanic example You hire someone else to do the work that you can t do but you do not know if they do what you are paying them for O 0 Rule of Law All people in a society are subject to legal codes that are applied without bias by independent courts 0 Home Rule The legal authority held by local governments that allows them to govern themselves with little or no interference from the state Intergovernmentalismmultiple levels of Gov are active in a given policy area Recall Election citizens vote directly on if an individual should be removed from of ce 0 O Referendum citizens vote on whether to overturn a bill O 0 Due Process right to legal protections against deprivation of life liberty or property 0 Rational Basis Test lowestlevel standard used by the Supreme Court to determine whether a law is compatible with the Constitution 0 Strict Scrutiny highest level used by the Supreme Court to determine whether a law is compatible with the Constitution Material from Test TwoLectures 8 15 Bullock ampGaddie Chapters 5 6 7 amp 14 Kollmcm Chapters 5 8 0 Powers of Congress 0 Most powerful branch 0 Primary lawmaking body 0 Compare and contrast the House and the Senate 0 The House Represent the people Population 2 year terms election every 2 years 25 years o The Senate designed to appease the Antifederalists and represent the states 2 per state 6 year terms 30 years 17th Amendment senators are elected by the people 0 Causes of Individualism in Congress 0 Plurality amp SMD Elections for the House and Senate use singlemember districts amp plurality rule if you get the most votes you win In singlemember districts each districtstate chooses l representative Plurality whoever receives the most votes wins 0 Primaries allow voters to choose who will appear under the party label on the generalelection ballot o Redistricting and One Person One Vote 0 Redistricting The number of districts in each state is based on population The total number of districts xed at 435 members since 1911 Every census seats are reallocated 0 Baker V Carr 1962 States redraw the map s district lines every 10 years because of change in population 0 Districts must adhere to one person one vote standard Forced states to draw districts with equal populations 0 Partisan and Racial Redistricting redrawing district lines for bene ts of party 0 Representation o Trusteesdetermine what policy is best for the countrybased on hisher decisions 0 Delegateswill be the voice of constituents o The Incumbency Advantage 0 Members of Congress are reelected in very high numbers 0 What causes this advantage Gerrymandering Television access Campaign fmance National party eff01ts 0 Party Leaders 0 Solve coordination and unstable coalition problems enforce party discipline 0 Reed s Rules provide procedural guidelines for party leaders Party leaders are elected at the beginning of a Congress by members of each party every 2 years 0 Speaker of the House leader of HOR comes from majority party 0 MajorityMinority Leader AND WHIP HOR amp Senate 0 Types of Committees 0 Standing committeesEXist permanently o Specialselect committees Formed for a speci c purpose 0 Joint committeesMembers of House and Senate no legislative authority 0 Conference committees Both chambers pass bills that are different and compromise 0 Committee memberships 0 Decide what gets voted on or not 0 Agenda setters Help to resolve unstable coalition issues 0 Caucuses a way for members to group themselves for business Legislative Process I O 0 Bill proposals only legislators can introduce bills Committee action Most bills not acted on in committee Committees may mark up bills for the oor House uses special rules to bring bills to the oor Open rules closed rules and restricted rules Senate uses unanimous consent agreements to bring bills to oorithis empowers individuals Legislative Process 11 0 Roll calls in both chambers o Enrolled bills sent to president Sign veto pocket veto or pocket sign House and Senate can override veto with 23 vote of each chamber Separation of powers system creates bias against action Unlimited debate is allowed 0 Filibusterlong speech that inhibits legislative process 0 Cloture procedure for ending a debate and taking a vote 60100 senators Article 2 of Constitution Executive branch Election of the president through the electoral college Executor of the lawsCongress writes laws President executes them Congress can impeach president amp can rule that acts by the president are unconstitutional AppointmentsPresident appoints all judges to supreme court President negotiates treaties works out executive agreements president is commander and chief of arm forces Presidential Vetoes O O O O O Veto threats Congress considers a proposal President opposes bill as is if passed it will be vetoed Gridlock Arises when the two chambers of Congress and the president cannot agree on new legislation The Constitution and the Vice President 0 12th amendment established that votes for president and vice president are clearly marked 0 25th amendment established that if the president is disabled the VP serves as active president until the real president is better Veto override 23 of each chamber Bureaucrats work for the government but are not elected Spoils System Jackson rewarded supporters with jobs in the bureaucracy Elected of cials Congress and the president are principals bureaucrats are agents Drift o Bureaucratic drift agents depart from the mandates given to them by the principals o Coalitional drift principals change their policy preferences Oversight o Fire alarm oversight Administrative Procedures Act established guidelines Freedom of Information Act requires disclosure of information Sunshine Act requires open meetings 0 Police patrol oversight Congress routinely inspects agencies The iron triangle 0 Includes interest groups congressional committees and bureaucratic agencies Article III establishes Supreme Court Judiciary Branch 0 Senate gives advice and consent let the president know that they consider certain nominees to be the best for a certain position Federal Court Structure 0 Judiciary Act of 1789 created lower courts District courts are the lowest level Circuit courts of appeal above them 94 federal district courts 13 circuits each circuit has a court of appeal Establishing Judicial Power 0 Closest clause Article 111 Section 2 o Marbury v Madison 1803 o Judiciary Act of 1789 Supremacy of Federal Courts and Federal Law 0 McCulloch v Maryland 1813A state cannot taX the national bank 0 Gibbons v Ogden 1824Congress can regulate interstate commerce Common Law and Legal Precedent o Stare decisis let the decision stand 0 Common Law If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past the court is bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision 0 Writ of certiorari A writ of certiorari orders a lower court to deliver its record in a case so that the higher court may review it Key Terms 0 Caucusa group of legislators that unite to promote an agenda not pursued within the parties of the legislative chambers 0 Closed Rule allows no amendments to be proposed once a bill comes to chamber oor 0 Conference Committee meeting of legislators from the House amp Senate to reconcile 2 bills passed on the same topic O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Distributional Model The View that the internal institutions of the congressional chambers are designed primarily to help members of Congress secure economic bene ts for only their constituents not the general public Incumbency Advantage high rates at which congressional legislators win re election Informational Model intemal institutions of the congressional chambers are designed to help Congress make more informed decisions Logrolling two or more legislators agreeing to vote in favor of one another s proposed bills or amendments Partisan Modelmajorityparty leaders dominate the workings of congress and ensure that most legislative bene ts come to maj orityparty members Plurality Rule A method for determining an election s winner in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins Pork Barrel Government spending that bene ts a narrow constituency in return for electoral support or some other kind of political support including campaign donations Reed s Rule Procedural guidelines used by the maj orityparty leadership for determining who sits on which committees how the order of business should be decided and how the majority party should limit the powers of the minority party Whip A member ofthe house or senate elected by his or her party to help party leaders coordinate party member s actions including enforcing party discipline Line Item Veto A partial veto that allows the executive to strike speci c passages Spoils System The practice of rewarding loyal partisans with government positions after they demonstrate their support during an election Bureaucratic drift When government agencies depart from executing policy consistent with the ideological preferences of Congress or the president so as to execute policy consistent with their own ideological preferences Coalitional drift When an ideological shift in elected branches creates disparity between the way an agency executes policy and the way new members of congress or a new president believes the agency ought to execute policy Government agency An individual unit of the government responsible for carrying out the tasks of government consistent with the law Independent agency An agency that exists outside the cabinet departments and is run with a larger degree of independence from presidential in uence Marketization Government bureaucratic reform that emphasizes marketbased principles of management that are common to the private sector Privatization The contracting of private companies by the government to conduct work that was formerly done by government agencies Attitudinal Model A theoretical model where judicial decisions are primarily determined by the policy goals and ideological agendas of judges Civil Case at least 1 person sues another for Violating the civil code of conduct 0 Civil Lawauthoritative documents determine how the law is to be interpreted 0 Common law judiciary has the authority to determine how the law is to be interpreted o Concurring Opinion An opinion issued by a member of the majority of the Supreme Court that agrees with the decision of the majority but offers alternative legal reasoning Dissenting Opinion An opinion issued by a member of the supreme court in O opposition to the majority offering legal reasoning for the decision to oppose Judicial Review The authority of the judiciary to decide whether a law or any other 0 government action is constitutional Legal Model A theoretical model where judicial decisions are primarily determined by the case the plain meaning of the text from the Constitution and statures the O intent of the framers andor legal precedent 0 Statutory Law The laws passed by legislatures or administrative agencies empowered by legislatures and the court decisions interpreting those laws 0 Strategic 0r rational choice model A theoretical model where judicial decisions are primarily determined by the policy goals of judges and the various constraints that stand in the way of achieving those goals 0 Strict Constructivism The legal philosophy that judges should use the intentions of those writing the law or the Constitution as guides for how to interpret the law Bullock ampGaddie Chapter 6 The Executive Branch GA Governor 0 Limited 2 terms 4 years Veto Authority 0 GA Governor 40 days at end of session to signveto bills Governor can lineitem veto appropriation bills Unsigned law becomes law after 6 days Vetoes can be overridden by 23 vote of both chambers 0 US No lineitem veto only pocketveto Vetoes can be overridden by 23 vote of both chambers Budgetary Politics 0 GA Governor sets maximum budget 0 US President makes budget requests Models of Congressional Politics Expertise Model legislature specialization leads to an increase in the overall bene ts to be allocated o Elitist Model acts to direct greatest bene t to powerful interests o Partisan Model maj ority party leaders dominate the workings of Congress and ensure that most legislative bene ts come to maj orityparty members 0 Bullock ampGaddie Chapter 7 The judicial System 0 Structure 0 Each county has a probate court 0 Each county has a courthouse located in the city that serves as its county seat 0 Trail Courts in GA Litigation Courts 0 Types of Cases Civil and Criminal o Appellate Courts in GA objections 0 Supreme Court or court of last resort amp the court of appeals o Bullock ampGaddie Chapter 14 GA s education policy 0 Development of Public Education in GA 0 Major reforms happen at state level Quality Basic Education Act 1985 HOPE scholarship 1993 Charter School Act 1998 At Education Reform Act 2001 Final MaterialLectures 16 23 Bullock ampGaddie Chapters 11 13 Kollman Chapters 9 12 0 Public Opinion in a Democratic System 0 Public opinion collection of attitudes opinions and preferences of the general public 0 Balance between being a trustee and a delegate 0 Trustee chosen to do what they believe is right Delegate chosen to do what the people believe is right Multiple principals Impossible to be responsive to everyone Principle Agent Problem agents that we have hired are they responsive to what we say we want or responsive in our interests 000 0 Measuring Public Opinion 0 Surveys polls sample ballots random sampling random digit dialing national selection survey conduct survey in person expensive 0 Fundamental Attitudes o Conservative normally republican tried amp true laisse fair fewer regulations smaller taxes smaller spending 0 Liberalbelieve in change and a more involved government social policies that leave things up to the individual 0 Ideological constraint choose opinions to be in line with a certain ideology o Partisanship loyalty or psychological attachment to a political party Voting is a collective dilemma individuals have selfinterested behavior to vote but want the government to go there way 9 leads to freerider problem lVIitigating Costs of Voting lowering the costmaking it easier 0 Motor Voter law 1993 Register when renewing licenseregistration 0 Help America Vote Act of 2002Replaced outdated voting technology Butter y ballot metal stick amp punch a hole in the card Reforms 0 Civil Rights Act of 1964 literacy tests 0 Tw enty Fourth Amendment poll tax 0 Voting Rights Act of 1965 federal registrars Removing Voting Barriers 0 15th Amendment granted African Americans voting rights in 1870 0 19th Amendment guaranteed women s suffrage in 1920 0 26th Amendment granted voting rights to 1821 year olds in 1971 Lobbying 0 Any means by which the organization tries to in uence policy holders or legislatures directly meeting with policy makers and making a case 0 Indirect lobbying trying to increase consistent pressure so the member will feel like he or she has to do what the constituent wants Inside and Outside Lobbying 0 Inside lobbying meeting with people 0 Outside lobbyingwriting letters indirect contact First Palty System 1796 1824 0 Federalists strong national government Britain vs DemocraticRepublicans states rights France 0 Federalists fall due to lack of voter mobilization as the population increased Second Party System 1832 1860 0 Split in DemocraticRepublican party 0 Nationwide mobilization developed by DemocraticRepublicans o Ends in 1860 Whigs collapse due to division over slavery Third Palty System 1860 1896 0 Republicans emerge under Abraham Lincoln 0 Democrats survive Civil War and emerge with strong Southern base 0 Republicans control Northeast and Midwest Fourth Party System 1896 1932 0 1896 election decisive victory for McKinley and Republicans 0 Republicans dominate national politics in decades following 1896 0 Progressive party emerges as the strongest minor party in history Fifth Palty System 1932 1980 0 New Deal party system emerges with Democrats and Franklin D Roosevelt 0 United large disparate groups of voters under Democratic label 0 Dominate for many decades frays as Southern whites move to Republican party Sixth Party System 1980 present 0 South switched to Republican 0 Urban areas and coasts Democratic 0 Strengthening of national parties 0 Palties have increasing polarization on major issues of the day Smoke lled rooms party leaders get together without members to decide what s best for party and their nominations Candidates are now chosen by primaries 0r caucuses o Caucuses meeting for a party where you vote on who your parties nominees for various of ces should be among other issues 7 From organization standpoint builds up the party and party loyalty more 7 2008 TX said 23 of votes to DNC will be decided by the primary amp 13 will be decided by the caucus RARE Parties are associated with con ict that is inherent in system 0 Polarization is at a high with the two parties on all of the issues people are strictly on the party lines not a lot of crossover with compromises etc Single member plurality SMP electoral institutions produce two palty systems Key Terms 0 Framing establishing the context for an issue in such a way as to emphasize certain aspects over others 0 Ideology Organized set of ideals and principles that functions as a core on which individuals draw when forming their attitudes about public affairs 0 Priming psychological process of shaping people s perceptions ofa particular issue gure or policy 0 Rationality The habit of choosing the best choice among available options given one s interest and information o Paradox of Voting notion that people still vote despite cost often outweigh the individual bene ts 0 Popular Sovereignty The authority to make decisions on behalf of society belongs to the people Voter mobilization Efforts by organizations to facilitate or encourage voting 0 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Enforced l4Lh and 15111 Amendments 0 Interest Group any group other than a political party that is organized to in uence the government 0 Latent Interest a concern shared by a group of people on which they have no yet chosen to act collectively o Pluralism A large number of diverse interest groups are involved in the political process


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