INTRO POL SCIENCE
INTRO POL SCIENCE POLS 2000
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Date Created: 09/12/15
POLS 2000 Introduction to Political Science August 19 2009 htt a39madonnm webu aedu Talked about the Supreme Court Members and drew a picture of the LiberalConservative spectrum 0 Senate Pro temp Robert Byrd D W Virginia Dependent Variable is the effect that is being in uenced by the independent variable You want to make sure you are specifies a dependent variable that can actually be measured 0 The Ideal vs The Real 0 The contrast between realists and idealists is a popular fictional theme I Un touchables I Star Wars 0 Struggle between I What we would like to do idealism o Wants to do something regardless of the system setup I What we must do or what is possible realism o In politics the tension between the real and ideal is prominent I Ideally everybody would agree with Universal Healthcare but in reality the N and S Dakota Senators do not agree with the rest of the Democrats 0 Politics must balance dreams and the real world 0 A sophist realist is one who taught the skills necessary for political success and does not teach ethics 0 Socrates is the idealist I The purpose of politics is the happiness of the citizenry 0 Politics is about the ongoing struggle between the idealist and realist 0 Your Own Private Idaho 0 Everyone brings to the study ofpolitics their own unique set of experiences 0 People organize and simplify their understanding of politics through conceptual frameworks I Personal experience I Preferences I Expectations 0 People use these frameworks to interpret political phenomena 0 Framing 0 Framing explains how both the mass media and political campaigns can affect people s expressed political opinions Messages sent by the media and the candidates do not have to change attitudes to change expressed OPINIONS They merely have to frame the issue in a way that draws out one response rather than the other I quottastes like chicken I Gudger University and binge drinking 0 Fiction as a tool for exploring politics 0 Fiction is a tool for study politics because 0 It provides a window into an environment where our conceptual frameworks give way to the author s creativity 0 It can give a taste for political situations that we will likely never experience 0 It exaggerates political phenomena this making them easier to identify 0 What is Politics 0 It is a word clouded by personal opinions and potentially con icting examples 0 Generally given a negative connotation 0 People often think of calculating behavior meant to in uence others in order to get something or attain a goal 0 Politics is never stagnant it is always moving and being debated 0 Choosing not to participate in politics is a choice to leave political decisions to others I Not voting 0 Politics can take place outside of government 0 A society s religions its customs and traditions its resources and its econom can b E I Governor Sanford from South Carolina 0 What is Political Science 0 Political scientists do not agree on a definition often heated battles 0 Science I Aristotle wrote about the science ofpolitics 0 He was referring to a body of knowledge regarding how to organize a state to obtain happiness He was being normative he was offering his opinions on the good life 0 Some people think about science as the scientific method 0 Political scientists have come up with numerous ways of approximating the ideal of laboratory conditions primarily through the use of STATISTICS 0 Some argue that it is not possible to be objective about politics in the way one can be in the natural sciences o Experiential reality things we know directly from experience 0 Agreement reality more important things we believe are real even thouh we have never ex erienced them 0 You have to make sure that the theory is justified by the data 0 Read chapter 2 August 21 2009 o Founding Brothers book 0 Iudd Greg ofNew Hampshire is stepping out 0 Only 62 ofAmericans believe Obama was born in the United States 0 Utopias are perfect worlds they are not necessarily wonderful 0 Perfect worlds are subjective no one conteXt will appeal to everyone 0 Utopias are helpful for studying politics because they are ideas taken to extremes they make it easier to see the aws in ideas taken to extremes o Utopias in Practice 0 A political ideol better world i I 0 Thought reaches 1ts p1nnacle dur1ng the 1dea11st period I The period following WWI I The League of Nations was built on the hope of spreading liberal democracy across the globe o Theorists and Theories of Politics 0 Many great theorist come from professions outside ofpolitical science including I Political commentators I Philosophers I Economists I Sociologists I Military officers I Political leaders I Political advisors 0 Political science originates with the ancient Greeks o tate o T e normative nature of classic political theory sharply contrasts with the modern scientific ideal of dispassionate and objective study 0 Top 7 dead white male political theorists o Plato ist ro oses a uto 39a not 39ust to conceptualize a Some argue that all of the Western political theory is a response to Plato I Greatest work ofpolitical theory is found in The Republic I Envisions the ideal society is not democratic I He did not believe that simply because the masses favored something that it is the correct thing o Aristo I Plato believed that one could not rely on one s senses to discover what was real tle More ofa realist and was highly critical of Plato Believed that one could learn far more by observing the way that things actually work and the way that people actually behave Com ared to Plato Aristotle was pragmatic goal purpose of achieving happiness Aristotle demonstrated that some types of governments are better at helping people achieve happiness than others More ofa realist than Plato o Machiavelli the ends achieve the mean Often referred to as the father of the modern theoretical tradition known as realism Believed that theory should be based on the way that people actually live and the things that they actually do Unlike Aristotle Machiavelli did not look to human potential Has a very cynical view of human nature A leader must be able to control human nature POWER POLITICS Wanted a government strong enough to secure peace and security 0 Hobbes The purpose of government 0 John L Rejects and information not acquired empirically Thinks the state of nature sucks thought it was quotsolitary poor nasty brutish and short People formed governments because they are rational pleasure seekers they want peace and personal security Government begins when people join together to form a social contract They trade their liberty for protection from the harshness of the state of nature The sovereign is responsible for securing and maintaining the peace ocke Civil Society Second Treatise ofGovernment also begins with a state of nature Unlike Hobbes Locke s state of nature is not a bad place People are social and rule each other according to the rules of natural law Civil society creates the limited government People only surrender rights that are necessary for the government to carry out its protection PROTECT PROPERTY RIGHTS Jefferson and Madison strongly in uenced by Locke I The government is transitory o Rousseau I Believes that people need to reject societal inequality by placing the common good of all above their own personal interests I The general will is the sovereign I It is a government that rules for everyone at nobody s expense 0 Marx August 24 2009 Chinese political theory contrasts with Western models because it focuses on the society first and the individual second Ideologies o Ideologies are meant to inspire and convince people I Are written in simple enough terms to be convincing o Theories are complex and difficult to understandcomprehend I Elites can digest them because they have time to understand these complex questions Liberalism 0 Adam Smith added economic freedom as a key variable 0 The government that governs the best governs least I Invisible hand 0 The closest ideology to classis liberalism in existence today is libertarianism Classic conservatism o Developed as a reaction to the excesses resulting from the French Revolution I Reactions to beheadings etc o Institutions and traditions are shorthand for information that would be impossible for any group of human beings to possess 0 Think of faith and institutions Communism 0 Karl Marx o Bourgeoisie are the capitalists who control the machinery of the state 0 Proletariats are the workers SOCIALISM o Argue that classis liberalism places too great a stress on individualism Reform Liberalism o Argue that the government should regulate the economy and remove major inequalities caused by the capitalist system Fascism o Argue for the supremacy and purity of one group ofpeople 0 Leader promises to take control of the economy and to work with businesses o Tends to have a negative connotation o SUMMARY 0 Go over bold terms and know the 7 philosophers 0 Know the difference between the ideologies o READ CHAPTER 3 August 26 2009 o Bias to cause partiality or favoritism in a person in uence esp unfairly 0 You should question everything look for another perspective 0 quotRunning on Empty is a book about how the Republicans and Democrats are breaking the economy 0 We live in governed societies for security 0 Collective Action everybody works together to provide a good 0 Security the ability to protect something of value 0 State security protection ofborders and governmental structures from outside threats 0 Regime security is leaders ability to protect their hold on power 0 National security is the protection of the interests or survival of the ethnic groups with which people identify 0 Individual Security protection of individuals within society 0 Power ability to get something done 0 Political capital is someone s reserve ofpower that can be called upon to achieve political goals 0 Anarchy an absence of any kind or overarching authority or hierarchy 0 Lack of means to police behavior or enforce agreements which can lead to chaos and violence but does not have to 0 Nicola Sacco and Bartolommeo Vanzetti were anarchists sentenced to death 0 In a hierarchical situation people can use the coercive power of the authority structure to stop you even if they don t have the ability to stop you directly 0 The collective pursuit of security provides an escape from this threat of anarchy o Hierarchy 0 Any movement away from anarchy is a movement towards hierarchy 0 When societies form governments they form institutionalized hierarchies o Alliances o Occur when individuals or groups agree to join resources and abilities for a purpose that individually benefits the members of the alliance o The alliance that is ultimately successful will for a group the government I A government sets up regulations and rules that members of an alliance know eXist that they will follow It causes less confusion between the internal government 0 Group Identities o The degree to which members identify with a group and identify who is not part of that group can affect the group s strength cohesiveness and survival 0 Con ict Between Groups 0 You can define someone who is not part of the group by initiating a con ict with them 0 That group becomes the other or the enemy and you know that one ofquotthem is not one ofquotus 0 Lewis Coser examined group con ict in terms of the social or political functions it served I He argued that the degree to which people consider themselves a part of the group increases as that group is engaged in con ict with another group I Intergroup heterogeneity I Intragroup homogeneity 0 Rally around the ag effect brings everybody together I Example 911 Iraq War 0 Read Chapter 4 August 31 2009 0 Picture is from 1873 Colfax Louisiana Massacre 0 Research Design Proposal 0 Controlling the Behavior of Others 0 Idealists would argue that when studying what governments do we should judge them and their leaders by how much they maximize these positive human qualities and how effectively they provide for their populations 0 Realists tend to believe that human beings care only about maximizing their own selfinterests and they would expect no more from their leaders I Political Scientists typically take the realist perspective 0 Leadership Benefits 0 People want to become leaders because of the tremendous individual benefits 0 Some scholars argue that personal benefits are the only reason people pursue leadership positions 0 The Panopticon o How leaders control a large population by using fear I Like how the police control drivers 0 Jeremy Bentham puts in his will that he wants his body preserved in a clear box so everybody could see him 0 Means of controlling behavior is a pervasive aspect of almost every government 0 Collective Action Revolution and the Use of Force 0 One argument for why people initially created government was to collectively pursue security in an anarchic environment 0 Revolutions are collective actions focused on the goal of tearing down and replacing the current government Peer Policing 0 Having people watch each other 0 Atomization Preference Falsification 0 When people hide the way they feel while publicly expressing what those in power want them to communicate o Governments use preference falsification as part of the atomization and peerpolicing process to keep people separate Limits on Forceful Control 0 The level of force leaders must use to maintain control is related to the level of dissatisfaction 0 An alternative to force is legitimacy establishing yourself as a government that people want to live under Legitimacy and Government Control 0 Instead of relying on force threats and punishments leaders can maintain control by pursuing legitimacy I George Washington he left Elections and Public Goods 0 Popular elections provide the best example ofhow to use legitimacy as the primary means to avoid revolt o Popularly elected leaders are legitimate leaders at least when they start out Balancing Force and Legitimacy o The less dissatisfaction the less force is necessary 0 The purpose of legitimacy tends to be a better longterm strategy while force is very effective in the shortterm Legitimacy and Con ict within Groups 0 Con ict signals the level of preference intensity 0 Smaller con icts help relieve some of the tension Safety Valve 0 Intragroup con ict can serve as a safety valve 0 The way to cure the ills of faction is to increase the number of faction Bring more people into the government and make more government agencies It promotes more smaller con icts instead of a huge con ictlike the Civil War CrossCutting Cleavages o Humphrey and Russell disagree on Civil Rights education spending etc in the 1960s 0 The more cleavages the more likely that any two people will be able to find some disputed issue on which they can agree despite their other disagreements o Crosscutting cleavages help keep the society from being divided over a single issue and keep disagreements less intense o Logrolling is when you vote for me and I ll vote for you 0 Con ict as a Source of Legitimacy o Intragroup con ict can lead to the legitimacy of the group it can enhance its structure and its leadership 0 Government and the Economy 0 Government is intimately tied to economics because people need to attain collective security to engage in economic enterprises Google Tragedy of the Commons by Hardin and read it along with Chapter 5 Endogeneity is a problem because we want to explain something using a certain theory It occurs when your causal variable age affects support for gay marriage Incumbent S endin p g Likelihood of Winning Heelectlon Challenger Spending Your perceived chance ofwinning an election depends on how much you spend A challenger has to spend more money than an incumbent to win an election Omitted variable is something that is omitted that is very important Garret Hardin on the Tragedy of the Commons httpwwwyoutubecomwatch7vL89AMFTAt2M September 9 2009 0 William Jefferson was the guy who hid money in his freezer He was defeated by Joseph Cao 0 Government and the Economy 0 Government takes care of economics through protection and security 0 Tragedy of the Commons 0 When sharing a common resource an individual s choices are intertwined with those of other using the resource 0 Even if people realize that everyone would benefit from preserving the shared resource individuals will overeXploit the commons if they believe others will cheat or take advantage of the group 0 Most fundamental of these goals is SECURITY Government through policing and the enforcement of laws can make it rational for everyone to participate I The potential costs of defecting from the collective effort are raised 0 The need to regulate the use of the commons is a basic and continuing economic role of the government 0 Karl Marx Student of Capitalism 0 0 He focused on economics as the primary element ofpolitics 0 He was more ofa humanist more concerned with people s lives The Adolescence of Capitalism 0 Under feudalism most production occurred within a peasantlandowner context 0 The landowner controlled and owned the land while the peasants were little more than subsistence farmers 0 Both the landlord and the peasant needed each other 0 Marx recognized the efficiencies of the factory o By removing the need for skilled and knowledgeable laborers capitalism altered the relationship between owners and the laborers Competition as the Driving Force in Capitalism 0 The driving force in capitalism is the competition between capitalists o Capitalists that can make more with less can undersell the competition to survive 0 Competition among capitalists affects all four elements ofprice profits materials overhead and wages I If any of these factories can be reduced the capitalist can sell the product for less than the competition 0 Competition promoted unsafe working conditions The Pool of Labor as a Common Resource o Marx argued that the constant push to lower salaries and working conditions would result in rebellions Revolution 0 The government anticipated a revolution and set up a lot of things that workers want I Social Security Child Labor laws etc Socialism 0 Under the feudal system land was the primary means ofproduction and the church along with a hereditary elite controlled the land 0 Socialism is an economic system where society controls the means of production 0 Under socialism there is less incentive to work because people are lazy Government Structures 0 The basic things that governments need to do in order to govern Structures of Institutions 0 Political institutions are the organizational structures in which power is organized Collective Action Costs 0 Transaction costs the time effort and resources required to make collective decisions 0 Conformity costs the difference between what any one party prefers and what the collective body requires Context Evolution and History O Helps form institutions Path dependence explains how the set of decisions one faces for any given circumstance is limited by the decisions one has made in the past even though past circumstances may no longer be relevant I QWERTY o Newly independent colonies often started with political institutions created by their former colonial masters 0 September 14 2009 0 Failed Institutions 0 Institutions can be hijacked by those with less noble intentions o Legitimacy Information and Human Nature 0 Institutions give the government legitimacy o Institutions are established rules that we all live by 0 Choosing Institutions 0 It s hard to change something that people are used to The culture within the people goes a long way into dictating what the institution is going to look like 0 Democracy is viewed as bad because of a quotmobquot mentality A person is smart but people are morons I In Aristotle s day democracy was synonymous with mob rule that is everyone acting in her or his own best interest with little or no regard for the community 0 Connecting Your Government I 3 systems through which the relationship can be ordered 0 Unitary system federal system and the confederal system A unitary system is one where sovereignty rests quite clearly on the shoulders of the national government 0 There is no redundancy and the government remains very clear and simple 0 They make it easier to maintain a sense of national identity 0 Federal system sovereignty is at least theoretically shared between the national and local government units 0 In a Confederal system the local government units have the real power they have sovereignty o On the contrary of a unitary system local units have all the sovereignty and they grant the national systems Leigh way to do things 0 Institutions 0 US President provides a perfect example of how we have built up an ideal and impossible image of a political institution 0 You always see a slump of presidential approval because their agendas get slowed so their popularity lowers Hello Mr Smith 0 Film that portrays an idealistic but naive senator who gets caught up in realworld politics 0 The filibuster is a tactic used by a senator or a group of senators who by indefinitely talking about a bill intend to frustrate the proponents of the bill 0 Even idealists must sometimes use political methods to achieve their goals 0 Filibusters tend to be successful even without an actual filibuster Ifa majority knows there is going to be a filibuster they schedule a vote to stop it from happening Parliamentary and Presidential Systems 0 The fundamental difference has to do with to whom that executive has ties 0 Presidential systems the executive is separately elected and need not answer to the legislature there is an independent base ofpower Si El Presidente 0 Presidential systems can make the executive stronger in relation to the legislature 0 Primary purpose behind the design ofa presidential system is the prevention of tyranny Yes Minister 0 Prime Ministers are members ofparliament and the leaders of the winning party in the parliament o Parliamentary political parties are far more likely to vote cohesively Lawmaking 0 We expect our parliaments to make laws 0 Relatively little time is spend on oor debate 0 Activities that consume representatives time giving speeches helping constituents meeting with leaders going to committee meetings fundraising etc o Speeches really don t play that big of a role in terms of in uencing other lawmakers o In most legislatures the real lawmaking work goes on in committees o Committees and sometimes subcommittees are used to do research on hold hearings on debate write and amend bills It takes forever for bills to get passed 0 Committees are usually where bills go to die 0 Even if bills die it looks good to constituents that a person introduced them It makes people look like they are doing something Representing 0 Nebraska is the only state with a unicameral legislature o Bicameral legislatures make it more difficult to get things done but they can provide representation for different segments of society 0 District of Proportional Representation I Geographic representation the legislature is divided according to districts with each legislator representing a particular region 0 With geographic representation representatives must maintain contact with the voters who will decide whether they return to the legislature Duverger39s law is a principle that asserts that a plurality rule election system tends to favor a twoparty system I Proportional representation people do not vote for a person they vote for the political party with which they most agree 0 A party will get roughly the same proportion of seats in parliament as the proportion of the votes it received in the election If the libertarians win 2 of the vote they get 2 of the seats in parliament Delegate or Trustee o Delegates listen to their constituents and do exactly what they want 0 Trustees do what they want because they got elected and they are doing what they think is right for their constituents o Politicos combine both delegate and trustee Checking o Involves the degree to which different institutions in a government have a responsibility to watch over the rest of government to make sure it is performing correctly 0 Called oversight which is done to check the bureaucracy Legitimating o The more people believe that parliaments answer to them and that their parliament is truly representative the more easily they can perform a legislating function 0 Populist is conservative socially and against gay marriage against abortion but more liberal economically Educating o Legislatures and their members also educate the general citizenry Executives 0 US President plays 2 roles he is the head of state and the head of government In most other democracies these two roles of the executive are split 0 up Head of State I Role involves serving as the national symbol the personification of the country and the people I Example would be a king queen dictator emperor etc 0 0 Head 0 of Government The head of government is the manager that actually handles the daytoday work Usually called the Prime Minister Prime Ministers can only stay prime ministers as long as they maintain the support of a majority in the parliament One becomes the head of the party that wins a majority of seats in parliamentary elections Parliamentary governments are actually made up of many ministers that form the cabinet The executives in presidential systems are usually selected directly by the people although there can be variations The chief executive is expected to make certain that laws get passed through the legislatures Bureaucracy Bureaucrats are the people who work desks and are specialized in certain areas They serve many functions they regulate license procure distribute observe preserve encourage police study and manage O Congressmen spend a ton of time dealing with bureaucracies They take on functions that would waste the time and effort of elected officials O Ideals of Bureaucratic Governance Weber recognized that modern nationstates needed professional bureaucracies Bureaucracies involve a lot of rules and red tape Hierarchy each person should have only one immediate supervisor and each supervisor should have only a limited number of subordinates Professionals most importantly the selection of persons to fill roles within the bureaucracy must be done on the basis ofmerit Partisan Realignment 0 To maximize their vote share relative to their opponents parties engage in quot ankingquot maneuvers o Dragging encourage party to move back to old position Ralph Nader 0 Leading encourage the party to move to a new party 0 George Wallace Policymaking versus Administration In reality completely severing politics from administration would be a disaster for democracy Bureaucratic Roles o Bureaucracies are involved in service regulation implementation and policymaking o Governments provide many services they run hospitals carry out welfare programs run public schools operate parks etc Chapter 8 0 Bugs in the Machine 0 In real life no institution runs perfectly 0 There will always be problems with institutions 0 Parliamentary vs Presidential Systems 0 Presidential systems create strong and independent executives while the parliamentary systems offer executives who can work very effectively A strong president may become too strong After Presidents Lyndon ohnson and Nixon accumulated tremendous power historian Arthur Schlesinger Ir wrote a book called The Imperial Presidency o Gridlock o Gridlock arises when checks and balances work so well they prevent anyone from doing much of anything It is when the President and Congress don t get along because they are from different parties 0 Parliaments and Instability o In most parliamentary systems the government can be dissolved at any time by a majority vote 0 Any scandal or any policy failure can lead to immediate dissolution o Districts and Proportions o A district system elects individuals who are responsible for representing specific community interests and the threat of future elections makes representatives responsive to local needs 0 A proportional system allows for a much wider variety of political perspectives to be represented and it ensues that almost everyone s perspective has a voice 0 Both systems are awed as a means of democratic representation 0 Coalitions and Minority Governments o A party can form around any policy position that attracts enough votes to get it past the qualifying threshold A prime minister usually leads to a coalition government A problem with representation occurs when a minor party can swing the vote for or against a prime minister Immobilism the more complex and more fragile the ruling coalition the more difficult it becomes to enact and policies 0 District Elections 0 Legislatures are elected to represent a particular geographic area 0 Gerrymandering I Drawing a district so as to concentrate the oppositions party s voters in a small number of districts that they party wins by large margins this quotwastingquot many of the votes 00 OO O 0 Another problem with electoral districts is that they split the loyalty of elected representatives 0 Porkbarrel politics is where representatives use their political office to bring federal money to their districts through the form of projects and jobs 0 Most of the job for lawmakers who are engaged in important debates is constituent service 0 Bureaucracy It goes to Eleven 0 Ideally bureaucracies need to be able to adapt to changes but that would con ict with the ideal of rulebased decision makin O The most obvious way to integrate bureaucracies into a democratic system is to create a system of overhead democracy Iron triangles are not as prevalent in modern politics It pretty much makes the overnment st nant o Cockroach Theory of Bureaucracy bureaucracies try to avoid attention and to avoid the light They try to stay hidden lll o Bureaucracies constantly struggle for limited funds within the government budget 0 Bureaucracies try to avoid harsh negative sanctions by adjusting their actions in accordance with the same cues that elected officials use 0 Legal Systems 0 Civil Law I Begins with the proposition that law is a codified entity constructed by a legislature I Process of compiling and writing down the law is a major component of the civil law system 0 Common Law I Evolved in England where judges based their decisions on custom and precedents 0 Religious law system I Most common in Islamic countries 0 Iurisprudence philosophy of law 0 Natural Law presumes that there is some higher law and that higher law is discovered by the use of reason I Lot s of problems by those seeking more scientific responses 0 Positivist Iurisprudence law is simply the command of the recognized sovereign authority of the state 0 Realist Iurisprudence believes that law is comprised ofa set of rules intended to meet the needs of society I 0 Test 30 multiple choice questions 0 Study bold terms in the book and go through the slides 0 Transaction costs things that show up multiple times through the slides 0 Which of the following is not something that helps explain concept X 0 Which of the following is not part of the iron triangle Which is 0 Allan Trammel Ronnie Iames and Steve Perry are never right answers 0 Pick 4 of 5 shortessay questions 0 Paragraph tops Iron Triangle o Presents some kind of hypothetical situation to you 0 At a bar spot somebody attractive asks you to explain cockroach theory 0 Topics come from slides that resulted numerous times 0 Kennedy is the median Supreme Court justice Short Essays pick 4 of 5 o Differentiate between several dead theorists o Differentiate between several ideologies 0 Why do we form governments o The essence of government is collective action and through collective action we are able to achieve things that are impossible to do so independently The first and foremost reason for this collective action is a stable and long lasting security By the collective action of the government we are able to provide services to the people such as healthcare schools and public works etc Governments provide many services they run hospitals carry out welfare programs run public schools operate parks etc o How do leaders prevent revolutionary groups from forming o Atominization where they isolate people who could I Peer policing I Preference falsification is when people hide the way they truly feel while publicly saying the views of the people in control 0 Legitimacy 0 Popular elections 0 Explain and apply quotThe tragedy of the commons o Tragedy of the Commons I Demonstrated when sharing a common resource an individual s choices are intertwined with those of other using the resource Even if people realize that everyone would benefit from preserving the shared resource individuals will overeXploit the commons if they believe others will cheat or take advantage of the group Most fundamental of these goals is SECURITY Government through policing and the enforcement of laws can make it rational for everyone to participate The need to regulate the use of the commons is a basic and continuing economic role of the government 0 EXlain the Iron Trianle O Congress r ngrnsstml wumll W 3 gt 0A a a a rho 0 low legnlanom Spica lavms 3 0 lt2 Llnrtary federal or confederal system Why 0 Confederal system ls a systemwlrere the local governments have all lp w r 0 Federal System ls a systemwlrere the nal autlrorrty for atleastsome aspe e lo 1 or sub nauonal level Cluzells can tlreoreutally choose the local governmenttlrey would llke tolrve rn and move t ere Frtrn well rn caprtalrst countrres because both people and a to ve local governments must s o tra cuon costs and rt ls easrertogettlnngs accomp Propomonal represen u n or drstrrct representauon ro omonal representauon ls a system rn whlch tlrere ls representauon of all pames rn a legrslature rn propomon to tlrerr p pu v Llnder proporuonal representauon PR people do not vote for a erson vote fordls polmcal party wrtlr whlch they most agree They o Drstrrctrepresentatron ls a legrslature whlch ls dlvlded accordrngto geography rn whlch people are represented bythe area tlreylrve rn
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