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Anixiety disorders, Somatic Symptom and Related disorders, Dissociative Disorders

by: Erika D'Angelo

Anixiety disorders, Somatic Symptom and Related disorders, Dissociative Disorders 15480

Marketplace > University of Hartford > Psychlogy > 15480 > Anixiety disorders Somatic Symptom and Related disorders Dissociative Disorders
Erika D'Angelo
University of Hartford
GPA 3.75

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About this Document

This set of notes goes into an overview of specific disorders, along with their causes, and treatments
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Milling
Class Notes
Abnormal psychology, Psychology, Anxiety Disorder, Somatic Symptom, dissociative disorder
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika D'Angelo on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 15480 at University of Hartford taught by Dr. Milling in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Hartford.

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Date Created: 03/05/16
Feb 24th Part 6: Somatic Symptom and Dissociative Disorders I. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders 1. Overview  a. The common feature of all the somatic symptom and related disorders is the presence of somatic symptoms associated with significant distress  and impairment  II. Somatic Symptom Disorder a. Presence of one or more somatic symptoms that are distressing or  disruptive to daily functioning. b. May or may not be medically explained. May not be biologically based. c. Somatization pattern – varied bodily symptoms  d. Predominant Pain Pattern – pain is primary problem  e. Both patterns used to be two disorders but now they are combined into  one III. Illness Anxiety Disorder  1. Blow out of proportion mild symptoms such as headaches. A person with  this disorder will think a headache might be a tumor.  2. Used to be called hypochondriasis  a. A preoccupation with have a serious disease or medal illness when  symptoms are mild or not present.  IV. Etiology (causes) of Somatic Symptom and Illness Anxiety Disorder a. Genetics do not seem to play a role  b. Neurobiological factors – elevated activity in anterior insula, anterior  cingulate, and somato­sensosry cortex c. Cognitive – attention to bodily symptoms, catastrophic thinking in  symptoms  V. Conversion Disorder  a. Unexplained deficits in motor or sensory functioning – loss of function in  eyes, not being able to move legs, arms, can’t hear. b. “La belle indifference” It’s not upsetting to the individual  VI. Causes (Etiology) of Conversion Disorder a. Psychoanalytic – repressed impulses are converted to physical symptoms b. Psychoanalytic – threatening perceptions are blocked from awareness  c. Behavioral – conversion symptoms are reinforced. EXAMPLE: I drove  an 18 wheeler all across the country but driving that truck took me away  from my family. I didn’t like being away from family for weeks at a time. Leg gets hurt can’t drive anymore. Now he can’t be away from home, so  his leg reinforced him not having to be away from home. d. Sociocultural Factor – this disorder was more prevalent in Freud’s time.  Was not as common to express emotional issues, so maybe people  expressed symptoms physically to get attention from doctors e. Biological – no evidence  VII. Psychological factors affecting other Medical Conditions a. Presence of psychological or behavioral factors that adversely affect  course of treatment of medical condition  VIII. Factitious Disorder a. Factitious Disorder imposed on self – individual deceptively presents  self to others as ill or injured – Munchausen Syndrome  b. Factitious Disorder imposed on Another – individual deceptively  presents another person as ill or injured – Munchausen Syndrome by  Proxy  IX. Therapies for Somatic Symptom and related disorders a. Psychoanalysis b. Behavioral – Reinforce well behavior and ignore symptoms, social skills  and assertiveness training, and relaxation.  c. Cognitive – reinterpret causes of bodily symptoms, reduce  catastrophizing d. Biological – antidepressants  Dissociative Disorders I. Overview of Dissociative Disorders  a. What is Dissociation?  b. A Dissociation is the splintering of the normally integrated processes of consciousness, memory, perceptions of the environment, and personal  identity.  c. Key Symptoms of pathological dissociation  d. Amnesia – loss of memory  e. Depersonalization – feeling of detachment from their body  f. Derealization – objects in the world seem unreal g. Identity Confusion – uncertainty about who they are  h. Identity Alteration – person has assumed a new identity  II. Dissociative Amnesia  a. Inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or  stressful nature  b. Types of Amnesia   Localized Amnesia – can’t recall anything during a specific time  period  Selective Amnesia – can’t recall some events during a certain time  period  Generalized Amnesia – complete memory loss for their entire life   Systematized Amnesia – loses their memory around a specific thing   Continuous Amnesia – continues forward into present time. Can’t  remember things in the past and can’t remember things in present  c. Dissociative Amnesia with Dissociate Fugue – person suddenly travels to  new location and doesn’t remember anything from their past. Establish new identity and whole new life. Won’t remember anything, but when they  come out of the fugue they can remember their past.  III. Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder  a. Episodes of depersonalization or derealization  b. Depersonalization – one’s own mental functioning or body seems unreal  or detached  c. Derealization – one’s surroundings seem unreal or detached  IV. Dissociative Identity Disorder (multiple personality disorder) a. What is Dissociative Identity Disorder?  b. A shattering of a unified identity into at least two separate, co­existing,  personalities with distinct memories, behavior patterns and emotions.  c. Diagnostic features of DID   Alters – different personalities that assume control over functioning in different situations.   Personality fragments – not as well developed as alters and  usually represent one emotion   Switching – the process of changing from one personality to  another d. DID groups at risk  Prevalence – about 1% of population – only in the U.S  Onset – usually begins in childhood   Gender Pattern – more common in females – typical number of  alters for females are 15. For men 8  V. Causes – etiology of dissociative identity disorder  a. Trauma dissociation theory – begins during childhood to deal with some  kind of stressor/trauma. Child achieves psychological escape by imagining  to be someone else  b. Socio­Cultural Model – enacting multiple identities serves personal goals.  We all know how to act like a DID and some of us have the motivation to  do it  VI. Therapies for DID a. Goal is to fuse the various personalities  b. Therapist tries to convince alters that splitting is no longer necessary to deal with traumas  c. Medication not helpful to treat DID Part Eight: Personality Disorders: 3/2/16  I. Overview of personality disorders  a. What is a personality disorder? An enduring pattern of inner  experience and behavior that deviates from the expectations of the  individuals culture.  b. Features­ grounded in personality traits but are extreme and  maladaptive. Normal personality traits don’t come in episodes. c. Ego­synotonic – experienced as a natural part of the self (versus ego­ dystonic) ex/ phobia of snakes – ego dystonic  1. Other facets of personality disorders a. Overall lifetime prevalence about 10% b. 10 disorders are grouped into 3 clusters  Cluster A – odd/eccentric – share one symptom with  schizophrenia   Cluster B – dramatic/erratic   Cluster C – anxious/fearful – 1 symptom shared with anxiety  disorder II. Odd/Eccentric Cluster  1. Paranoid Personality Disorder a. A long term pattern of pervasive distrust of others,  including interpreting their motives as malevolent. For  example: think their spouse is cheating, hold grudges,  unemotional. (Joseph Mccarthy) 2. Schizoid Personality Disorder a. A long term pattern of detachment from social  relationships and a limited range of emotions in  interpersonal situations. For example: won’t pick up on  nonverbal/social cues. Emotionally restricted.  3. Schizotypal Personality Disorder a. A long term pattern of social and interpersonal deficits  with avoidance of close relationships and presence of odd behaviors.  b. Idea of reference – tendency to believe that an event has  a meaning just for that direct individual  c. Odd beliefs, superstitious, could believe in telepathic  powers, restricted range of emotions, more anxious than  Schizoid personality disorder  d. Shares bizarre behaviors with schizophrenia  4. Borderline Personality Disorder 


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