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by: Estelle Prosacco


Estelle Prosacco
GPA 3.84


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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estelle Prosacco on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 4660 at University of Georgia taught by Hood in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/202242/pols-4660-university-of-georgia in Political Science at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Southern Politics Professor Hood Course Website wwwpollsugaedupols4660 Of ce Baldwin 103 D Document Password pols4660 What is the South Demographically the south has larder minority groups Economically it used to contain the country s largest agribusiness it now produces approximately 23 ofthe agriculture within the United States Tend to like lower taxes less government help The south has lower incomes and lower cost of living including urban areas Prorbusiness RightrtorWork States against labor unions Politically higher levels of conservatism Vote based on ideology not Party lD Party Af liation changes with ideology Has largely been a onerparty region early to mid 20th century Democraticgt 2 Party Split Voting Geographically Texas Georgia Florida Tennessee Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Alabama Louisiana Arkansas Virgina ll states the seceded from the Union at the Civil War Categorized into two areas Rim South PeripheralRim South Black Belt Areas in the South with the Richest Soil Key Historical Events There are two key events that helped shape the South as a region politically The Civil War Reconstruction Time 18651877 Effects Federal Military Occupation Radical Republican Control of state Governments Political Residual backlash white population to get rid of everything implemented during Reconstruction Regional Unity Against feds and radical republicans White Supremacy Disenfranchisement mainly only upper class voting The Populist Revolt 18808 1896 economic in nature class movement BourbonPopulist Alliance Black Populist Alliance Political Residual OneiParty Politics Economic Cleavage PostiReconstruction Politics Overriding Theme Maintenance and control ofthe political system by whites The Black Belt De nition Southern Politics Differing Perspectives Regional SubiRegional Deep Vs Rim StateibyiState SubiState Divisions The Two Georgias Mississippi The Delta vs The Hills Periods of Study PostWorld War H The Era ofWhite Supremacy Civil Rights Era 1960sil970s Post Civil Rights Political Cleavage Lines Race White vs Black Economics the Haves vs the Haveinots Religion EvangelicalProtestant vs Others PostiReconstruction Politics OneiParty Rule Voter Disenfranchisement Economic Stagnation Background Suffrage Restrictions White Division on the question of disenfranchisement economic schism The Populists Threat to democratic supremacy either side willing to bid for black votes Effort led by Conservative Bourbon democrats primarily in the Black Belt linked with nanciers and industrialists PostiReconstruction there was very little middle class Bourbon s set on black disenfranchisement because ofthe numbers of blacks and poor whites The Populist Movement collapses post1896 Democratic Party coiopts populist ideas William Jennins Bryan Southern Populist return to the Democratic fold There are some Republicans in the Appalachian Regions OneiParty system prevailed Wideispread White and Black disenfranchisement many disenfranchisement mechanisms were put into place Populists believe in more government support Bourbons believe in no government support Louisiana 192801963 worked on bifactional systems within the democratic parytpopulist becomes only state where populists gained ground Governnor Huey Long Constitutional Amendments 15th Amendment Voting Rights 1870s 14th Amendment Equal Protection Clause 1868 Birth Right Citizenship The White Primary Democratic Party ifyou won the primary you won the of ce Most blacks were Republicans because it was the Lincoln Party so most could not or did not want to participate lssue Are Primaries Private institutions 1916 texas Supreme Court rule the democratic party was a a private insititution and there for could bar certain peoples from participating However also stated that party of cials were not government of cials and prmaries were not formal elections The Direct Primary Linkage Citizens decide The Texas Example 1923 State Legislature in no event shal a negro be elligible to participate in a democratic party primary election in Texas This was challenged in Federal Court 14th and 15th amentment support Nixon v Herndon 1924 Court left open question of whether a primarty was part of an election State Executive Committee Quali cations shifted from state legislature to state Executive Committee of Democratic Party Nixon v Condon 1932 Court ruled the Democratic State Convention could decide quali cations for membership United States v Classic 1941 Conditional tests the state has made the primary an integral part of procedure of choice here in fact primary effectively controls choice Federal protections do not apply to primary elections Court did not directly speak on whether someone could be denied membership on basis of race Smith v Allwright 1944 White Primary in Texas violated the 15th Amendment Primary integral part of choosing of cials Even with the Democratic State Convention acting along and not as an agent of the state primary was regulated b state law and procedures Party discrimination was tantamount to state discrimination The South Carolina Response Removed all state statutes relationg to primary elections Action overturned by Federal courts The Poll Tax All eleven states have imposed a poll tax at some time following Reconstruction By 1950 four had abolished the Poll Tax Florida 1937 Louisiana 1934 North Carolina Georgia Rates 100 to 200 Local Government Surcharge Cumulative v NontCumulative Alabama Mississippi Virginia and Georgia Up to 36 which is currently equivalent to paying 279 1950 Time of Payment Mississippi 18 months prior to gubernatorial primary Proof of Payment Must Keep reciept and display it before voting Correlations with Poll Tax Rates uctuated with the economic conditions lower rates in urban areas size of political unite counties highest rates of payment were found in prosperous rural and relatively smaller political unites counties with larger native white populations percentage foreign born Before and After Effects for states repealing Poll Tax an ncrease of 5 to 10 of adult white voters most agree that the poll tax did not have a great effect on Black disenfranchisement Georgia black voter registration increased only marginally after the poll tax was replealed in 1945 Literarcy Tests Alabama Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina and Virginia all utilized the literacy tests Grandfather clauses if father or grandfather was registered and could vote then literacy test was not required County Election BoardsRegistrars Sole arbiters in registration process lnconvenience could take a whole day to complete the process Various Degrees ll out an application and sign unaided read a section ofthe ConstitutionState Constitution write a section ofthe ConstitutionState Constitution interpret a section ofthe ConstitutionState Constitution take a political knowledge test have a letter of good character understanding ofthe duties of citizenship Tests rneant little for white registration alternatives to literacyunderstanding Fairness of Application largest impact on Blacks living in the Black Belt extensive applications Other Restrictions Purging of Registration Lists Residency Requirements Witness Affadavits MS 2 years in voting district 1 year in the precint Registration Deadlines MS 4 months prior Disquali cation Crirninal Conviction Challenged or lnvalidated Votes Bibb County 1952 Presidential Election 31 of Total Balck Vote Cast was lnvalidated Voter Turnout Not just blacks were disenfranchised Lack of Competition Presidential Elections OneiParty Systern Socioeconornic status The Impact ofthe Voting Rights Act on Black and White Registration County Level LA Parish Registration rates by race kept NC FL SC GA US comission of Civil Rights Measures White Numerical Advantages Log Registered whites Registered blacks Measure is 0 when blackwhite electorates are equal Negative Black Advantage Positive White Advantage Average County white registration outnumbered black registration by a ration of 71 Citizens Council white racial organization keeping the norm Factors Affecting White Numerical Advantage Racial Context of Black in a county Literacy Test better to disenfranchise blacks Poll Taxes Better to disenfranchise poor whites Residency Requirements bigger effect on whites Black Organizations White Organizations where there is one there is the other Higher black population higher WNA lower black registration Postoting Rights Act VRA The efect of Federal Registrars The mobilizationcountermobilization hypothesis black population positively related to increases in white registration rates mobilization increasesin white registration rates led to concomitant increases in black registration raters countermobilization Factional Politics Party Politics External Presidential Politics lnternal Great lnterstate Differences Democratic Party Factions Degree to which Factional systems approximate a twoiparty system Strong bi factional there is one faction that is superior and well organized Virginia Byrd FamilyFaction North Carolina Tennessee Coherent Majority Faction D Weak Minority Faction D Republican opposition Weak Bi factional Georgia Louisiana The power of personalities The quotTicketquot system MultiiFactional South Carolina Alabama Mississippi Arkansas Texas Florida Produces very uid reactions hard for one to keep control Localisrn quotfriends and neighbors voting patterns Factional Fault Lines Populist Battle Characterized by absence of organized factions representative oflower SES socioieconornic status Limitations lssueless support of political personalities attaining power and political control Discontinuity Narneleadership and voters Disassociation The quotoutsquot vs the ins Lack of retrospecting responsibility who to blame lnstability Lacks power to carry out sustained prograrns ExecutiveLegislative disconnect No regional cooperation in national politics Corruption Early Republicans Not a viable political party in the region Types Presidential republicans locally dernocratic nationally republican most prevalent in Texas Florida Arkansas 1952 Election Eisenhower Texas Tennessee Virginia Florida 1956 Presidential Election Texas Louisiana Tennessee Virginia Florida Mountain Republicans StraightiTicket Republicans Locally Viable WesternVirginia Eastern Tennessee North Carolina Principle concentrations in Southwest Virginia Western North Carolina and Eastern Tennessee Secondary concentrations in Northwest Arkansas Northeast Georgia and Northeast Alabarna Republicans by inheritance Not representative ofnational republican party They were more populists than proibusiness Possibly they were existent because of sectional geography Black Republicans Post Civil War rnost blacks in the south were republicans Lincoln Party There was a realignment in 1932 GOP Leadership Interested in controlling part machinery Presidential Nominations Patronage postrof ce republicans National Party uses these leaders to raise funds to be expended in other parts ofthe United States The County Unit System only Georgia lndirect Nomination System Put into action by Neil Primary Act 1917 Similar to Electoral College Based on Geography not population Unit votes are awarded by winning a plurality ofthe popular vote in a county Purpose Primary Maintain rural dominance Secondary Black vote dilution in urban areas 1946 Gubernatorial Election Eugene Talmadge The Wild Man from Sugar Creek lost the popular vote but won the majority vote of countyrunit votes 43 popular vote 59 of unit vote Antiiunions Three Governors Controversy Eugene Talmadge dies before taking of ce in 1947 Legislature elects his son Herman to be governor Lt Governor Elect Melvin Thompson antirTalmadge claims the position of governor Current governor Ellis Arnall refuses to leave of ce Georgia supreme court Lt Governor is the rightful governor until special elections can be held Special elections held in 1948 Talmadge wins Ultimately the CountyrUnit System is declared unconstitutional Gray v Sanders Carl Sanders was a Democratic Governer 1963 Malapportionment violated one person one vote ofthe 14th vote 1946 Gubernatorial Election Malapportionment in the Legislature Both representation in the State House and Senate are based on Geography Counties Senate Typically counties composed a senate district with representation rotating between the three counties House One two or three members elected by county Unit Vote2 Presidential Politics The Solid South Regional veto over democratic nominees at the Democratic Party Convention The Dixiecrat Revolt 1948 National Convention Strom Thurmond SC and Fielding Wright MS Split in the Solid South Effect ofthe New Deal Truman and Civil Rights Mississippi Bilbo Faction Multirfactional gt Chaotic quotFriends and Neighbors Money Counties buying ofVotes Virginia D Bi Factional Byrd AntiOrganization Prorbusiness antirunion low taxation no social services The South in Congress A democratic majority The Region OnerParty Politics White democrats 1949 103 of 105 representatives were white democrats ldealogical Disposition Strong tilt to the conservative end ofthe spectrum RolliCalling Voting Patterns Period 1 19301950 Cohesion Southern democrats exhibited slightly more solidarity than other democrats or republicans Coalitions Southern DR Alliance Agreed 40 ofthe time Agreed on agriculture and antiilabor Southern D Non Southern D Agreement on Foreign Policy issues Free Trade Southern D Opposed majorities of R and noanouthern D on issues of Federal intervention Period ll 19501964 Cohesion Cohesion rates among Southern Democrats drop during this time period There is a decline in overall Democratic party unity Coalitions Southern DR Alliance The Conservative Coalition Agreement on social policyregulation antirnew deal foreign policy and civil liberties Southern D Region s legislatures stood along on questions of race The Filibuster The Senate and Extended Debate lnvoking Cloture A procedure for ending debate and taking a vote TworThirds majority 66 Changes in 1957 to a 35 majority Civil Rights Bills 1957 Civil Rights Bill Strom Thurmond s Record Filibuster 1964 Civil Rights Bill The Committee System Majority Party Status The Seniority Norm CommitteeSubcommittee Chairs Gatekeeping Power Logrolling These committee chairs were more ideologically conservative compared to other democrats Resulted in an overrepresentation ofthe region in congress Southern Gatekeepers Richard B Russell Served in Senate from 19331971 Chair of appropriations immigration manufactures and armed services The Fconomic Situation The Way Things Were The importance of agriculture Cotton is still king Tenant farming is popular Sharecropping is common Farming on halves give half back to owner CroprLien System implements fertilizer other supplies Endless cycle of poverty In 1920 half ofthe south s jobs are agricultural based In 1930 14 of Texans lived on a tenant farm An end to the system Mechanization ends sharecropping Agricultural adjustment Act of 1933 In order to boost prices crops and products were destroyed Poverty Comparison South 1959 354 are below the poverty line 2006 138 below the poverty line Implications Political Economic Excess Labor Supply Demographic Migration from rural areas to urban areas Result growing urbanizations Post World War ll there were many changes Civil Rights Era Economic Transformation Black Enfranchisement Development ofa TwiParty System World War ll Military bases Warrrealted industries Migration to urban areas lnfrastructure Outside investment strategies Political Rami cations Racial tensions Creation ofa working class urbanization Economic Transformation Clash between the political cultures Traditionalists ElitesStatus Quo lndividualists Populists Redistribution of resources Entrepreneurs Rapid economic development Prerl950 Manufacturing Base Textiles lumber food processing tobacco included Low skilled low wage low growth Postrl960 Manufacturing Base Fast growing higher wage higher skill industries Six pillars Agribusiness defense high tech oil and natural gas real estateconstruction tourism Federal nancing Urbanization Ruralism to Urbanism 1920 cities with population over 250000 New Orleans Birmingham Atlanta Proliferation of major urban areas Political Consequences Shift in voters 1952 to 1980 Large metropolitan areas 25 to 54 Black Belt 16 to 10 An End to the Poll Tax Federal Elections 24th Amendment Section 1 The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President for electors for President or Vice President or for Senator or Representative inCongress shall not be denied or abridged by theUnited States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll taX or other taX Section 2 The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation State Elections Poll tax abolition extended to state election in 1966 Harper v Virginia Board of Elections 14th amendment Equal Protection Clause Georgia Voter ID Statute An End to Malapportionment Baker v Carr 1962 Apportionment was not just a political issue Vote dilution Equal Protection Clause 14th Amendment CountyrUnit System Gray v Sanders 1963 Result popular vote for primary elections Toombs v Fortson 1962 Georgia general assembly was malapportioned Reynolds V Sims 1964 Legislative districts must contain equal population Applies to both legislative chambers Westberry V Sanders 1964 Article 1 Section 2 US House districts must contain equal population counts Political lrnplications Black Voting Power Majority vote requirements Multimernber districts Upheld in Fortson v Dorsey Urban vs Rural The 1957 Civil Rights Bill Established the Federal Commission on Civil Rights Prohibited interference with federal elections Authorized Attorney General to sue local election of cials Depended on case by case litigation as an enforcement mechanism Did shift financial burden to the federal government Could persuade Attorney General to sue on your behalf to shift the cost Few cases were prosecuted by the 1957 Civil Rights Act 1960 Civil Rights Act Directed local officials to maintain records for at least 22 months following an election If requested records must be turned over to federal authorities Between 19571960 only about one in three black southerners were registered to vote Very marginal effect on black registration Prior to the VRA Fewer than 1 in 3 black adults in the South voted in 1960 In MS and AL black voters were essentially nonexistent The 1957 and 1960 CR bills did little to increase black registration and voting in the South 1964 Civil Rights Act Title I Completion of the 6th grade afforded an assumption of literacy Shifted burden of proof from prospective registrant to registrar Required literacy tests be conducted in writing and results made available to applicant Specifically targeted jurisdictions with a history of voting discrimination Permanent Provisions Section 2 Civil and Criminal sanctions can be directed against counties jurisdictions states that continue to discriminate black voters Provided grounds to challenge the poll tax in state and local elections Mobile V Boden SC ruled that plaintiffs must prove intent to discriminate Commission System executive and legislators combined ln Mobile used an atlarge system 1982 Renewal Congress rewrote Section 2 and removed the need to prove intent Many jurisdictions with atlarge or multimember districts faced court challenges Section 5 now incorporated into redistricting proposals The 1965 Voting Rights Act FiveYear Provisions in Covered Jurisdictions Reauthorized in 1970 1975 and 1982 Most recently reauthorized in 2006 through 2031 GA AL LA MS SC VA parts of NC AK AR HI ID Suspended the use of literacy good character and understanding tests Section 5 PreClearance Attorney General or Federal District Court of DC Federal Registrars and Poll Watchers In certain counties where county registrars continued to disenfranchise the federal government sent in Federal Registrars to make sure discrimination was eliminated Burden of Proof rests with jurisdiction Change will not leave black voters worse off Retrogression the process of returning to an earlier state typically a worse one Section 4 Triggers Defined jurisdictions subject to Section 5 Jurisdictions with a registration test or device Less than half of the voting age population had registered or cast ballots in the 1964 election Second Trigger 1970 Renewal Jurisdictions with a registration test or device Less than half of the voting age population had registered or cast ballots in the 1068 election Also banned literacy test nationwide Third Trigger Extended preclearance to Texas some Florida counties and otherjurisdictions with large numbers of Hispanics and American Indians 5 ofjurisdiction belonged to a singlelanguage minority group 1972 materials had been printed in English only Less than half the population had voted or registered in 1972 South Carolina V Katzenbach 1966 Basic provisions of the 1965 VRA upheld NorthwestAustn Munalpa Ut7ty District No 1 V Holder 2009 Statutory lssue What is jurisdiction Constitutional lssue Preemption of state authority Constitutionality of preclearance upheld 1982 Renewal Bailout Provisions Jurisdictions could petition to have themselves removed from Section 5 Black Mobilization Disenfranchised minority becomes a franchised minority Civil Rights Movement Post1965 From basic rights to economic and social rights Biracial coalition begins to disintegrate Not enough white support to form a liberal or radical electoral coalition Unity among civil rights groups begins to crumble ldeological Change Within the Democratic Party Observations Over the last four decades the Democratic Party in the South has become decidedly more liberal In the mid196039s newly enfranchised blacks in the South joined the Democratic party en masse Goals Determine the extent of ideological shift in the Louisiana Democratic Party Empirical Referent Attempt to provide some insightexplanation for this shift Decomposition IIIIII 7 pt scale Research Design AggregateLevel Registration Data Louisiana Race and Party Affiliation Annually IndividualLevel Survey Data Ideological SelfPlacement Controlling for Party Race Region and Time Time Period 19662002 Blacks becoming more liberal within the Democratic Party Very Stable fluctuation of black registrants in the Democratic party Defection Cohort Replacement Social Integration Kruse examines grassiroots change using the City of Atlanta as a case study Thesis Moderniera conservatism is born of clashes during the Civil rights Era Background Degree of Segregation In Atlanta there is a housing shortage Community Power Structure Moderate White Politicians moderate in the sense that there was a separation of their private views Elite Businessmen Black Leaders Block Vote most backs who could vote voted together Coalition Goals Economic Growth Moderate Pace of Racial Change Private vs Public Segregation segregation of private and public institution Dividing Lines Black v White Working Class v Middle Class Upper Class Columbians Overdefense of segregation Community Organizations Representing White Neighborhoods Protecting Communities Freedom of Association amp Individual Rights Neighborhood Segregation Patterns Initial white reaction 1940s The Columbians Rhetoric changed from defense of white supremacy to defense of home neighborhood and community West End Cooperative Corporation Supreme Court declares racially restrictive covenants unconstitutional 1948 White neighborhoods organize to resist desegregation White Communities Neighborhood Defense Mozley park Home Owners39 Protective Association Workingclass whites begin to withdraw from community approaches to race relations adopting an individualistic approach Flee vs Fight Desegregation of Public Spaces Parkes Buses Golf Courses Swimming Pools Gradual peaceful desegregation did occur in these areas Desegregation aggravated class divisions within the white community Tax Revolts School Desegregation Privatizing Schools The Local Option locals can decide School desegregation split the white middle class Public Schools with token desegregation Strict Pupil Placement Guidelines Segregated Housing Patterns Integration including public school desegregation became a freed of association issue for whites Shift from community to individual interests Private Schools Relocate outside Atlanta School and neighborhood housing patterns were closely linked Integration shifts from the public to private sphere Stores Restaurants Lunch Counters Newer Civil Rights groups not satisfied with previous pace of change Generational rift in the Civil Rights Community Sitlns Demonstrations Boycotts Moderate Business Coalition Fractures Divisions among white business owners Divisions between business owners and the black community 1962 NAACP Conference Hotel Integration Many white moderates did not want public accommodations legislation New Round of SitIns and Protest Launched Voluntary Integration Fails 1964 Civil Rights Act Segregationists whites connected the act with communism A threat to capitalism Expanded the power of the federal government Court CHallenges Heart ofA tanta Motel V US II7s V Picrick Largescale political backlash following enactment of 1964 CRA PostCivil Rights Era Demographic Shifts White Exodus to Suburbs Continued Segregation Collaps of the Moderate Political Coalition Urban Separatism MassTransit Annexation LowIncome Housing School Districts Thesis Southern conservatism shifts from racism traditionalism to rights and responsibilities Individualism Is this Valid The real question concerns the degree to which conservatism in the South is racism vs individualism or racial conservatism vs individualism Valentine and Sears 2005 What is the degree of overlap Traditionalist amp Individualist how much do they overlap The intersection of ideology and class Workingclass vs Middleclass Traditionalism Individualism The 1966 Governor39s Race TwoParty Development GOP Party Building Strategies The Southern Strategy TopDown Orientation Hun ting Where the ducks are Operation DiXie post1960 to 1964 Response to Nixon Defeat 1960 GOP emphasizes racially conservative policy orientations South is a must win for the GOP Moderates and Civil Rights Supporters loose out The Southern Strategy Evolution of the Southern Strategy New South gt Individualism Opposition to forced integration carried out by the federal government Old South gt Traditionalism Opposition to Government Intervention in RacialSocial Matters Goldwater39s 1964 Presidential Campaign States39 Rights Message Voted against 1964 Civil Rights Act Captured Deep South States IndividualLevel Change Sources of Partisan Change Inmigration Virginia Florida North Carolina Individual Defection Generational Change Successive age cohorts more likely to be Republican among whites Most Loyal D support among whites found among older age cohorts Some scholars have attributed about half the partisan change among white Southerners to generational replaceent and half to conversion When did this partisan change begin Goldwater39s Candidacy 1965 VRA Partisan attachment are very slow to change How long did the process take The average white southerner became 18 points more Republican over 46 years 1952 1998 Qualifiers on Republican Growth Black Electorate and D Loyalty Future Considerations The Growing Hispanic Population Factionalization among GOP seculars and religious right Mississippi Post Civil Rights Massive Resistance Grassroots Mobilization Forming of Citizens39 Councils Read Mississippi on website State democratic party came to resemble national democratic party Economic Voting The possibility of ClassBased Politics Regional history of populism New Deal Realignment 1932 Race overshadows economics PreCivil Rights Era lnverse Class Partisanship Among whites in the South those in higher income bracket more likely to be D CivilRights Era Expected relationship emerges by the 1960s PostCivil Rights Era IncomePartisanship gap widens Economics and Voting Behavior Presidential Voting EconomicVoting Gap present in the 1990s The gap is much wider in the South South 22 points NonSouth 12 points Regional Comparisons Currently whites especially natives in the South are more economically polarized than whites outside the region Just how important is the economic divisions to party politics in the South today Can politicians capitalize on this division Redistricting Before redistricting can occur must be apportioned Populations by census taken then 435 seats redistributed US House No Pop Deviation SL Districts 5 Gerrymanderingl drawing districts that advantage a particular party Contiguous adjacent neighboring adjoining bordering next door abuttingconnecting touching in contact proximate Population must be equal Minority VotersRacial Composition of Voters Compactnessi equally sized districts Communities of interest lncumbency Legal Background Thornburg v Gingles 1986 Minority claim of discrimination under Sec 2 Demonstration that minority group is sufficiently numerous and geographically compact to constitute a majority in SMD This minority is politically cohesive White majority typically votes in a block of sufficient size to defeat the minority39s choice racial polarization Result Creation of MajorityMinority Districts Potential Effects Harm to white D incumbents Help for GOP Partisan vs Racial Considerations States and DOJ Dept of Justice placed race above geographic compactness as a redistricting criteria NC creates two majorityminority districts 1st and 12th districts 1992 Interstate district picking up pockets of minority voters Republicans sue Shaw v Reno 1993 Bizarrely shaped MajorityMinority Districts violated the rights of white voters if drawn solely on the basis of race ignoring traditional practices Compactness Contiguity Communities of Interest Race cannot be the sole criteria for redrawing district lines Miller v Johnson 1995 Congressional districts were unconstitutional if race was a predominant factor in drawing district lines Bush v Vera 1996 Prior to 1992 election Texas draws three new MajorityMinority districts Districts challenged as racial gerrymanders State argues that districts bizarrely shaped in order to protect incumbents in existing districts Court rules incumbency does not trump race as a predominant factor when both are present in redistricting decisions Surviving Judicial Scrutiny Plaintiffs must prove race was a predominant factor Traditional districting factors ignored Districts subjected to strict scrutiny Burden of Proof shifts to state to demonstrate that district was configured to achieve some compelling interest other than race Redistricting Tactics CrackingSplintering diluting strength by separating districts Packing putting as many minorities in one district as possible also RID leads to safe election of a particular person 2000 Redistricting D Strategy Deviation Tolerance 5 For Republicans put in 5 PackingStacking R Cracking D Court Challenges by R Partisan Gerrymandering Population Deviation Peach State Redistricting Odyssey Districts Unconstitutional Equal Protection Clause One PersonOne Vote State Legislative Districts Redrawn by Courts 2004 Political ImplicationsState House 2004 96 2002 77 2000 71 R Legislature redraws Congressional Districts 2006 Back to the Lone Star State LULAC et al v Perry 2006 Supreme Court rules state legislature can redistrict as often as they want Upheld overt use of partisan gerrymandering by Texas Legislature Court orders Texas Legislature to redraw two districts where they determined Hispanic voting strength had been diluted Republican House seats increased from 15 2002 to 212004 of 32 Trying to Thread the Needles The Effects of Redistricting in Georgia 8 BackGround Republicans in Genreral Assembly redraw US House districts in 2005 GOP redistricting objectives 1 Produce a more visually appealing map 2 Shore up Republican Phil Gingrey39s District 11 3 Weaken Democratic base of support for Democrats Marshall 8 and Barrow 12 District went from 40 black to 32 black Republican presidential vote 2004 increased to 61 from 55 lncumbency advantage weakened by placing redrawn voters into district The new District 8 was comprised of 447 redrawn voters Voter Turnout in District 8 Redrawn black voters are less likely to turnout in District 8 compared to same back voters 42 vs 52 There is essentially no effect on white voters based on incumbency status Therefore you must find white voting patterns in order to predict results New Constituents vs New Constituents lncumbentvoting higher among old lower among new Voter Choice among White Constituents Gap in Voting Behavior between same and redrawn white voters Same Precincts 395 Redrawn Precincts 321 Conclusions District 8 race was very close Marshall 51 Collins 49 The GOP did not go far enough in ensuring a Republican win in District 8 Further reduced the number of black voters Increased the percentage redrawn in district Hispanics in the South Political Participation Comparison to Blacks and Whites Hispanic registration rates lag foar behind those for black and white Even among Hispanics Acculturation alone cannot explain this gap SES Hispanic turnout rates 2004 were also lower however this gap is much smaller Hispanics SouthWide Hispanic VAP went from 21 to 34 in Texas 1221 in Florida Demographics In Texas Anglos are no longer the majority racialethnic group Hispanics will constitute a majority by 2015 Estimated Voter Turnout and Registtration Registration in Texas 2008 Hispanic Citizens 54 Blacks 74 Anglos 74 Turnout in Texas 2008 Hispanic Citizens 38 Blacks 65 Anglos 65 Voting Patterns Not Monolithic in Voting Behaviour 2004 Presidential Election Texas 49 of Hispanics vote R Florida 56 of Hispanics vote R 2008 Presidential Election Texas 35 of Hispanics vote R Florida 40 of Hispanics vote R lssue Sets Social Issues Tie to Catholicism Economic Issues Immigration Party Affiliation Flroida 2008 Republican 335 Democrat 385 Unaffiliated 280 LongTerm Partisan Implications Constraints on Hispanic Political Influence What impact will Hispanics have on the Southern party system Georgia Voter ID An Empirical Assessment of Georgia39s Voter ID Statute Legislative Background Previous Statute did require proof of identification Voters allowed to use one of 17 forms of photo and nonphoto identification including Driver39s License Passport Military ID Social Security Card Utility Bill Certified Copy of Birth Certificate In 2005 the GOP Majority in General Assembly passes photo identification statute State Legislative Intent Reduce Fraud Counterargument Law will unnecessarily disenfranchise many Georgia voters the poor elderly racial minorities rural voters Democratic voters Statute reduces acceptable forms of identification to the following types of photo ID Driver39s License State Identification Card Military ID Tribal ID Government Employee ID Card Other Valid StateFederal Photo ID Student ID Improper ID will result in the voter casting a provisional ballot Voter ID Odyssey DOJ preclears the Georgia voter ID law Suit filed in federal district court to block implementation Common Cause v B7ups Injunction granted on grounds that the law violated the 24th Amendment General Assembly amends the photo id law Waived any cost in obtaining a photo id for voting purposes County registrars could supply registrants with photo identification directly Voter Education Program NoExcuse Absentee Balloting by Mail ID not required Federal District Court again issues temproary injunction on the basis of the 1st and 14th Amendments A Trial on the Merits in 2007 clears the way for implementation of the statute prior to the 2008 election cycle Crawford v Marion County Election Board 2008 Other State Contexts Currently 26 states have some form of voter id requirement Eighteen allow photo or nonphoto id Eight states require photo identification at the polls Provisional Ballot Georgia and Indiana NonProvisional Ballot Sign Affidavit Florida Hawaii Idaho Louisiana Michigan and South Dakota Previous Research Who doesn39t have a driver39s license in Georgia The Elderly and racialethnic minorities Voting Those registrants without a license were significantly less likely to turnout in 2004 and 2006 prior to implementation Party Those registrants without a driver39s license were slightly more likely to have voted in D primaries 2006 General Primary DR Gap 05 2004 General Primary DR Gap 02 Research Questions 1 Did implementation of the Georgia voter id statute suppress voter turnout 2 Did implementation of the statute result in disparate effects related to race or ethnicity Research Design Classic Policy lmpact Evaluation Model QuasiExperimental Comparative CHange Design Voter ID law suppressed voter turnout by a third A symbolic Policy Conclusion A suppression effect is present but this effect is not related to race or ethnicity The suppression effect is very small Redistricting 2002 incumbent protection plans percentage of redrawn constituents considerably reduced Texas Redistricting 2004 Texas R target Anglo D by increasing the percentage of redrawn constituents R also fielded quality candidates to challenge D in these districts R House seats increased from 15 2002 to 21 2004 of 32 Candidate Emergence Following 1992 R begin to contest more House seats in the South Large number of open seats Both amateur and experienced R candidates more successful during highopportunity elections 19921996 National Implications 1194 R majority in House brought about through gains made in the South Northern R have been on the decline during the same time leading to the D takeover in 2006 From 2004 to 2008 percentage of R drops 76 in the South but 146 in the North Southern R pulled the GOP too far to the right ideologically Ideological Polarization Distance between D and R representatives has grown lntraparty cohesiveness has increased loss of moderates Southern R are significantly more conservative than northern R What is the future of the R Party in Congress What role will the South play The Future of Southern Congressional Politics Demographic Shifts lnmigration Hispanics


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