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by: Estelle Prosacco


Estelle Prosacco
GPA 3.84


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Estelle Prosacco on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 4550 at University of Georgia taught by Haynes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/202250/pols-4550-university-of-georgia in Political Science at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
1 What are the three theoretical approaches that Graber discusses that help explain how journalists decide what information to report as news and how to shape it into a news article 1 c 2 What is gatekeeping Who are the primary gatekeepers in the news media industry 0 Gate keepers A small number of j oumalists have nal control over story choices these are Wire service reporters web editors and other reporters who initially select stories the editors who assign the reporters and accept or reject what they submit disc jockeys at radio stations who present fiveminute news breaks and television program executives These people who make news choices for nationwide audiences have an awesome amount of political power because there choices determine what will be widely available 3 Graber discusses the outcome when multiple media cover the same story 7 how is variation generated What do the joumalists do that leads to some variation in the coverage 0 Variation is generated because they use sources that represent different elites o This makes the focal points of the story change even though the facts may be the same 0 Different sources mean different causes and remedy recommendations occur 4 What are general factors that determine news selection as discussed by Graber 0 Demographics Training Personality and professional socialization of news personnel 0 In the US that is largely mobil welleducated white males whose political views are liberal 0 Also depend on norms within the news institution 0 Pressure from intemal or External competition 0 Political Pressures Media personnel depend on political leaders for information and are vulnerable to manipulation by them 0 Economic pressures newspapers and magazines need to earn profits so media offerings must appeal to large numbers of subscribers or potential customers for the products that advertisers sell 5 What are the criteria for choosing speci c stories 0 Relate to audience appeal 0 Do this by checking the popularity of certain programs 1 Stories must picture conditions that could have a strong impact on readers or listeners a health hazards consumer fraud ect 2 Violence Con ict Disaster or Scandal a Wars Murders Strikes earthquakes accidents or sexscandals involving prominent people are things that excite audiences 3 Familiarity News is attractive if it pertains to wellknow people or involves familiar situations or concern to many a Babies in africa dying of malnutrition 4 Proximity Strong preference for local news show that people are interest in what happens near them 5 Timely and Novel Must be something that has just occurred and is out of the ordinary a Does not happen all the time puzzling deaths space exploration etc Most important among all these Con ict Proximity Timeliness are the most important 6 What is a beat 0 A beat is a regular listening post established by news organizations in places where events of interest to the public are likely to occur 0 In the US government beats cover political executives legislative bodies court systems and international organizations 7 What are the procedures that newsgathering organizations use to gather the news 0 beats 0 prior planning to attend important events so they can allocate reporters and camera crews 0 this is for predictable events such as formal visits by dignitaries legislative hearings or executive press conferences 0 News collection is structured through the beats system to keep in touch with the most prolific sources of news 8 Why do we see so much coverage variation in terms of what is covered across radio television and newspapers 0 It allows for americans to satisfy their preference for various types of news by patronizing a particular media venue 0 Each venue dedicates most of its time to certain issues unique to them it allows readers or listeners to know where to go when looking for a certain type of news 0 News holes size also play a part the space available for news stories rather than advertising and announcements to stories about business 9 What are some of the constraints on news production What impact do these constraints have on the news that is produced 0 Focuses on news that they can edit and publish rapidly 0 this is why pseudo events events created to generate press coverage make up more than half of all tv news stories reporters attend events like bridge dedications or county fairs b c these are quick and easy ways to get fresh material and politicians love such photo opportunities 0 This causes for quick sifting through material to find stories 0 Deadlines l Insignificant Time a NEWSCASTING i affects preparing stories and presenting them Quickly deciding what to publish and what not because of deadlines means that they may be harder to read or understand 39 Less likely to give background information on the issue Less thoughtprovoking Newscasters have just enough time to announce the event and present a lt239 fact or two this means they may have to forgo covering complex stories if they cannot condense them b Print Media i Have space problems as well 2 Visual appeal a Tv reporters seek stories with visual appeal b these visual that are the most captivating about a story may not be most important i news crews might focus on the colorful scene of people gathered during a presidential speech instead of the speech itself c Stories with photo bans are less likely to be published i EX Racial violence in south africa after government prohibited taking pictures it stopped being covered in the news worldwide 0 When reporter can t gain access to the event and instead interview onscene observers or experts eager to discuss the situation 0 Space shortage 3 News staffing o for financial and personal reasons news outlets favor stories by their own staff 10 What are the general effects of gatekeeping to the news in the US 1 People in the News a Gatekeeping segregates the group of newsworthy people to a small group of familiar and unfamiliar gures i Stories feature familiar people entertainers athletes political figures ii Makes it hard for ordinary people to make the news because their activities aren t unusual enough to command news attention 2 Action in the News a Activities reported in the news is largely limited to con icts and disagreements among government officials violent nonviolent protests crime scandals and investigation and impending or actual disasters 3 Infotainment News a Newsworthy criteria and news production constraints shape US news and its impact regardless of the particular subject of discussion b Economic Pressures 1 Novelty andExcitment ii Views stop watching if program does not please them this results in news broadcasts being pitched largely to fickle young viewers 1 This causes news of excitement to be chosen over news of more signi cance ex news coverage of sports instead of news about the government iii This is good because it creates a program miX that is short on hard news and long on infotainment iv Causes shift from hard news to soft news V focus towards novelty and entertainment produces fragmented discontinuous news that focuses on the present and ignores the past 1 Familiarity anal Similarity vi people want news about people they are familiar with there for many pages may be used simply to bud into a celebrity s personal life vii Criteria of newsworthiness used in the US leads to news that is very smallminded compared with news in other countires a this leaves americans ignorant about much of the world viii when covering foreign affairs reportersnews outlets focus on what39s easy to report this is normally revolutions or major disasters which give a false impression that most foreign countries are always in disarray 1 Con ict anal Violence iX Heay news on con ict and bad news in big city media has three major consequenses 1 Dangerous Distortion of Reality don t say that most cities are safe instead portray that all places are dangerous jungles 2 Leaves people with the sense that destruction and con ict reign everywhere a gives the false idea that violence is an acceptable way to settle differences 1 Neglect ofMajor Societal Problems Xi Inadequate training of media staff is another reason for unsatisfactory coverage of major stories 1 Support for the Establishment Xii Gatekeeping yields news that supports political and social institutions in the US Xiii Increases the government39s legitimacy when showing respect Xiv Acts as a watchdog 11 What is the general consensus as to the quality of US news There is no general consensus the quality of US news depends on what information a person seeks the news for


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