New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Sabina Okuneva


Sabina Okuneva
GPA 3.86


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Geology

This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabina Okuneva on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1121 at University of Georgia taught by Crowe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/202257/geol-1121-university-of-georgia in Geology at University of Georgia.

Similar to GEOL 1121 at UGA


Reviews for EARTH PROC & ENVIR


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/15
Origen oF the Universe 0 Big bang theory between 10 and 20 billion years ago matter was flung violently outward From some central point 0 Creation vs Big Bang I What is science 39 Formulate a testable falsifiable hypothesis 39 Collect data empirical theoretical experimental 39 Analyze data 39 Accept or reject hypothesis I Theological vs scientific Theo doesn39t need any science just Faith Sci needs science not Faith 0 Solar System Level I A star with satellites I By 48 5 billion years ago spontaneous nuclear combustion sun dust ring clumped up into planets I Two Groups 39 Terrestrial Mercury Venus have lost most oF the lightest gaseous elements so more dense than gaseous I Earth is only planet with liquid water 39 Gaseous Jupiter gt Pluto 0 Earth Level I Internally diPFerentiated I 5 billion years old homogenous internal makeup 4 billion years ago layers Formed solid inner coredenser elements iron I nickel gt liquid outer core gt mantle gt crustlighter elements granite basaltD internal difi erentiation At some point earth was at a molten state and all the heavy elements sank into the middle oF the earth 39 Heat comes From I Gravitational Compression PVnRT Ppressure Vvolume nmoles oF gas Rgas constant I Ttemperature I Impact heating because it lacked an atmosphere I Radioactive decay I Figure 14 Earth39s Early Atmosphere 0 Origin I Gasses couldn39t be preserved in the atmosphere cause there was no atmosphere I As earth cooled 48 billion years ago an atmosphere was created 39 Nitrogen NZ C02 and methane CH3 were components 39 Volcanic eruptions burp volatile gas into atmosphere called volcanic outgasing I How we developed the early atmosphere I Current atmosphere N2 02 C02 Ar 39 02 came about by primitive photosynthetic activity by green brown blue algae As soon as earth cooled to the point where liquid water was stable the volcanoes burped water and it collected on the earth Non static Earth 0 500 million years ago halF our continent was underwater 0 250 million years ago some oF the water has gone away mountains were created Appalachians 50 million years ago continents drifting mountains Form the Rockies 70 million years ago water comes back Geologic Time Scale 0 3 eons I Phanerazoic newest 3 eras 10 oF earth39s history 545 million years ago 39 Cenozoic 39 Mesozoic 39 Paleozoic I Proterozoic 25 billion years ago I Archean oldest 45 billion years ago Relative Time 0 Sedimentary Rocks I Rocks Form via accumulation oF rock particles in subsequent compaction and cementation oF those particles clastic I Can also Form via precipitation From surface waters I Comes From weathering oF mountains I Limestone comes From calcium carbonate precipitating From rain chemical O Igneous Rocks I Form via melting and subsequent crystallization oF some preexisting rock 0 Metamorphic Rocks I Form when some preexisting rock is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature I When mountains Form the pressure hits the rocks that get buried and they change Principle oF Super Position proposed by Steno in 1660 I In a sequence oF undisturbed sedimentary rocks the oldest rocks are on the 0 bottom I Figure Al O The Principle oF Original Hor39 139 J39 t are J quot J in a at line r manner nonhorizontal sedimentary rocks have been disturbed I A5 O Principle oF Cross cutting Relations rocks crosscut by igneous rocks are older than the igneous rocks I A3 O Principle oFInclusion inclusions in an igneous rock are older than the igneous rock I A4 0 Principle oFFaunal Succession no life Form is ever repeated species evolve with time but never use the same morphology more than once I Morphology becomes more complex with time I Sedimentary rocks only especially Fossil bearing 0 Principle oFUniFormitarianism the present is the key to the past I Doesn39t imply that rates were the same Absolute Ages 0 Radioactive decay when the nucleus oF an atom spontaneously breaks apart 0 Radioactive halFliFe the amount oF time it takes For halF oF some initial amount oF some radioactive material to decay I Time 020 atoms One halFliFe oF time goes by actual time depends on element 10 atoms One more halFliFe goes by 2 half lives 5 atoms I One more 25 atoms I Etc I Parent material one oF the atoms splits into nuclei which are called daughter material 39 Uranium gt Lead 39 Potassium gt Argon 0 Measure parent and daughter amount and you need to know the halFliFe in order to measure the halFliFe Atomic structure 0 Atom I The smallest visible particle oF some element that retains the chemical and electrical properties oF that element Electrons net negative charge in orbit around atom negligible mass I Orbital shells number oF shells depends on how many electrons I lst shell can hold 2 electrons I 2nd shell can hold 8 electrons I 3rd shell can hold 8 electrons I Neutrons no charge in nucleus heavy have mass I Protons net positive charge in nucleus heavy have mass I Figure 2 I Instead oF orbitals think oF them as cloud layers I Number oF protons in nucleus will determine the chemical behavior oF an atom atomic number I Protons neutrons atomic mass At ground state atom has same number oF electrons and protons m electrons can be gained or lost I Anion negative charge gains an electron I Cation positive charge Ioses eIectron I When Na loses an electron it becomes Nal I LeFt side Ioses eIectrons right side gains eIectrons Isotopes number oF neutrons varies I Can change stability oF atom I Radioactivity is a result oF the breaking down oF an atom and its reIease oF subatomic particIe I Some eIements always have the same number oF neutrons so they have no isotopes I Stable isotopes and unstable isotopes Compounds Forms when atoms bond together I Na and CI I Na is an explosive metaI CI is a toxic gas I When bonded NaCI becomes neutral and thus stable MineraI naturally occurring inorganic solid with xed composition and internal structure I FundamentaI Properties I Fixed defined composition I Fixed internaI geometry Minerals are either isochemicaI or isostructuraI Oxide metaI pIus oxygen NO siIicon SiIicates combine metaI silicon and oxygen SquicIes metaI pIus suIFur NO oxygen Igneous Rocks 0 Figure 324 Produced when moIten materiaI Formed in lower crustupper mantIe rises to surface cooIs and crystallizes O Magma moIten material beneath earth39s surface M same thing but when its above earth39s surface Intrusive Forms when magma crystaIIizes beneath earth39s surface PIutonic Extrusive when Iava crystaIIizes above earth39s surface VoIcanic Magma ascends because it is less dense than the solid it is around buoyant Texture I Compare intrusive to extrusive rocks 000000 I Intrusive cooIs sIowa sIowa becomes more dense miIIions oFyears I Large individual crystaIs visible to naked eye I Phaneritic texture I Extrusive cooIs rapidIy minute to hours I SmaII individual crystaIs microscopic I Aphanitic texture Some cools instantly under the ocean so crystals can39t Form I Glassy texture I Phorphyritic Sometimes the Phaneritic and Aphanitic mix when the intrusive goes up in the volcano and mixes with the extrusive 0 Composition Intrusive Granite Gabbro Extrusive Rhyolite Basalt Mineralogy Quartz Potassium Feldspar r Olivine Pyroxene Plagioclase Biotite Feldspar lots oF silicon not much iron or magnesium light color MLfic less silicon more iron and magnesium dark color I Generally everything starts out mafic Bowen39s Reaction Series I Temperature decreases I Predicts order in which minerals will crystallize From a cooling magma I A clump oFmafic magma starts ascending Sedimentag Rock 0 Sediment loose unconsolidated particles oF rock Found on or near the earth39s surface that have been transported 0 Sedimentary Rock Forms via the lithification cementing sediment grains together oF sediment Erosion u H Source Then stops when it starts cooling Olivine starts Forming Then the olivine minerals will Fall to the bottom oF the clump because oF density I Because oF the Falling oF the olivine and its iron and manganese the clump becomes silica rich Clump will leave olivine behind to become Gabbro and keep ascending 39actional crystallization preferential removal oF elements From a melt during crystallization Eventually cools down to become granite Basalt generally is created From magma under the ocean gt transport gt deposition gt compactioncementation quotdespositional environmentquot quotLithificationquot 39 HOW we produce elastic I OCkS Rocks that Form via direct precipitation From water chemical sedimentag ro CkS I Limestone CaC03 quotcalcitequot precipitates directly From water I quotSuper Saturationquot when solute has reached maximum capacity I Sometimes too much as dissolved and one little movement will make solute go back to its original Form I Sedimentation occurs because oF mountains 0 Clastic Classification I Grain size I Large particles gravel sized Conglomerate I Small particles sand sized sandstone I Even smaller silt sixed siltstone I Smallest particles clay sized shale I Texture I along with composition can be used to interpret sedimentary rocks I Rounding oF the grains I Angular near source oF sediment I Rounded made when angular grains are transported and pieces oF the angles break of and become smooth I Indicates proximity to source I Composition I Bowen39s reaction For lgneous rocks I With sediments it works the opposite direction I Minerals low on Bowen39s reaction thing are more stable than those at top I High chemicals are more reactive whereas low chemicals are more stable I Maturity I Compositionally immature angular rocks contains lots oF di erent minerals including unstable ones I Compositionally mature as grains become more rounded unstable minerals leave the grains generally quartz is all that remains I More you transport sediment the smaller the grains become I FigurellZlsedimentaryljpg Metamorphic Rocks 0 What happens when we subject some preexisting rock to elevated pressure and temperature 0 Principle physical changes I Mechanical Change rocks are bent and Folded recrystalized I Occurs at lower pressure and temperature I Directed stress doesn39t evenly press against rocks I Rocks respond in a specific way I Ex Shale is bunch oFlittle grains when pressed together they align and Form slate I Even more stress phyllite I Recgstallization rock that is composed oF round grains when subject to extensive pressure it recrystallizes I Reduction onorosity no space between grains I New name For recrystalized sandstone quartzite I Folded equal pressure From both sides I 1 5 kilometers on top oF the Earth at temperatures between 50 and 200 degrees Centigrade I Growth of new minerals occurs at higher pressure and temperature I Depths between 5 30 km and temperatures between 200 600 centigrade I Thermodynamic Mineral Stabilig look at graph when old minerals in preexisting rock combine other minerals will arise Andalusite will convert to Kyanite when pressure rises because it becomes unstable When temp increases the Kyanite will become unstable and Form Sillimanite Mineral Assemblage see graph 2 I AB gtCD gtE 0 Types oF metamorphism I Contact elevated temperature I Ex magma is built up under the surface at a spot and is cooling I The rocks surrounding it get really hot I The change in temperature causes the rocks to contact metamorphisize I Creates new chemical growth I About I km on either side oF the magma I Regional occurs across a broad area high pressure and temperature 0 Metamorphic Grade and associated rock types I Shale gt Slate gt Phyllite gt Schist gt Gneiss gt melting Before Schist its all mechanical change At schist new mineral growth is added Preferred grain alignment and new mineral growth I Gneiss characterized by mineral segregation into bands I When melting it becomes igneous I Limestone CaCO3 gt Marble I Figure 214 Plate Tectonics 0 Continental Drift Wegener I Fit oF continents I Distribution oF Paleozoic plant and animal Fossils I Distribution oF rocks Paleozoic indicative oF glaciation I Figure 3 33 32 Pangaea Wegener lacked knowledge oF the sea floor couldn39t figure out how plates shifted 0 Figure 37 0 Rheological zone boundary between mantle and crust bottom oF the oceanic crust I Oceanic crust thin composed mostly oF basalt dense Continental crust is thick and granitic less dense Another boundary separates the region where most will behave elastically top and plastically bottom Lithospheric elastic top layer Asthenospheric plastic bottom layer Figure 38 47 0 Lines oF Evidence oFWegener39s Continental DriFt 0 Sea oor topography I Hess Geology professor at Princeton served in the Navy in WWII as an ocean surveyor Surveyed across Atlantic and part oF Pacific Found Ridges and trenches Formulates a model to explain these Features called sea floor spreading At mid ocean ridges new oceanic crust is Formed Basalt is erupted From MORs and spew basalt The Basalt is taken From the trenches At trenches subduction zones older oceanic crust is consumed Age oF Sea oor rocks As one moves away From the MORs the age oF oceanic crust grows Paleomagnetism oF sea floor rocks MOR basalt Iron rich I Iron bearing minerals retain remnant magnetism I Earth39s magnetic field is not fixed And it has a tendency to flip suddenly When the basalts at the top oFthe MORs is erupted it retains magnetism When a new eruption happens it pushes the old basalt outward and it switches polarity mirror image Figure 3lhandout quotPaleomagnetism oF Sea Floor rocks part deuxquot We have refined Wegener39s theory Found Fossils that support theory Vine and Matthews 1964 Plate Tectonic Theog Driving Forces Hess said Mantle Convection is a driving Force Hand out quotDriving Forcesquot Cold water on top sinks to the bottom then becomes hot and moves up as top water sinks down Circular pattern Asthenospheric mantle is in motion I MOR is where the hot water starts moving up I Alternative idea Other studies suggest ridge pushtrench pull is driving Force Plate Boundaries 0 Divergent relative motion between too plates is divergent lt gt I Oceanic crustal environment basalt thin dense MOR basalt is continually erupting so plates move apart I MOR middle oF the Atlantic through southern Pacific up the gulF oF California I Volcanism voluminous basaltic I Seismicity minimal I Continental Crust granitic thick less dense Figure 316 I heat flow convection Focused underneath a continent I Crust thins and Fractures and expands I Basaltic eruptions at the newly Formed rift I lFit keeps extending it39ll become a MOR I Volcanism voluminous basaltic I Seismicity minimal I Red Sea and GulFoFAden now have oceanic crust erupting out From MORs I East African RiFt is still in a continental setting and may Fail in the Future Forming an aulocogen a Failed rift O Transformal Boundaries lt gt they crossover on top oF each other Figure 320 I Oceanic MOR are segmented in a stairway Fashion and connected by transforms I Volcanism none I Seismicity lots shallow I Continental Setting see illustration I San Andreas Fault really long transform Fault 0 Convergent Boundaries gtlt what happens depends on who crashes into who I Oceanic vs continental oceanic crust is more dense and not buoyant whereas Continental crust has low density and buoyancy I Oceanic crust will be subducted beneath continental crust I Subduction zone where crust is recycled back down into the mantle Figure 318 I Consequences I volcanic activity yes a chain onolcanic mountains above subduction zone Volcanic Arc ex The Andes Mountains Cascade Range OR I Seismicity yes shallow to deep abundant strong earthquakes at Benio 39 Zone line oF the subduction zone I Oceanic Crust vs Oceanic crust two equally likely outcomes I One is subducted same as ocean vs continental I Happens with the opposite plate I Volcanic lots oFactivity volcanic arc arises Geology Fuel Sources 1900 2050 Bridge 2150 Petroleum Age Coal 24 4 deathmp Alternative Fusion Nuclear 02 deathsmp Fission split a nucleus into similar nuclei Fusion 39oin smaller nuclei into one larger nucleus releasing heat Chain Reactions atoms fissioned to stream off neutrons that release heat This makes them too hot to fisson again must cool them down 0 reaction needs to be MODERATED o Neutrons need to be cooled down in order to react again control rods 0 USZWorld uses water as moderator 0 When the core gets too warms the water boils away and the reactor slows down 0 Russia uses Graphite solid o If it gets too hot in the core of the reactor the block of graphite will not limit the reaction therefore not slowing it down 0 Control Rods in order to stop reaction you need to insert control rods 0 quotPoisonsquot they snuff out chain reactions 0 Like huge barriers made of B Li Hf Cd etc between the fuel rods that stops the neutron flow Why nuclear reactors explode reactors lack critical mass Nuclear Accidents dangers and advantages 0 TM 0 Human Error yes 0 Technical Problems water from the core was pumped to an adjacent building not designed to handle water from the core which was pumped back into core 0 Other Stuff no loss of containment o Chernobyl 0 Human Error yes didn t know what to do and ran it at 110 0 Technical Problems overheated water caused Hz to form BOOM graphite caught on fire 0 Other Stuff lost containment Earthquakes the release oF energy due to movement along a preexisting Fault or due to Formation oFa new Fault Take place m in Lithosphere Behavior is elastic 0 Stress an applied Force 0 Strain Response oF some material to stress 0 Elastic Behavior oF solid such that when stress is removed material will return to its original pre stressed shape Exhibited by Lithosphere 0 Plastic Once strained will remain in stressed Form Exhibited by Asthenosphere Stress From here on out should be thought in terms oF plates colliding 0 Creep slow steady slippage along a Fault reasonably Planar Bend and slip process I Fault a planar break in crust 0 Earthquake strain accumulates I Figure 43 and IIZIEarthquakesl I Elastic Rebound snap back to pre stress shape Energy is released Process oF the Lithosphere slipping and snapping back to original shape More elastic rebound more powerful rebound Figure 44 in book Focus The portion or location along a Fault where movement slip first occurs Epicenter Directly above Focus on surface SeismicWaves Figure 48 in book and llZlEarthquakesl Body Waves Propagate through solid Earth I P and S Waves I P Waves Primary Waves Compressional dilational energy transfer Vibrate parallel to the propagation direction I S Waves Shear Waves shear motion Vibrate perpendicular to the propagation direction I How do we know the outer core is liquid P waves travel through solids and liquids S Waves travel through solid only 0 Surface Waves Propagate along Earth s surface I L and R Waves 0 Arrival Times Figure 49 in book I P waves travel Faster than S waves 00000 I P waves oFten referred to as ISt Arrival Waves I Seismograph measures in Time and Intensity I Time lag on chart can be converted to distance 0 Magnitude Richter Scale actually measures I Logarithmic measure oF the amount oF absolute ground motion I a 2 10 I a 3 100 la 4 1000 and so on O lntensig Mercalli Index human scale I Recurrence interval Table 43 Hazards oF Earthquakes 0 Ground Motion I Love Waves ripple surface I Rayleigh Waves ripple surface I Don39t build on Faults duh I Don39t rebuild on Faults Istanbul I Careful what you build on Faults I Better building codeszoning 39 Generally in lst world countries there are building codes 39 Figure 416 I Utilities design 39 Alaska pipeline 0 Fire I San Francisco earthquake 39 80 oF structural damage because stulT caught on fire and burned down 0 Ground Failure I Landslides I Liquefaction 39 clay rich soil 39 clay retains a lot onater and iFleFt undisturbed they39re pretty solid 39 But iFyou shake it it becomes jellified O Tsunamis I Tidal waves I Have nothing to do with tides I Generated on surface oF ocean due to seismic activity underneath ocean I 1964 earthquake in Anchorage 39 Prince Williams Sound large portion oF seafloor popped up about 30 meters and created enormous waves I Height oFa wave is inversely proportional to water depth I Tsunamis can travel 1000s oF miles and be undetected at 100s oF mph I Detection 39 Pacific rim is the only place with a network oF detection devices to look For potential tsunamis I Sumatra tsunami 39 Madagascar Prediction and Hazard Reduction 0 Precursor phenomena I Seismic gaps a segment along an active Fault with no seismicity has occurred For a long time decades centuries I Seismic gaps paper I San Andreas is made up oFa bunch oF tiny segments 0 UpliftTilting I ln active seismic areas we can pretty accurately measure where strain is accumulate 39 Just a little strain or tilt messes up the devices used to measure the strain 0 Physical changes I Water well levels I Electrical properties oF rocks changes when rocks must deal with strains Periodicity I Can space earthquakes out I Parkfield sequence 39 About every 30 years there39s an earthquake in Parkfield 0 See regular cycles San Andreas 39 USGS has made a probability chart Animal Behavior I Animals behave weird when an earthquake is about to happen We can39t use these as an e ective way oF figuring out when an earthquakes about to O 0 show Earthquake Control I Denver Basin early 1960s 39 Had a lot oF earthquakes whereas beFore they never had one 39 Only happened For about 5 years At rocky flats munitions Facility they were drilling wells and injecting waste materials into the Faults Faults got quotoiled upquot with the waste and the Friction builds up and that s what was creating the earthquakes Injecting HZO could possibly lubricate locked Faults but it s a bad idea too many variables I US Risk Areas 39 San Andreas system I TransForm boundary I Shallow but powerFul earthquakes 39 Alaska I Subduction zone I Shallow and deep 39 Mid plate mid north America plate I Most powerFul earthquakes come From here I Old Faults that have stored a lot oF strain I The reason these earthquakes extend so Far is because there are so Few Faults around the big Fault that it reverberates For a much larger 0 area Volcanism 0 Magma Genesis RiFts 39 MOR I Subduction 39 Trenches I Hot Spots 39 Mantle upwelling 39 Discrete point sources 39 Put a match under a paper and it wiII burn through the paper 39 Same with this Figure 57 ReIativer stationary 39 Long Iinear ridges From the mantIe pIume chiIIing For a Iong time and the pIate sIowa moves over it burning a track into the pIate I As the pIate passes the voIcanoes on top deactivates as the new voIcanoes are created on top oF the hotspot 0 Composition FeIsic more viscous more siIicate ponmerization Iink up Mafic Iess siIica rich so Iess viscous more watery and uid Iike Magma has Iots oF gas dissolved in it H20 C02 02 CH4 Pressure decreases as magma rises and the gases boiI and bubee In Mafic magma aII the bubees go to the surface and Ieak out through the crust degassing 39 Lava iIow 39 Quiescent not Ioud 39 SIow eruption In FeIsic the bubees have a hard time moving through the viscous magma 39 No degassing 39 Instead it shoots out oF the surface eprosion rapid expansion energy reIease 39 And is Ioud 0 Eruption Types Fissure Eruptions Iong Iinear breaks in crust 39 Lava iIows out basaIt erupts in its de gassed state moIten materiaI just kinda roIIs out 39 Vquminous and cover broad areas Point Source Eruptions 39 ShieIds I BasaIt I Mound I Low profiIe but very wide I Hawaii 39 Cinder Cones I True dome shape I PyrocIastic materiaI I Ash IapiIIi bombs size cIassifications I Product oF an eprosive eruption I When it shoots into the sky it cools and solidi es I Exclusively Felsic material I Paracutin city where there39s a cinder cone in Mexico 39 Stratovolcano I Dome shape I lnterlayered mafic flows and Felsic pyroclastics I Bimodal volcanism subduction zones I Mount St Helen39s Mt Fuji I Caldera39s 39 Catastrophic quotsupervolcanoquot eruptions 39 Figure 532 39 Negative topographic expression aFter eruption 39 Shallow large magma chamber is thinning crust above it I Failure oF crust blocks will collapse into chamber I Chamber is depressurized I Really big eruption O Volcanic Hazards I Lava hazard to property not really to human life I Pyroclastics 39 Ash lapilli bombs I Lahar volcanic mud flow I Nure Ardente glowing cloud pyroclastic cloudflow 39 Pyroclastics and super heated gas 39 Really Fast 100s oF kmhour I Gas 39 No eruption at all 39 Just gas release due to degassing at depth 39 Handout 39 Lake Nyos I Aerosol 39 Liquid particles in the air 39 802 blocks solar radiation creates a cooler climate when in the air I Also causes crop Failure I Steam Explosions 39 Phreatomag39matic Event when cracks on the side oFa volcano under water Form From magma pressure and water comes in flash boiled into steam and the whole thing blows up 0 Precursory Behavior I Seismicity low intensity swarms oF activity I Uplifttilting doming upward as magma chamber inflates beneath the structure I Gas compositions more oFa quantity change when magma moves up a pulse oF gas comes up too the surface I Animals are acting weird I We39re much better at predicting volcanoes than earthquakes O Principle US hazard areas Cascade range California through Washington 39 Stratovolcanoes Southern Alaska there39s a trench where the subduction zone is 39 Almost always Stratovolcanoes Hawaii hot spot that produces a bunch oFbasalt y shield eruptions Continental Hot Spots 39 Yellowstone 39 Long Valley Hot Spot Definitely Caldera Hydrologic Cycle 0 Hydrosphere all water at or near the surface oF the earth I O O O 0 Figure 62 Ocean 98 Ground Water 6 Glacial lce 181 Streams and Rivers 015 Any body oF flowing water confined to a channel Drainage basin area From which a stream collects its water 39 Figure 63 A 39 Scale independent Stream Size 39 Function of I Drainage basin size I Vegetation amount I Climate I Bedrock composition Quantif y or Describe 39 Determine stream39s discharge amount onater that ows past a given point per unit time I Figure 64 I QVA I Q discharge I V velocity I A cross sectional area Sediment Transport 39 Total Load capacity I Bed load stuPF rolling along the bottom I Saltation load bouncing along the bottom I Suspended load floating in the stream I Dissolved load 39 What influences capacity I Function oF discharge I Sediment availability 39 Velocity I Discharge I Gradient the slope of the stream I As discharge increases so does velocity As gradient goes up velocity increases Figure 66 Equilibrium between gradient slowing down and discharge increasing as streams are added to the main stream I Concave up also convex down I Equilibrium Profiles 39 Appalachian concave up I Cutting downward I Filling a stream with sediment 39 Rockies portions are concave up other portions are concave down at the point ofinflection I Some parts are concave down because of uplift I Segments are rubbing against each other I Non equilibrium profiles tectonically active area causes the concave down segments I Competence largest particle a stream can move I Flood Plains 39 Streams don t flow in straight lines I Goes from reasonably straight to meandering over time Figure 69 When the river bends the faster water piles up on the outside and it erodes the river outward cutbanks Slower velocity on the inside sediment is deposited there point bars Eventually makes an ox bow lake or a slough 39 Flood plain is the flat area across which a stream will meander with time I Figure 61 39 Young stream has a narrow floodplain few meanders 39 Vise versa for a mature stream I Flood Events 39 Streams are sized to contain average flow ofwater I Not sized to contain maximum flow 39 Flood is when a channel is no longer big enough to contain the water 39 What influences flood magnitude I Amount of input I Rate of surface run off how quickly can water flow over earth39s surface and get into the stream system I Infiltration rate affected by soil type is water likely to soak into ground and how quickly I ImpermeabIe soil will have low in ltration rate so all the water stays on top oF the ground and moves to the river I Permeable soil is the opposite I Topography I Vegetation I PIants take up Iots onater uptake I Impede movement onater 39 Flood Stage eIevation onater which over ows the channel 39 FIoocI Crest minimum elevation during a flood 39 Upstream Floods I Local I Due to sudden input I Open river below the iIood I Short lived iIood because water drains down stream quickly 39 Downstream Floods regional I Due to protracted input I Entire system is Full 39 Flood Frequency I Scatter plot a Frequency curve I Probability resets every time it floods I 1987 Hundred year really big iIood in Chicago I 1988 another hundred year flood in Chicago 39 Human Impact I Figure 619 I Response oF streams to floods have heightened due to more buildings roads sewers I Dams are efI ective at iIood control I Things we do to reduce roods I Retention Ponds figure 622 designed to work locally and store water temporarily Zoning Levees locally or regionally Coastal Processes 0 Sea level is rising at a rate oF2 mm per year I Because ice caps are melting I And the water expands when heated Rise an Fall oF sea level has occurred throughout history Last ice age was 20000 years ago 8000 years ago things became more constant I Noah39s I The flooding oF the black sea I And agriculturecivilization O In NOLA sea level rising will eat the city 0 O O I Mississippi Delta continues to sink Sediment stays behind once a dam is built Continental Shelve North American east coast has a wide one west coast of South 0 0 America has a narrow one I NA has a passive margin tectonically I SA has one close to it Daily Tides I Due to the attraction of the water to the moon 0 I Tides and Storms 0 Waves I Effective erosion agents via sand and gravel entrained in the wave I Driven by wind and there tends to be a preferred wave direction 39 Therefore there tends to be a consistent direction to long shore currents which transport sediment I Dams and flood control starve beaches of sediment I Waves transmitted through water but the water remains in place I Breakers form when the sea level is shallow enough Rip Tides I Water piles up on the beach during strong shore winds current not a tide 0 New beaches due to rapid change in elevation or local sea level Wave erosion can have considerable effects over a short period of time Sea Stacks Beaches change seasonally Hurricanes in northern hemisphere worst damage to the northeast of the eye Storm events I Major controls on sediment transport I Storm surge Don t do this I Don t build on or in front of dunes 0 What people are doing to try and hold off rising sea levels I Groins figure 716 I Breakwaters figure 717 I Rip rap piling boulders in front of something I Beach Replenishment suction dredge offshore that pump sand onto beach 000000 0 Figure 72 A near shore zone beach face burm the beach dunes plunge step notch in sand between where sand and water meet Moves with tide Figure 78 Causes oflce Age 0 Continental Glaciation Events I Climate has glacial periods and inter glacial warm periods Ice sheet in America has melted Greenland and Antarctica are still there but are receding I When Greenland melts parts ofAmerica will be under water Changes in the sun39s output I Maybe sun pulses I Problem is that we would need to see ten times more variation in output than we believe is possible Super Continent Assembly I We39ll go into an interglacial period I Ifwe put the continents together warm equatorial waters will flow to the poles and they39ll be warmer I Problems I Time scale is wrong I Pangaea got glaciated last time 39 Block incoming Solar Radiation I Volcanic Eruptions calderas would block out rays I Problems I Short lived time scale is wrong 39 Milankovitch Theory handout and figure 916 I 1940s three components I Orbital eccentricity C of figure 916 I Earth39s orbit is not fixed I Sometimes its elliptical sometimes its more spherical I 100000 years between the two I Tilt b of figure 916 I About 21 245 degree angle of tilt I Tilt changes between 21 245 on a regular cycle of about 41000 years I When tilt angle is high we are more directly exposing polar regions to the sun I Most climate change occurs in the poles I Precession a from figure 916 I Change in the orientation of the rotation axis of Earth I When the top is pointed away its protecting the poles I Changes every 23000 years I Problems I This could only force change in temperature 4 5 degrees I Most models say we need to change global temperature 8 10 degrees 39 Greenhouse Effect I Figure 101 I Heat comes through the C02 layer and heats the earth but when its released from earth its trapped by layer of C02 much like the glass in a greenhouse lets light in but doesn t let energy escape 081811 Earth Processes and Environments Internal Structure of the Earth 0 Crust continents granitic ocean crust basalt o Mantle iron rich silicates 0 Core iron and nickel Non Static Nature of Earth 500 250 million years ago Water area shrank and mountains began to form 70 million years ago north America underwater for the most part different continents etc o The earth is extremely non static on a geologic time scale It moves continents form oceans form etc Rock Types 0 Sedimentary Rocks 0 Clastic form via the accumulation compaction and llithification of sediment gt sandstone 0 Chemical form via the precipitation of minerals and subsequent compactionlithification gt Limestone Igneous Rocks Form via the crystallization of ascending molten rock 0 Extrusive outside the volcano gt Volcanic matter 0 Intrusive inside volcano gt Granite Metamorphic Formed when some pre existing rock is subjected to elevated temperature and pressure 0 India and Asia plate tectonics crashed them together created a suture gt HimalayasMt Everest o Rocks that were at the top were subjected to elevated temperature and pressure Relative Time 0 1 Principle of Superposition gt In an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rocks the oldest rocks are on the bottom 0 2 Principle of Original Horizontality gt Sediment is deposited in a flat lying manner gt Sedimentary rocks that are not horizontal have been disturbed gt Applies only to sedimentary rocks Steno Currents 0 Humboldt Current originates in south polar region flows up to the west side oF South America and makes a u turn out toward Pacific I Figure 1014 I Warm water occupies bigger volume so Humboldt current is higher elevation I When it u turns it becomes warm water and flows to western pacific 39 warm water evaporates much quicker I Shuts of every 5 10 years El Nino 39 Stays warm so there39s more evaporation and it abuts the coast so the western coast oF SA experiences massive floods 0 Most climatic changes occur because of oceanic flow Groundwater 0 Figure 111 Where all oF the Earth39s water is Reservoir Percentage oF H Percentage oF Percentage oF Total Water Freshwater UnFrozen Freshwater Oceans 9754 None None Ice 181 739 None l Groundwater 63 257 984 Lakes and 007 None None streams salt Lakes and I 009 36 14 streams Fresh Atmosphere 001 04 2 O Terminology I Figures 113 and 114 I PhreaticSaturated Zone all pores contain water groundwater I Vadoseunsaturatecl Zone pores are not completely filled with water most contain air subsurface water I Water table boundary that separates saturated and unsaturated zone table is not fixed Falls in a drought rises when there39s a lot oF rain 39 Can be anywhere From very close to surface 3 4 Feet down to halF a mile below surface In Georgia water table is visible wherever there39s a stream I Gaining Stream water table is very close to surFace ground water is Flowing and much oF the water in these streams is Flowing in through bottom oF stream bed From the ground water I Losing Stream water table is very deep so the streams have less water in them and as the water Flows it leaks out oF the stream bed the water in the streams is supplied by run 01 From rain I AquiFer vqume oF rock or sediment that can hold and yield enough water to be useFuI to society 39 Unconfinecl AquiFer open to surFace recharges From surFace above entire aquiFer volume Figure 115 I Recharge water goes into an aquiFer I Discharge when water leaves the aquiFer Confined AquiFer recharges only where aquiFer unit breaches surFace Figure 116 Perched like an underground pond that s above the regular saturated zone I Aquiclude same as aquiFer except it cannot hold enough water I Porosity the open space in the subsurFace space in between grains oF sediment 39 In Athens and all around Georgia Athens Gneiss covers everything underneath the Georgia red clay 39 Its not very porous but it has a lot oF Fractures 39 The Fractures Fill up with water when it rains I Permeability how interconnected the open space is I Potentiametric SurFace how high the water will go up in a pipe when the pipe penetrates the saturated zone I Artesian water FIows Freer out on the ground pumped out water From a pipe stuck in the ground to collect ground water Figure 112 I We can use surFace water in the southeast northern CaliFornia Washington and Oregon Consequences oF drawing From an unconfined aquiFer I Water table is drawn down around the we 39 Cone 0F Depression what is created when the water table is drawn down around the pump When the pump is turned o the water table goes back to normal I When multiple wells are drilled cones oF depression become one big cone oF depression Consequences oF drawing From a Confined AquiFer I Potentiametric surFace will drop I Water Mining we39re mining the water Faster than it can recharge 39 In order to have this not happen we have to wean dry Farmers oFFoF their irrigation habits Specific Consequences I Grains are loosely packed with water filling the gaps which provides support For aquifer volume 39 IF the water is pumped out the grains get compacted 39 Compaction is permanent 39 Figure 12 39 Subsidence always Follows compaction I Salt Water Intrusion 39 Exclusively in coastal environments 39 Figure 13 39 Salt water flows into the ground water and sinks to bottom with a Freshwater lens on top because its less dense 39 When we pump the Freshwater lens the water table will drop and the boundary between the salt and Freshwater moves up 39 Eventually the boundary will thin and salt water will be all that s leFt I Loss oF Recharge 39 Only confined aquifer systems 39 IF much oF recharge area is paved there will be less recharge 39 Urbanization is a main Factor 0 Use vs Consumption Table 113 Figure 1124 I Water Use used then put back I Water Consumptions used not put back I Irrigation consumer and Power generation User are main users onater I Only 25 onater drawn For irrigation goes back into the ground 0 How can we extend the supply oF this resource I Conservation I Transfer 39 We move water From one place to another 39 First large scale water transfer started in California Cadillac Desert 39 Their water comes Form the Sierra mountains 10 Colorado river Tamono lake 39 Talk that Columbia and snake rivers are diverted to the bottom oF California 39 Water that Falls in the Sierras goes to Central valley or Los Angeles mostly here because mayor oF Los Angeles bought water rights to much oF the Sierras 39 Transfer is illegal in almost every state I Desalination 39 Boil ocean water to purify it I Very energy intensive way I Used For large numbers oF people in the Middle East 39 Reverse Osmosis I Filtration process I Figure 33 I Passes salt water through a series oF membranes so the end result is Freshwater I Some cities and towns use R0 to extend their supply Tampa Bay FL Soil 0 Weathering bedrock is weathered to produce soil I Soil is an insiteau process its Formed in place I Soil is unconsolidated rock particles no transport I Two Processes 39 Mechanical processes any process that will break the bedrock up I Freeze Thaw iF there39s a crack at the surface and it gets water in it and Freezes it expands and crack the rock apart 39 Chemical processes rain water eats away at the bedrock and creates solid byproducts 0 Soil Profiles I Figure 125 I Boundaries between Fresh rock and weathered rock goes Farther down as it gets older I Soil profiles have zones 39 Bedrock lowest 39 Weathered Bedrock above bedrock actively getting broken down chemically 39 Zone oFAccurnulation D horizon dissolved materials are carried downward by water 39 Zone of Leaching E horizon accumulation oFiron aluminum and clay leeched down From the E horizon 39 Organic material with rock and mineral Fragments 39 Lawn 0 ErosionETS I Average agricultural land 04 cmyear I Average soil generation rate on that plot oFland 006 cmyear I Wind and water are greatest Factors in erosion Minerals 0 Eight elements comprise more than 98 0F Earth39s crust I Potassium sodium calcium aluminum silicon oxygen iron magnesium I Ore deposits have an unusual concentration oF some element 0 Figure 13 shows where we get certain minerals FOREIGN POLICY I Resources explain our country39s involvement in the world I South Africa Platinum Chromium and Magnesium 0 Environmental impact I Mining 39 USA has legislated mining out oF existence O 39 Bingham Copper deposit in Utah Largest open pit mine in the world visible From space Ore Deposits I A volume oF rock that contains some eIements in high enough concentration such that it can be mined at a profit I Concentration Factor CF concentration of element in depositconcentration oF element in average crust 39 Cu 006 Sn 2 ppm Au 4 ppb 39 Inverse relationship between CF and average crustal abundance as crustal abundance goes up CF goes down Ore Forming Processes I Igneous occurs within magma 39 Bushvelcl Complex South Africa I Density segregation within magma chamber I 200 km wide 10 km deep I There are internal layers that are laterally continuous across the entire intrusion These layers are meters 1039s oF meters thick in the vertical dimension I Composed almost exclusively oF Cr203 39 Kimberlite Pipes diamonds come From the mantle and go up through the Kimberlite pipes Igneous I Magnetic Segregation I All refer to heated fluids circulating the earth Hydrothermal I Epithermal MineraIs that come up very close to surface gold and silver I Skarns I m crackspathways that have water always circuIating that deposit mineraIs eventuaIIy are so filled that the path is closed I Porphries cracks in the U Let me visualize this cartoon For you You ve got the standard landscape with a tree on the right side Deep underground there is an intrusion that is 650 centigrade It s like an upside down U filled with magma Fairly Iarge Probably around 5 km deep shaIIow Magma has lots onater in it when the magma crystaIIizes the water coIIects There is an H20 arrow above the U On both sides there are semi circIe circuIations starting the From top oF the land and ending parallel to the big arrow This causes steam and hot water to rise the From surface example YELLOWSTONE THIS IS A HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM I Water on the IeFt loop is dilute however water at the apex of the U is rich in minerals It39s a mineraIizer I Reason You can39t dissolve a lot in cold water but you can in hot water I As fluids ascend From top oFU they are cooling so solubility goes down Pressure Fluids are depressurizing on ascent they will boil I IF boil the liquid away the remaining liquid will be supersaturated I The U starts screaming quotI m Fracturingquot as it cools and it contracts and millions oF cracks appear Then more fluid circulates through and deposit some more mineralz I Some Fractures above you and then PSH OOO Yellowstone type deal I So these crackspathways that have water always circulating that deposit minerals eventually are so filled that the path is closed These are called VEINS I High grade low tonnage Vein Dep Cu Pb Zn I Low grade High tonnage Porphyry deposit porphrys are the cracks in the U I Epithermal Minerals that come up very close to surface gold and silver I Now there is a lime stone bed perpendicularly hitting the U Precipitate a bunch oFstuiT and those are skarns Mid ocean ridge Hydrothermal vents are created massive sulfide deposit Weathering I Laterites lots oF trees Rain Forest Pretty tropical Very wet Very Warm Constantly bombarding the ground surface with water at a pretty good temperature all the time This soil profile is deeply weathered Soil is going to get thicker and thicker The stuiTleFt behind is the stufF that wouldn t dissolve Such as Fe OH and Al OOH and NiOHZ I This means we concentrate stuiTwe might be interested in not by adding it but by weathering everything else away Extending the supply I Conservation dif cult I Substitution EX metal to plastic I Recycling huge impacts in many difFerent ways 39 Easy Al cans Pb Car Batter Cu wirepipe 39 Hard Cars Refrigerator 0 Mining 0 As reserves dwindle prices go up I Formerly noneconomic concentrations become economic I Gold 39 Bonanzaszdisseminated O Impacts oF Mining I Visual 39 Big hole in ground 39 Infrastructure I Chemical 39 AMD Acid Mine Drainage pyrite FeSZ comes out oF mining hole goes up and lands on a pile Oil and Gas Tailings Piles pile that pyrite Forms Water comes down and mixes with pyrite and makes sulfuric acid Runs oiTinto local streams Solubility oF metals increases while pH decreases 0 Figure 141 142 0 Hydrocarbons compounds made up oF hydrogen and carbon I Liquid Form petroleum I Gaseous Form natural gas 0 Hydrocarbon deposits I Accumulation We must accumulate a lot oF organic material In Marine basins Two sources oF deposit I Terrestrial slides down From shore I Oceanic Microorganisms are the main stuiT that s accumulated Creates shale I Preservation We must protect it by burying it quickly to prevent oxidation I Maturation Breakdown large complex organic molecules into smaller simpler organic molecules We can do this by heating it up Compaction and burial make pressure and temperature go up Figure 143 Thermal Window iFyou heat it too much it will be cooked away I Window is One Million years I Hydrocarbon must migrate From shale Source rock to porous permeable rocks Reservoir Rocks because shale is very impermeable I Oil has a tendency to migrate to earth39s surface Oil Seep nothing gets in oil39s way in its ascension and the oil will seep out oF the surface Oil Trap something stops the oil From ascending and it pools in an oil trap Figure 144 I One barrel oFoil 42 gallons I Global Consumption since 1900 425 billion barrels I Current global reserve 1 trillion I Global Consumption 1980 2006 230 billion barrels I We import more oil From Canada than anywhere else Figure 145 I US uses 77 billion barrels per year I Indicated reserve 80 billion barrels I Proven reserve 20 billion barrels I ANWR I GulFo Arctic National Wildlife Refuge In Northern Alaska We want the trans Alaska pipeline system to go through Prudhoe Bay where the oil is but we39d have to go through ANWAR Figure 14 32 billion barrels in Alaska iFits 20 a barrel IFits 40 a barrel then there is 68 billion barrels At this date ANWR reserves is probably about 10 12 billion barrels 100barrel Should we develop ANWR State oF AlaskaOil Companies I We39ll become energy independent JobsM Minimum environmental impact Environmentalists Only a year or two oF oil in ANWAR Major environmental impact bad argument M opinion not a terribly convincing argument Environmental impact I Misleading pictures oFANWR shown by environmentalists I Pictures shown were oF pretty mountains an meadows The place where we39d be drilling would be water logged with a lot oF mosquitoes and no vegetation Pipeline would Fuck up the caribou39s travels This was absolutely not true The caribou can walk under the pipe FMexico Situation Occurred because oFa fire on the rig BP had prior knowledge oF some issues on the ship Oil spill was very preventable Humans are going to great lengths to get oil 6 7 disaster as a result oF mining For oil I Future Predictions M King Hubert geologist who published a prediction onroduction levels globally figure 147 Predicted peak oF global production would be about 2000 Most people agree with him I Consequences oF low oil supplies Massive increase in oil prices 39 Production has already peaked so we39 produce less and less and it39 just keep getting more expensive I Extending the Supply 39 Enhanced Recovery I We only get about 13 of oil in a reservoir out by pumping I Think oF sponge beer and you try to suck up the beer From a straw but you don39t get a the liquid cause oF permeability We can probably get another 13 by steam and soap or dynamite I Terms 39 Secondary Recovery pumping it out oF ground 39 Tertiary Recovery soap and steam and dynamite recovery 39 Primary Recovery oi comes gushing out oF ground I Other Hydrocarbon sources 39 Oi Shaies shale that has about 1 kerogen wax I Lots oFoii shale around I Really has very little oil in it I Environmental impact vast strip mine deposits I Energy intensive 39 Tar Sand poorly consolidated sedimentary rocks I There39s a lot oFit I Also energy intensive I Most oFit is in Canada Other Means oF Energy Production 0 Coal I Forms in terrestrial swampy environment 39 Lots oF organic material 39 Swamps are reducing as opposed to oxidizing 39 Maturation 39 Figure 1414 I Anthracite highest heat I Lignite iowest heat 39 Figure 1415 I USA has about 13 oF the world39s coai I 12 oFour coal is the high grade stuiT Anthracite and bituminous I Reserves measured I World reserves is about1 triiiion tons I Resource guesstimated I 10 trillion tons 39 Coal could provide For the next couple oF hundred oFyears I Positives 39 abundant O I Risk Assessment Nuclear Principle greenhouse source I Acid rain gas H2804 sulfuric acid Not versatile I Won39t work on planes or automobiles because it is a solid Dirty solid waste ash I Disposal issue I Uranium Thorium Cadmium Bismuth etc I Metal rich Huge environmental impact due to extraction I Mountain top removal in Kentucky I Figure 1418 Issues I ChinaIndia I Industrial Revolutions starting now I No care For climate change I Politics vs Science I Political vested interest I Data I Electric cars I They said the cars didn39t emit C02 but the electricity they use does oF deathsmillion oF people I 26 Accidents I 26 is estimated long term e ects to human health I What is not factored in is what happens iFwe change climate I Mining is major accident Factor Figure 152 I Figure 1510 I We have centuries oF uranium leFt I 2 types oF nuclear reactions Fission reaction I Nucleus oF atom is broken apart I Makes several smaller nuclei I Releases energy Fusion I Combine smaller nuclei into one larger nucleus and release energy We use fission reactions Figure 153 I SelF sustaining I Radioactivity Unstable isotopes oF uranium will spontaneously Fission or we can make it Fission by shooting it with a neutron I Dangers oF Fission Reaction 39 Reactor core Fuel rods 30 40 Ft long uranium 235 U rods we must enrich them in order to get enough energy out oF them Water I Neutron mediation I thermal neutrons ones that break up atoms Fast neutrons Some are going too Fast and would go right through the U 235 Water slows Fast neutrons down so the chain reaction is easier to drive Transfer heat water is used to collect the energy I We capture the heat onater and run a turbine with it I Control rods they are the brakes they make the reaction subside I lee want to slow reaction we drop them down I lee want it sped up we raise them I Risk Assessment 39 oF deathsmillion people 39 Accidents I Japan nuclear plant Most deaths have to do with the harnessing or mining oF nuclear energy I Neutron Moderation where we slow Fast neutrons down aFFected by water I Neutron Poisoning brakes I Accidents Chernobyl 7 I Bad technology Graphite control rods I Graphite is Flammable They were supposed to run a test that got postponed to the night shiFt C team Temperatures got so high in core water was lost and steam explosions occurred Graphite control rods then caught on Fire 1000s oF people with radiation poison 39 M three mile island 3 Better technology control rods are metallic or AglnCd or B or I Human error is main cause I Overheating in core Computer told scientists about the overheating 3 times but it was overridden Cooling water low radiation was sent to another building not able to sustain it I Screwed up US nuclear power plants For 30 years I Only one where no radiation escaped 39 Fukushima 7 I Better technology I Tsunami I Nuclear reactors aren39t able to work underwater I Couldn39t drop control rods back into place I Core overheated and exploded I Highly radioactive cooling water got away I Human error is that they put the nuclear plant on a convergent plate I 20 30 people died 39 You can never eliminate human error I Advantages 39 No carbon Footprint 39 Doesn39t produce C02 39 Plentiful 39 hot I Disadvantages 39 Hard to operate safely 39 Waste disposal I Huge quantities oF radioactive solid waste Fuel rods I Underground dry storage in Yucca mountain Nevada I Most oF our nuclear reactors are east oF the Mississippi I How do we transport them safely Alternatives 0 Figures 1525 and 15 0 Solar I Enough sun hits the earth to take care oF all oF our energy needs 39 Problem is that its spread out evenly across the earth so unless we put a big lens in space we can39t harness all oFit I Sun doesn39t always shine I Its hard to store the energy I Passive 39 Individual home basis super insulated 39 Winter collect sun during day reradiate it at night 39 Summer collect cool night air close up at dawn 39 Can use this along with a little electricity I Active 39 1513 C 39 RooF top dark panels heat and circulate hot HZO I Solar Thermal 39 Larger scale collect sun Focus heat HZO 39 Every mirror is computer controlled and tracks the sun 39 Mirrors reFlect light to a central point I Solar Electric 39 Directly convert sunlight into electricity 39 45 50 emciency now 0 Solar Electric Panels I Low emciency little energy 40 50 gets through the panel I Storage drawback For Solar electric and thermal I Can only make energy when sun shines Figure 1517 Hydrogen Cells use energy to drive endothermic reaction that separates Hydrogen and Oxygen in a water molecule I We store them separately From one another I Pump water From a low spot to a high spot I Then at night water Flows down and spins turbines I Site specific I Seattle will never be able to have solar power because its so cloudy I Panels contain toxic chemicals disposal is hard Geothermal technology 0 Figure 1518 0 Artificial convection at a hot spot 0 Site specific I Only can occur on Faults I New Zealand Japan and Iceland are good at it 0 Finite supply 30 years 0 Geoexchanger diFFerent way to harness geothermal check handout I Saves 30 70 on heating 20 50 on cooling I Water under earth is constantly about 30 50 degrees I Keep heater thing inside the house and use ground water to quotjacketquot it and keep it warm so the heater won t Freeze Hydroelectric O 6 onorld s energy From hydroelectric O 3 oF US energy 0 Positives I No C02 I No Floods O Negatives I Environmental impact I Dams suck I Starvation oF oodplains I Fish I Aesthetics I Droughtclimate patterns I Site specific I Finite life time sediment piies up the side oF the dam and will get into the turbines Tidal Power 0 Figure 1526 Site specific Aiiow water during low tide to ll the estuary up above generating system At high tide close a the gates At base there are turbines which water is Forced through Energy is created No C02 Negatives I Fish get caught in the estuary and can only get out through turbines which will chop them up OOOOOOO Wind 0 Site specific I Figure 1528 Turbine on top onindmi that generates energy Positives I No COZ I Land underneath turbines is not taken out oF circulation O Negatives I Site specific I Noise I Not aesthetically pleasing O O BioFueis O Ethanol corn I Switch grass 0 Takes energy to convert these into a liquid Fuel 0 Converting waste material into energy 0 C02 involved Waste Disposal 0 46 lbs oF solid wastepersonday 135 gallons oFiiquid wastepersonday Figures l6123 Solid Waste I Open dumps 39 Illegal in America 39 In the process oF cleaning them up 000 O I Sanita ry land lls Everything that gets dumped gets buried daily At base there is a layer oF clay to prevent liquids leeching into local groundwater system PVC membrane on top oF clay that is totally impermeable Permeable layer then impermeable layer garbage Another permeable layer and another membrane Dirtgrass Pump waste capability Vent gas I Methane Monitoring system I Wells to make sure there39s no seepage oFliquids Space issues I Nimby big reason we can39t get new landfills I Athens Clarke County and regional planning commission were trying to find a new place For a landfill I Had to I Evaluate geologic issues I Engineering issues I Community issues I Counties I Madison Jackson Oconee Oglethorpe Clarke Barrow I There are no sights For new lan I Eastern US is having problems finding places to put landfills I Ocean dumping 1981 EPA quotmost promising technologyquot I Incineration Drawbacks I Generates COZ I Some waste cannot be destroyed 39 Positives I Good way to reduce volume Liquid Waste I Industrial Less voluminous more toxic Old Way Dilution I Issue I There are many compounds that are so toxic it doesn39t matter how diluted it gets its still toxic Contain and Bury I Figure 1618 I Sent to high level waste disposal Facility and buried


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.