EARTH PROC & ENVIR
EARTH PROC & ENVIR GEOL 1121
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This 64 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabina Okuneva on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1121 at University of Georgia taught by Schroeder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/202258/geol-1121-university-of-georgia in Geology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
GEOLOGY 1121 EXTRA CREDIT FIELD TRIPS FALL 2009 WHERE GEORGIA PIEDMONT OR GEORGIA COAST GEORGIA PIEDMONT SUNDAYS October 4 Or November 15 800 AM 600 PM GEORGIA COAST October 16 October 18 Friday Afternoon 200 PM Sunday Evening 600 PM EXTRA CREDIT VALUE ADDED TO FINAL COURSE GRADE GEORGIA PIEDMONT UP TO 3 POINTS GEORGIA COAST UP TO 5 POINTS REGISTRATION FEES GEORGIA PIEDMONT 50 For Transportation and Picnic Lunch GEORGIA COAST 85 For Transportation and Two Nights Lodging REGISTRATION NON REFUNDABLE NON TRANSFERABLE DETAILS GEORGIA COAST Friday Depart campus and drive to Jekyll Island Night at Jekyll Island 4 H Center SATURDAY Beach Traverses on Jekyll Island TOPICS OF STUDY PRQCESSES WILDLIFE SALT MARSH CHARACTER MARSH VALUES mgt ltgtm mm0r0mlt 20Hltgton mzzo Qzltm SUNDAY MORNING BEACH TRAVERSES ON ST SIMONS ISLAND TOPICS OF STUDY ER SI N AND PEQPLE BEACH STABILIZATIQNw GEORGIA COASTAL LAWS ENJOY THE BEACH SUNDAY AFTERNOON RETURN TO ATHENS GEORGIA PIEDMONT Depart Sunday at 800 AM Six Excursion Stops GEOLOGY OF GEORGIA DIGITAL DATA EXPLANATION DIGITAL DATA 3 m G R 0 E G F O Vn C 0 L 0 E G GEOLOGY OF GEORGIA DIGITAL DATA EXPLANATION u TOPICS OF STUDY EXAMINE THE TYPES F GEQRGIA GRANITE Hzagmmgu mmp m Egg bZmm bwm W QZW GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF GRANITE INTRUWSION 39 39 1 GRANITE WEATHERING VI R T S U D N I E T I N A R G A I G R O E G E H T GRANITE PROCESSING POLISHING OF GRANITE FABRICATION OF GRANITE PRODUCTS E Uk v I RQWHE NTA L IMP GRANITE INDUSTRY INVESTIGATION OF REGIONAL PLATE TECTONICS GEOLOGY OF GEORGIA DIGITAL D EXPLANATION MAJOR PIEDMONT ROCK TYPES mltn 52 no gtQm I D a n r v f r L EH N wg teH HY LCN RETURN TO CAMPUS 600 PM GEOL 1121 Auust 18 2009 H V39LM wl u w quot1 i Geology 200A 600 pm o Geologists observe and measures rock layers that are parallel and horizontal Within each layer particles are uniform in size 0 Hypothesis 1 Sediment transported and deposited by a glacier I Visit a modern glacier o Hypothesis 2 Sediment transported and deposited by wind I Look at a sand dune a modern windborne sediment o Hypothesis 3 Sediment transported and deposited in water I Look at a modern 0 Earth History Geologic time 0 Logic ofSequence o 1669 Stenos Laws 1 Principle ofHorizontality This principle states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally 2 Principle 0f5uperp05iti0n has to do with the order in which events occur The older rocks are on the bottom and the younger rocks are on top Principle ofLateraloriginal continuity Ifyou see a sequence of rocks and go five miles away and see the exact same sequence then they are deposited at the same time Cross cutting relation you have 2 identical structures that have been moved along a fault line You have different events and the 4th event is a fault CBA drawing from class We can deduce earth sequences by looking at cross cutting relations 5 Faunal succession Fossil assemblages occur only once in true time A 1 4 and 5 are not part of Stenos Laws 0 1785 James Hutton father of geology o quotThe present is the key to the past 0 The physical world operated the same millions ofyears ago as it does today August 20 2009 Lesson 2 geolpdf 0 Minerals C waters 5 o Isotopes same element with different s of protonsneutrons thus a different mass 0 Ion charge atom or molecule 0 Anion negatively charged atom o Cation positively charged atom molecule 0 Chemical Bonding o Ionic Bond if you have a cation and an anion that are near each other with little electron orbitals they are attracted to each other by 2i 0 Metallic bonding Fe Cu Cr Special case ofbonding only with things with large amounts of bonding The electrons travel through the atoms 0 Van der Waals bonds very weak 0 Hydrogen Bond Only involves hydrogen bonds Very weak because Hydrogen only has 1 proton o What is a mineral 1 Solid 2 Naturally occurring syntheticman made 3 Has a generally fixed composition a Examples graphite C quartz SiOz Feldspar KAISi308 4 Internal repeating order makes it shiny a The atoms inside are lined up in a particular fashion 5 Inorganic Ice H20 Diamond C Graphite C Quartz SiOz Teeth are made of minerals I Amorphous glassy o Biominerals process by which living organisms produce minerals often to harden or stiffen existing tissues I Examples sea shells egg shells kidney stones coral o Controlled factory like sea shells are examples 0 Induced consequences ofmetabolism 0 Mineral cleavage The splitting or tendency to split ofa crystallized substance along definite crystalline planes yielding smooth surfaces 0 Perfect cleavage is the breakage along atomic planes in a crystal 0 Polymorphs means many shapes Quiz on Tuesday August 25 2009 Lesson 3 Geology Slides 0 Rock Forming Minerals 0 Top 20 km of the surface I 47 weight is made of Oxygen 0 0 Volume is roughly 97 28 weight is Silicon Si 8 weight is Aluminum Al 0 Si and A1 are right beside each other on the periodic table 5 is Iron Fe 4 is Calcium Ca 3 Sodium Na 3 is Potassium K 2 is Magnesium Mg All Minerals are classified b the 1 o Isomorphous substitution ions of similar size occupy same size in a mineral SILICATES common minerals Subgroun GeometrV SiO Example 1 Isolated 14 Olivine 2 Single Chain 13 Pyroxene 90 deg Cleavage 3 Double Chain 311 Amphibole 60120 deg Cleavag 439 Sheet MiClI 1 direction ofperf Cleavage booklike 5 Framework 12 Quartz SiOz Planes in a crystal Feldspar Single chain shares one corner double shares 2 etc Rock assemblage of1 or more minerals August 27 o Igneous Rocks rock formed when molten or partially molten material called magma cools and solidifies o Sedimentary Rock rock composed of geologically reworked materials 0 Metamorphic Rock type of rock formed when rocky material experiences intense heat and pressure in the crust of the earth 2009 Minerals basis for classifying minerals is by the dominant anion group 0 Silicates see previous notes 0 Non Silicates I CaCOg Calcite o httpitechdickinsoneduchemistrywp contentuploads200804mco3polpngNon silicates I Aragonite the difference between this and Calcite is it s arrangement 0 CaC039C02 CaO Lime I Borates 0 Example Borax which is used in cleaning products I Halite 0 NaCl I Native Elements elements that occur naturally and organize themselves in a repeating order 0 Gold silver copper graphite 0 Used in electronics industry I Phosphates 0 Bones and teeth and made out of phosphates 0 Used for fertilizer I Sulfate o Sulphor S04 0 Used in dry wall I Sulfide o Sulphor is the dominant anion group 0 Pyrite fools gold 0 Metal ores 0 Georgia Minerals I Study Rankings and Georgia Statistics 0 Lesson 4 figures 827 I Barite is a sulphite mineral o Barium is used to clear out your intestines I Kaolin is used as a filler in plastics computers medical uses diahrea to dry poison ivy and also used in paper 0 It is a at microscopic material 0 It is white September 1 2009 September 1 Figures 0 The age of the earth 0 Greeks I 470 BC recognize fossils marine fossils 0 Therefore the Earth is of Great Age 0 Early philosophers believe that there is no beginning or end to the earth I 450 BC Herodotis quotGift of the Nile o Noticed thousands of Earth layers and justified that the earth had to be 1000 s of years old 0 Age of Theologians I 15 00 AD Theologians did a family tree 0 They went to the book of Genesis and started counting back generations I 1654 AD Archbishop Ussher 9 am October 26 4004 BC 0 He came up with this by counting back generations 0 Age of Physics I 1779 AD French guy named Buffon who studied cannonballs o The average temperature of the Earth is 16 degrees C or 61 F o By studying cannonballs he came up with 75000 years by using the cannonballs cooling rate 0 Buffon messed up because he had a heating lamp I 1854 AD Kelvin said the Earth is 20 millions ofyears old I 1896 AD We discover Radioactivity the spontaneous decay of atoms I 1899 AD Ioly selfaccumulation in the oceans o Came up with the Earth s age as 90 million years 0 Age of Geologists I Geoloists develo ed the eologic column o Precambrian earliest geologic period I There is a point in Geologic time where there is no evidence is visible life 0 Phanerozoic means visible life 0 Geologic Column I Paleozoic Means ancient life I Mesozoic Means middle life I Cenozoic Means new life I Decay Law states that the rate of decay P is proportional to the number of parents present 1905 AD Rutherford suggests Boltvvood did the test on a rock with radiogenic stuff in it and published the first radiometric rock date He discovers that the Earth is billions of years old September 3 2009 September 1 and 3rd figures starts at page 27 o Igneous Rock 0 Magma molten rock sub surface 0 Lava molten rock surface 0 Ways to melt a rock 1 Heat initial heat of formation a Radioactive elements 2 Pressure Pressure change is another way to melt a rock 3 Add water lowers melting temperature lowers crystallization temperature a As temperature drops the silicates begin to polymerize organize themselves in a certain way i Extrusive When the rate of cooling is f the ability for the tetrahedral to organize themselves into organized arrays is very disorganized so the crystal is H ii Intrusive ifwe cool it fl 7 the crystals are September 3 figures TeXtural connotations o Phaneritic quotseequot crystals unaided eye course grained Bowen s Reaction Series 0mg llagnmtic Differentiation Bun eu39s Reaction SE39I39iE i j E Tdcc 139 CIUI39IZ Fm 423 See hand notes There are so few silicate tetrahedral in the lava that they have trouble connecting resulting in low viscosity resistance to ow Stratovolcanoe A volcano composed of alternating layers of lava and ash September 8 2009 o Volcanoes September 15 2009 Chapters 7 8 and 10 Plate Tectonics Lesson 7 Figures 915 0 Weathering 0 Mechanical Weathering I Abrasion movement of water air and ice I Earthquakes I Masswasting the movement of rocks due to gravity Occurs on all scales to very slow 9 very fast Most that occurs on Earth is very slow An avalanche would be very fast 0 Very slow 99999999999Very Fast 0 Creep slumps avalanche I Humans construction agriculture I Frost wedging when there are cracks in rocks and water gets into it The water then freezes and expands and causes the rock to break apart Water 9 Ice 10 volume for expanding 0 Roots wedging salts o Joints are the terms we use for cracks in rocks I Exfoliation remove or shed outer layer 0 Heating and cooling of rocks I H20 C02 9 H2C03 Carbonic Acid I H2C03 9HHydrogen acid HC03 Bicarbonate I H209 H Acid OH Base we alkaline 7 10 y household lye 3 9 bleach 12D ammonia l1 0 1 2 0 90 egg whh E II i sea water SluVlZTl 39lil l 0039 water g p v 7 u if dastulled Wale 50 pun ram agg yolks 5 a beer 9 a D orange Juice lckle arccessin p F g 3 0 i Vlr EgCuf lemon Mch i 2 u 1 u holler acid September 17 2009 o CHEMICAL WEATHERING 0 Without water there would be no weathering I A steep slope weathers quickly I Unjointed rock weathers slowly I Bacterial activity can promote chemical weathering Resistant quartzite knob weathers slowly I Deforestation accelerates weatherini and erosion 0 Rain C02 9 Carbonic Acid o RespirationPhotosynthesis I Organics 02 9 GCOz H20 As ground water perpulates through dirt it becomes more acidic It s pH level goes from 55 to 4 Factors important to chemical weathering I Parent Rock 0 Bowen s Reaction Series Easy to dissolve at the top and Hard to dissolve at the bottom 0 Isolate Olivine 0 Single chain pyroxene 0 Double chain amphiboles 0 Sheets mica Climate temperature rain snow Topography If we have a slope we also have a regolith which is a blanket ofweathered material A regolith is made up ofa combination of the products ofweathering I Vegetation Biota I Time September 22 2009 September 22 figures LOOK AT THIS Sedimentary Rocks rocks that are derived by broken pieces that have been transported by either wind water or ice and deposited o Sediment transported by wind water or ice and deposited o The ability for water to trans u ort de u ends on its environmental energy 0 O 0 Types ofSedimentary Rocks 0 Black layers are rich in reduced iron 0 Red la ers are rich in oxidized iron 0 White layers are rich in silica 1000 sooa 100 50 10 01 I llllll Velocny cmsec lllll 05 01 above fall velocity 39 lt C 0 Deposntlon below fall velocity 1 lransporta tion 9 ltlt Illllll Clay l lllllll O 0001 l Jll llllllll I Illllll 10 10 100 grain size mm oarse material particle Silt Sand o Clastic broken pieces Sediment formed from fragmented rock and mineral debris Produced by weathering and erosion Described by particle shape angularity and size The below chart shows what each particle turns into when lithified o Sediment 9 sedimentary rocks Clay 9 shale sometimes called mudstone Silt 9 siltstone sometimes called mudstone 0 Clay and Silt can be carried by air Sand 9 sandstone Gravel 9 Conglomerate Lithification the processes by which loose sediment is transformed into sedimentary rock 0 Compaction Gets pressed together because of reduction ofpore space Cementation Substances dissolved in pore water precipitate out and form a matrix in which grains of sediments are joined together 0 Quartz SiOz Calcite CaCOg Hematite Fe2 03 Ways to sort rocks they are distinguished by size Well sorted they pretty much all look the same size Poorly sorted they look different sizes some being big while others are small quotl 0 Water on the moon Water comes in 3 forms 9 in on or near in pore spaces I The water on the moon has been found quotinquot the rocks It acts like a solid when it is in something 0 Chemical Sediment Sediment formed by the precipitation of minerals dissolved in lake water river water or seawater I Shallow seawater evaporation causes dissolved salts to precipitate I Comes about by dissolution and precipitation salts 0 Refer to these things as evaporates Formed by the evaporation of lake water or seawater followed by lithification of the resulting salt deposit 0 Halite NaCl 0 Gypsum dry wall 0 35 of ocean water is salt Think of example of Mediterranean Sea and evaporation where Halite and Gypsum is made 0 Biogenic sediment Sediment that is primarily composed of plant or animal remains I Shells bones teeth I Wood roots leaves 0 Calcium and Bicarbonate are owing in the ocean Coccolith and Foram eXtract these minerals to make their shells Their shells are a NWT 3 137 339 w an 1 mm393 These things which are made of calc1um ate die and fall to the bottom of the ocean and form minerals such as limestone o Lignite 9 coal I Graded bedding is how you can tell which way is up on a rock The coarse grains are on bottom while the fine grains are on to because they settle last I all the physical and chemical conditions present at the time of formation A facies is a distinctive rock unit that forms under certain conditions of sedimentation re ecting a particular process or environment 0 Se tember 29 2009 solid to liquid 1 The increase in pressure causes ice to undergo a phase transformation from Pressure MPa Region of diagenesis no in the cru I 30 Temperature C 200 400 600 x a m 0 N 0 Depth km Minerals respond to pressure and temperature conditions 0 Zone of Diagenesis 0 Normal Geothermal Gradient It gets hotter as we go down in the earth 0 Foliation Under pressure stressforce Minerals tend to crystallize and grow in a perpendicular structure The layers we see in a rock tend to grow in a perpendicular order because they are under stress Protolit prior rock type Proto Other Meta Rock Limestone CaCO3 9 Marble CaCO3 Basalts 9 Amphibolites Honfel 0 Shock Metamorphism o Occurs by I Impacts I Volcanic Athens is built upon the A THENS GNEISS Exam 2 Study figures gone over in class and in book Plate tectonics will not be on it Metamorphism Contact BurialRegional Diagenesis model Silt clay gt mud gt shale gt slate gt phyllite gtschist Cementation compaction crystallization Monomineral Cementation o Silica Si02 Quartz
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