EARTH PROC & ENVIR
EARTH PROC & ENVIR GEOL 1121
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabina Okuneva on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1121 at University of Georgia taught by A.Patino-Dou in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/202259/geol-1121-university-of-georgia in Geology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
explain how the universe and our solar system were formed big bang theory all matter compressed into something a few millimeters across around 12 to 14 billion years ago Stars formed from debris of the big bang by gravity pulling them together Our solar system formed by rotating cloud of gas and dust discuss the processes that led to the different composition and internal structure of the planets in our solar system particularly Earth with its unique atmosphere and oceans depended on how close they are to the sun the closer the more dense material such as metallic iron the farther the more lower temperature minerals such as water methane and ammonia Earth was at once very hot and mostly melted so dense materials sank while lighter materials floated to the top Minerals that contained water and other gases released them during heating and melting which cooled the earth s surface then condensed to form oceans Core mostly iron and nickel Inner core solid outer molten mantle of iron magnesium silicon and oxygen thin crust explain the latest theory about the origin of the moon The big whack a large body the size of about mars collided with the earth after core differentiation occurred on the Earth Therefore the impactor was destroyed and caused extensive heating and melting on earth ejecting vaporized minerals into space that came from the mantle It then accreted to form the moon I the life forms that appear in each of the eras see the Phanerozoic Time Scale in Table A 1 Appendix A of Montgomery Blue green algae appeared and turned the carbon dioxide into oxygen Rich in nitrogen and carbon dioxide at firstthen animals without hard teeth or skeletons or anything about 1 billion years ago 550 million years ago came marine animals with shells Fish were first animlas with backbones Then early land plants 400 million years ago Insects 300 million years agoThen reptiles and amphibiansThen dinosaurs and mammals 200 millionBirds 150 million years ago Oldest human remains 3 to 4 million ago Rational humans homo sapiens half a million ago apply the principles of relative dating to reconstruct the geologic history of an area Principle of Superposition pointed out that in an undisturbed pile of sediments or sedimentary rocks those on the bottom were deposited first followed in succession by the layers above them ending with the youngest on top Principle of Original Horizontality was based on the observation that sediments are deposited in approximately horizontal flatlying layers Principle or law of crosscutting Relationships The hotter igneous rock may have baked morp osed preexis ing roc s imme iately adjacen to it so again the igneous rock ust have come second If there are other pieces of rocks in the igneous rock they were picked up by the invading magma so they predate the host rock Principle of Inclusion Law of Faunal Succession through time lifeforms change figure A6 old ones disappear from and new ones appear In the fossil record but the same form is never exactly duplicated at two different times in history Uniformitarianism the processes of the past are the same as the present so much can be learned about how rocks were formed by looking at how thet are currently formed This DO S NOT mean that the rate at which the processes occur is the same as in the past 0 describe how the halflife of natural radioactive isotopes can be used to assess the absolute age of a rock and the event it represents When they discovered radioactive decay it helped to calculate the ago of the earth Half life and exponential decay in realtion to radioactive materials 0 explain the geologic time scale and the basis of its division into units of different rank Ears Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic Into periods and then epochs Table A1 Yhe Phanem me Scale Em Period spun sun of Interim Distinctive Lila Farms Holocene i modern humans Quaternary Plaisretene 2 SinnerAge humans Pliocene S Miocene 24 flowering plans mmmmi Oligacerle 27 ancestral pigapes Eocene SE ancestral imrses alliz Cenozoic Tertiary Paleocene 55 Cretaceous iAA zlirmsaursbemme exllncljllowerihg pianrsappear Manic 208 birch mammals aPDEar Mesozoic Triassic 245 uiimsauis rim modernmralsappear i m risecfreplll ibl n5 Carboniferous 360 cuai foxeslszfrslrepliie wingedinsecls i AGE rim amphibians U Silurian 435 First ian iarits coral reefs Ordovician 505 first fisixiike vcrt bra Paleozoic Cambrian 57a rim widespread fossils o explain how the scientific method works and the scope of scientific work in geology
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