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by: Elna Nader
Elna Nader
GPA 4.0


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Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elna Nader on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GENE 3200 at University of Georgia taught by Bedell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/202262/gene-3200-university-of-georgia in Genetics (Graduate Group) at University of Georgia.

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Popular in Genetics (Graduate Group)


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Date Created: 09/12/15
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branchpmm Emsznsus szquzncz ms am the Ar m the 539 m 339 Mann mm m can 5 a Musznsz a Dnzammbamd mangzd thanbchzrammb and Ebnszrvanvz a submmnm haschz saw u gmup Nantbnszrvanvz a subsmmmn nasa Mmm x grbup Nansznsz a ammbamd Endbn mangzdma mp Endbn Suz t a n manga m ammb am lnvzrsmn a yams swltnhzd Framaanun 152mm Dr Aaxannn altzrsrza mg iramz many agmzms wm d EDmE mm ark mmm Enzymz thzrrmm H mm nghb wamanyba a Mn a ganmEnumbzriound EXAM 3 PCR primers 0 Forward primer is 539 to 339 on top Reverse primer is 539 to 339 on bottom Circular form of lambda DNA will have less fragments than the linear form DNA sequencing reactions 0 Newly synthesized is just reading up from the bottom 539 to 339 0 Template is opposite reading up from the bottom Hierarchical shotgun approach is used to screen a genomic library Fluorescent in situ hybridization FISH is NOT a common technique used to screen a genomic library 0 FISH is a top down approach to genome mapping DNA markers used in genetic mappin 0 Restriction fragment length polymorphisms RFLPs 0 Simple sequence repeats SSRs 0 Single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs Sequence analysis can be used to generate the highest resolution map of a genome Hierarchical shotgun sequencing strategy requires the generation of a minimum tiling path of BAC c ones The hierarchical shotgun sequencing strategy requires construction of a physical map Paralogous genes paralogs arose by duplication within the same species Orthologous genes orthologs the same gene in two different species that arose froma common ancestor Homologous genes homologs have enough sequence similarity to be related in evolutionary history Five classes repeat sequences can be placed in for genomic analyses 0 Simple sequence repeats o Segmental duplications of 10300 kb 0 Processed pseudogenes o Transposons When preparing cDNA with uorescence o Colored spots mean the mRNAs are expressed at higher levels in the cells in whichever type those came from treated than contro Microsatellites are useful DNA markers for linkage analysis Analysis of minisatellites in genomic DNA is used for DNA fingerprinting What is the expected result for SNP analysis using ASOS when DNA is analyzed from an individual who is heterozygous for two SNP alleles 0 At high temperature 90 deg C both oligonucleotides hybridize to the sample Linkage disequilibrium LD is when the frequency of haplotypes in a population deviates from the frequency expected if there is random association of alleles at the different loci The steps in a typical positional cloning strategy 0 Correlate transmission of trait with a particular genomic location 0 Identify candidate genes in the critical region 0 Evaluate candidate genes to identify the gene that encodes the trait In positional cloning knowledge of the genetic or cytogenic location of a trait can be used to identify the gene responsible for the trait Haplotype association studies 0 Can be used for high resolution mapping 0 Can be done with large extended families that have affected individuals appearing in multiple generations but doesn39t have to e o SNPs are the most useful for these studies By weight chromatin consists roughly of 13 DNA 1 3 histones and 1 3 nonhistones proteins Euchromatin is generally transcriptionally active DNA is wrapped around a protein core of 8 histone subunits In eukaryotic chromatin the rst level of compaction of DNA is DNA winding around histones to form nucleosomes Properties of telomeres in eukaryotes 0 They consist of special repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes 0 They protect against the loss of essential sequences at the ends of chromosomes after DNA replication 0 They protect against fusion of chromosomes 0 In cell culture tumor cells maintain long telomeres but normal cells cannot During mitosis kinetochores develop during prophase NOT true of position effect variegation PEV o Extent of heterochromatin formation is identical in each cell 0 It occurs most frequently with genes that contain missense substitutions o It is caused by mutations in genes that encode histones Numbers of Barr bodies in humans XO female 0 0 XY male 0 o XXYmale 1 In cats different alleles of an Xlinked gene controls the formation of orange and black hair pigment Orange pigment occurs in cats that are homozygous for the 0 allele of this gene while black pigment occurs in cats that are homozygous for the 0 allele About tortoiseshell cats 0 In cells producing black pigment the 0 allele is on the active X and the 0 allele is on the inactive X o In cells producing orange pigment the 0 allele is on the inactive X and the 0 allele is on the active X Pseudolinkage results from a reciprocal translocation After meiosis in an individual that is heterozygous for a paracentric inversion o It can lead to deletion products 0 It generates acentric fragments o It generates dicentric bridges o It reduces the number of recombinant gametes In a translocation heterozygote which segregation pattern is most likely to result in a normal zygote 0 Alternate In heterozygotes inversions act as suppressors of recombinationbecause gametes that have crossovers within an inversion loop will not survive Turner syndrome is the result of monosomy of the X chromosome m J J ui sister to separate properly in meiosis Examples of aneuploidy o onosomy o Trisomy o Tetrasomy 0 NOT tetraploidy Polyploid species that have complete sets of chromosomes from two or more different ancestral species are called MM Two parental species have hybridized one has a haploid number n 3 and the other species has a haploid number n 2 In the somatic cells of the hybrid the diploid number of chromosomes w39 be 10 Possible consequences of transposable elements TEs nactivation of a gene through insertion of a TE into a coding region of a gene 0 Altered expression of a gene through insertion of a TE into a regulatory sequence 0 Reversion of a mutant phenotype by precise excision of a TE 0 A chromosomal rearrangement through unequal crossing over between two TEs O Because SINES are the nonautonomous version of the LINE S they can transpose only by using a reverse transcriptase encoded by LINES A bacterial auxotrophic mutant is a strain that cannot synthesize a speci c nutrient ex Trp needed for growth In E coli a partial diploid merodiploid can be made by mating an F39 strain with an F strain In E colli Hfr strains can be mated with only F strains I 3 mwgu Muchmmcs39m a nu WWI WV u m m MW m m m E l M m m wnh m mm m s r M u m m H mm mw up m m m U n 441manSmemv mum nny m x m 7 I mde 3 m gum a mil hm n 4an m Wm1r I m umWgmm mm mmquot g H171 117mm u 39M m 1 Wm WM mm n ququ m w 41 m quotonquot u m m mm 71vMV nM1cm L 1 m w u urmrm 39 xummm un u m mm Jv mILwv mum mm mmbeg a a m k uu u x mm m m 431 ugh n m lmnhpn e 1 willy Mm rummv dunnkrwnh m pmmmc n 4 gm mm um um nvmlmuhu mm H wu ulerz ulldks 73 u m an m mde dsem 1nmum p xmkcralkk r r 39A39 rr u mrmmlUNArund u39 r m mm mm w am pm WWW m 1 ndmdu mmm WWquot 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