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Date Created: 09/12/15
Lab Test 2 Study Guide Mosquitoes You should be able to recognize by sight Order Diptera Flies Anterior pair of wings developed for ight Posterior wings modi ed to halters balancing organs Complete metamorphosis Suborder Nematocera Antennae manyjointed at least 6 or more segments No arista Only females blood feed Family Culicidae Mosquitoes Adults with scales modi ed setae on wings and body Fringe of hairs on posterior edge of wings Mouthparts long approximately equal to the length of the head and thorax combined Only females blood feed Larvae aquatic free living with a few exceptions Subfamily Anophelinae Adult female palps as long as proboscis male palps long and expanded at tip Larvae attach to water surface with palmate hairs no siphon Adult body held inclined to substrate Important genus Anopheles o Anopheles adult anal larvae Subfamily Culicinae Adult female palps short male palps long and tapered Larvae hang down from water surface have conspicuous siphon Adult body held parallel to substrate Larvae predaceous on other mosquito larvae mouth brushes modified for grasping Prey Important genera Aeales Culex Psorophora Toxorhynchz39tes and others NOTE Toxorhynchites adult females not blood feeding with prominently bent mouthparts o Aeales aegyptz39 Yellow Fever Mosquito I Conspicuous lyre shaped silver pattern 0 Aeales albopz39ctus Asian Tiger Mosquito I Distinct longitudinal silver line on the scutum OOOOampOOOOOMOOONOOOH oooou 6 Life stages larvae pupae TI You should be able to recognize Anopheles by sight and correctly key out larvae and adults of the other genera Anopheles Aeales ciiiizx Pioyophom Wyaomyta Coquinizmiiia Toxovhymhmz Uranomtma nhopodomyta ovhei Nemiiieeia 1 Family Psyehmiiiiae aiiiih acniiw by sighi smau hairy ies sanii ies A Suh m y Phiehemminae Va39yhan39y unbudy Wings Cesiai vein e apEX umegpmnled Wings c eus erWing geneany appmr alungzled eWam apEX wings Ennul rem uva bu dy Lung hary 1egs Meuihpaiis as lungas ESL ufhad Maie eiminaiia v 1a e Tmnsm pamsmc pmluzua enhe genus Leishmania musing Leishmamasis Lu210mylll Phiaboiomiii medlmllylmpunanl geieia 3 Lame a tidy segnens secundanly minded in lame Pupae Wiihieng Wings small 1egs Family Ceiaiiipiigiiniiiae aiiiih kmw by sight ung miiiges punldE niie see i 39 Sman llg rbudled ies MemedWings and s 1 size Amennae 14esegnenied Dr lunga vein menus eniya lime mum han hairWay e WIngapEX Shun han39s un edges veins erWing a mist haek ms in he genus Manseneua ause bluelungue Virus and vesie ar slumauus Wms Larvae similar e Psynhudids bu nu secundanly minded Smeeih shiny and imiike Pupae Wiih Wm mudal spines Larvae hve m mueky seii u En amund maign ufp Ends geneany predaceuus cii1imiiiizi recugnze name as mes impenan genus l Family Simuliidae adult larvae know by sight black ies Larvae aquatic iter feed With cephalic fans attach to rocks vegetation With thoracic prolegs posterior circlet sucker Relatively broad blunt Wings Shiny convex humpbacked thorax Broad clear Wings Without hairs or scales and heavy veings near the anterior Equot Wing margin Costal vein traveling to tip Wings Adults relatively stoutbodied Large thorax big ight musclesgood long distance iers hence common name buffalo gnats Generallyblackish color Not conspicuouslyhairy Antennae short llsegmented inmost species some primitive genera 9 or 10 Cause river blindness or Onchocerciasis nematode worm Onchocerca volvulus Relatively short mouthparts adaped for making hemorrhagic pool in capillary beds Simulium recognize name as most important genus Sight Id the following Suborder Brachycera Reduced larval head capsule Pupae encased in larval cuticle Aristate antennae Family Muscidae Calypters well developed Brown or gray Aristae plumose H 0059 Subfamily Muscinae House ies Develop in decaying fermenting material Bodily secretions Sponging mouthparts Musca domestica no5 Subfamily Stomoxyinae Stable ies Blood feeders Probiscus modi edto pierce skin bayonette like Stomoxys calcitrans amily Glossinidaez Te se Elongate pros icus Obligate blood feeders on vertebrate mammals Secondaryhairs on the aristate antennae Hatchetshaped medial Wing cell Vector the trypansomoes that cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock cocooyl Glossina Family Hippoboscidae sheep lice keds or louse ies Dorsoventrally attened obust legs ending in large recurved claws Winged Wingless or secondary loss of Wings 0 Have strong resemblance to ticks or large lice Family Calliphon dae blow ies Shiny metallic blue green black bodies Carrion festering wounds larvae Maggot debridement therapy Calliphora Lucilia Cochliomyia 00 Family Sarcophagidae esh ies Very similar in body shape to calliphoridae Larvae again use carrion as food source May also lay eggs in open wounds Black and white stripes on scutum checkboard on abdomen 8 o o o o Family Oestridae 11M L quot quot 39 quot39 larvae BB 39 to hairs Endoparasitic lifestyle Large beelike adults with vestigial mouthparts Dermatobia hamim39s the human bot y vectored by mosquitoes 10 Family Tabanida orse and deerquot ies Stout bodied ies large bean shaped head with huge eyes I Geuns Chrysops deer y 0 Ocelli present 0 Dark band on wing o Pointed abdomen nus Tabanus hourse y 0 Ocelli absent 0 o Blunt abdomen You should be able to key out the eas Siphonaptera to species You should be able to identify the order Siphonaptera by sight 1 Order Siphonaptera Laterally falttened Piercing sucking mouthparts Setae and com s Antenna Enlarged coax Meral rod mesopleuron divided Flea Species A Family Pulicidae 1 if Sticktight ea E chidnophaga gallinacea Contracted thorax Front margin of head angular Oriental rat ea X anopsylla cheopis Mesopeuron divided by vertical rodlike thickening meral rod Front margin of head rounded normal thorax Ocular bristle inserted in front of eye 3 Human es Pulex irritans Mesopleuron no divided by vertical rod 0 Front margin of head rounded normal thorax V a e a a 4 Cat ea Ctenocephaltdesfelis Both combs present Genal comb of 5 or more spines pointed Eyes well developed 0 1st genal spine aprox Same length as rest of spines lennl A we B Family Ceratophyllidae 5 Rock squirrel ea Diamanus montanus Labial palpa extending beyond trochanter of rst leg 0 Only pornotal comb present 6 Northern rat ea Nosopsyllusfasciatus Labial palps not extending beyond trochanter of rst leg 0 Only pornotal comb present 0 Segment 5 of hind tarsus With 5 pairs of lateral plantar bristles c Family Leptupsyl dze 7 Eurupean mnuse nez Lepropsylla Segmx g 5 presen of 4 spmes Eyes absmt or reduced Gmal comb I a 1 OrderAmnexda prdas Bl wxdowspxder You should be ableto 1denufy by Sign each othe followmg Laxa Class Arzchn39 o Abdommal red mm hourglass madung o Glossy1e bla Lmrodeaus macmn Brown recluse splda 0 Eddie on cephaloLhomx Eyes arranged m Lhree dxads a 6 tax rectum o 2 Order Scorpionida scorpions various spp Class Chilopoda Centipedes One pair oflegs per body segment Forelegs modi ed into venomous fangs maxilipeds I warm Class Diplopoda Millipedes Two pairs of legs per body segment Class Insecta Hexapoda 1 Order Lepidoptera Family Limacodidae saddleback caterpillar o Saddle on a domen 0 Burning and in ammation 0 Poisonous hairsspines o Allergic reacions Family Megalopygidae puss caterpillar o Sines 39 venom 0 Cause rash 0 Headache nausea shocklike symptoms 2 Order Hymenoptera Family Vespidae o A Vespula squamosa southern yellow jacket I Mesonotum with two broad longitudinal yellos stripes I Yellow and black I Smallmedium sized o B Dolichovespula maculata bald faced hornet I Black and white I Medium sized 1st and 2nd abdominal segments entirely black o C Vespa crabro European hornet I Largest hornet in N America Introduced from Europe Reddishbrown Black and orangeyellow striped abdomen Head swollen behind eyes o D Polistes spp 39 paper of umbrella wasps I Elongate thinner body shape Variable coloration Mediumlarge sized Mix saliva and plant bers to make nests with a paper like consistency Family Sphecidae o A Sphecius speciosus cicada killer wasp I arge conspicuous wasps I Not usually aggressive I Exert natural control on cicada populations I Painful sting a N g o FamilyApidae o A Apis mellifera honey bee I Orange and black pattern on abdomen I No tibial spurs on hind tibia I Useful model insect o B B bus spy burnblebees I Fuzzy haircovered sbdomen I Black and yellow markings some orange o C Xylocopa virginica eastern carpenter beee I Nearly hairless abdomen I Large sized I Black and yellow markings can be completely black Family Mutillidae velvet ants 0 Not actually ants 0 Characteristic black and red markings 0 Sexual dimorphism Winged or Wingless 0 Most painful sting in N America Define describe and give examples of each of the following NON BITING FLIES 1 Bazaar y 0 M usca sorbens 0 Human enteric disease 0 Bc of their affinity for humans they provide a bridge for fecaloral pathogen transmission 0 Trachoma I Bacterial chlamydial infection of the tissue lining the eyelid irritation causes clouding of the cornea amp untreated blindness 2 Black soldier y 0 Family Stratiomyidae o Hermetic illucens o Windowpanes in the 1st abdominal segment 0 Larvae o Leathery exoskeleton o Compete with house y larvae 0 Develop in decaying carcasses 7 PMI estimation 3 Blow y o Calliphoridae 0 Adults have metallic appearance and may be green black blue or bronze 0 Common on decaying carcasses signi cant in forensic entomology providing PMI estimations 4 Face y 0 M usca autumnalis o Mechanically vectors M oraxella bovis pinkeye and Thelazz39a earworms 0 Bovine keratoconjuctivis 7 pinkeye o Oviposit in fresh bovine feces 0 Face y puparia 7 calcified 5 Flesh y 0 Sarcophagidae o Larviparouseggs hatch internally so that larvae are laid by a female 0 Play a significant role in forensic entomology providing PMI estimations 0 Characteristics robust setae on posterior 6 House y 0 Musca domestica produces 120150 eggs per batch 0 Can hatch win 1 day 0 Larval development can be as short as 3 days 0 Adults can emerge within 3 days of pupation I House y puparia 7 chitinized o Insects are pokilotherms development rate varies with temp 7 Little house y 0 F anniecanicularis 0 Cool season pest in opensided poultry houses 0 Larvae develop in poultry manure 9 carry pathogens ie Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus 0 Rarely enter homes 8 Syrphid y 0 Rattailed maggot o Eristalz39s o Larva is aquatic and breathes through he snorkellike posterior extension the rattail o Develops in eutrophic water high in nutrients 9 Eye Gnat 0 Family Chloropidae o Genus H ippelates 0 Eye gnats feed around the eyes and body ori ces lapping uids 0 Mechanically vectors yaws amp other diseases BITING FLIES 1 Stable y The most important arthropod pest of cattle in the US l billon o Stomoxts cal trans Linnaeus 0 Feed on lower portion of bodies 0 Avoidance behaviors running kicking stamping headslinging licking tail swinging bunching standing in water 0 Larvae o Require 1 organic material and 2 moisture substrate I Ex Damp decaying plant material or compost piles moist decaying hay mixed with urine 0 Both sexes bloodfeed 0 Attack around head particularly pinna 0 Provide access to dog house or other escape enclosure 0 Control fans 0 Adults 0 78 mm long checkerboard markings on abdomen 0 mating occurs when females are 23 days 1 mating required per lifetime 0 after they eat they y off to rest amp digest 0 average lifespan 7 23 wks depending on temp o bc they spend a short time on host do not pick up enough insecticide to kill them o Vectors o H abronema miscostoma 7 spirurid nematode causing summer sores cutaneous habronemiasis in horses 0 Minor role as mechanical vector of Equine infectious anemia virus amp Bovine leukosis virus 2 Horn y 0 Haematobia irritans 0 Both sexes are haematophagous 7 spend adult life on host 0 Control residual insecticides effective except some have developed resistance Mouthpalts cause blood loss and irritation but not known to transmit any diseases 0 Oviposit in fresh bovine mature o Immature stages found in manure dung beetles can be used as control to remove manure 3 Horse y 7 Family Tabanidae Genus Tabanus o Semi aquiatic larvae eggs deposited on cattail leaf After a few days larvae hatch falling to moist soil or water below where they feed upon organic matter insect larvae worms etc 4 Deer y 0 Chrysops sp 0 Family Tabanidae 0 Large mouthparts combine cutting blades with sponging mouthparts I Feeding make a hole lap up blood I Large amount of blood on mouthparts allow for mech Transmission I Females feed on blood males on pollen 0 Bart Drees o Semi aquatic larvae o Vectors o Loa ad 7 Africa eye worm Loiasis I Contracted when bitten by an infected deer y I Biological transmission I Treatment ivermectin diethylcarbmazine o Tularemia Deer y fever or Rabbit fever I Caused by bacterium F rancisella tularnsz39s I Mechanical transmission 5 Keds louse y 0 Hippoboscidae 0 Characteristics 0 Proboscis covered by palps o Antennae in pits 0 Head short shrunken into thorax o Legs widely separated o Abdomen saclike 0 Body dorsoventrally attened 0 Some species ightless other can y to new hosts then drop wings o Ectoparasites as adults nurture young internally in uterus nourished by a milk gland 0 Don t trasmit disease don t cause illness A Sheep ked o M elphagus ovinus o Flightless o Entire life cycle completed on host 0 Piercing mouthparts suck blood cause anemia irritation scratching and biting wool damage feces stain wool 0 Control organophosphates ivermectin B Deer ked o Lz39poptena sp C Pigeon y 6 Bat y 0 Don t transmit any diseases 7 just novel apterous ectoparasitic ies o Nycteribiidae and Streblidae 0 Highly hostspecific 0 Both sexes blood feed 0 Flattened spiderlike in appearance 0 Lack eyes and wings 7 Tsetse y 0 Family Glossinidae o Glossina morsitans o Cleaver cell wing venation o Bayonetlike mouthparts o Larviposting 7 producing a fully developed 3rdinstar larva instead of laying an egg 0 Vectors 0 African Trypanosomiasis Nagana 7 cattle I Trypanosoma brucei brucez39 0 African sleeping sickness human I Trypanosoma brucei gambiense West amp Central Africa chronic o Winterbottom s sign enlarged lymph nodes on neck I Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense East Africa acute o Trypanosomes enter with infective blood meal replicate within ys gut cyclopropagative migrate to salivary gland and are injected into next host 0 No vaccine available because of antigenic variation due to lots of glycoprotein Biological Control Using parasites parasitoids predators pathogens or competitors to eliminate pest ies Parasitoid an organism that spends its immature states in or on another organism the host which it eventually kills Adult parasitoids are free living Ovipost in y puparis The parasitoid larva consumes the developing y inside the puparium Also trapping MY IASIS Obligatory myiasis 0 Species of Diptera having larvae that normally develop in or on the body of living vertebrates 0 May be further subdivided into their predilection sites or the location where the parasitic larvae are found 0 Immature stages must develop in a vertebrate host 0 Digestive tract 7 Gasterophilinae o Nasopharyngeal cavities and other internal respiratory systems 7 Oestrinae o Dermicsubdermic 7 Hypodermatinae and Cuterebrinae 0 Would 7 Cochliomyia hominivorax Calliphoridae Wohlfam39a Sarcophagidae Facultative myiasis o Diptera whose larvae normally develop in decomposing organic material but will occasionally invade necrotic tissues of living animals 0 Wool maggots only a minor problem in W Hemisphere o Forensic entomology Myiasis o Infestation of live human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae which at least for a certain period of time feed on the host s living or dead tissue liquid body substances or ingested food Nasopharyngeal myiasis CAUSING MYIASIS Order Diptera Family Oestridae Subfamily Cuterebrinae Gasterophilinae Hypodermatinae Oestrinae Oestridae Characteristics 0 Robust larvaeknown as bots or gruba which are all obligate parasites of mammals o Larvae enters host moths twice and spends entire larval life inside host as parasites 0 Late 3rd instars leave host to pupate in soil 0 Adults are beelike with reduced mouthparts vestigial and do not feed o A bot is the Hypoderma larva The warble is the swelling resulting from the skin reaction to presence of the larva Gasterophilus spp Digestive Tract Subfamily Gastrophilinae 0 Transmission 0 Female y glues eggs to hair on horse s foreleg 0 Horse licking stimulates larval emergence o Larvae are licked into the horse s mouth where they burron in the oral epithelium producing pus pockets 0 Second instar is swallowed o Larvae attach to the nonglandular portion of the stomach wall 0 Large numbers of mature larvae can occlude a large portion of the stomach o Damage 0 Violent reaction of horses to presence of ovipositing female 7 injury 0 First instars irritate oral tissue pus pocket 0 Attachment of stomach wall in large number interferes with digestion o Larval migrans from lSt instars 1 Horse bot y 0 Gaserophilusmtestmalis 0 Eggs attach to hair esp around knees 0 Animal licks hair larvae attach burrow into toungue epithelium migrate to stomach 0 Strong circlets of spines anchor larva in tissue 0 Emerge attach with mouth hooks blood feed 0 When mature detach pass out with feces pupate in loose soil 2 Throat bot y 0 Gasterophilus nasalis 3 Nose bot y 0 Gaserophilus haemorrhoidalis 0 Eggs laid on lips ofhorse o Occasionally rhinos and elephants 0 3rd larval instar attach inside anus before passing out Subfam y Oestrinae N asopharyngeal cavities and other internal respirator systems ovovivipaltiy 1 Deer nose bot nasopharyngeal myiasis o Cephenemyia o Subfamily Oestrinae ovoviviparity 2 Sheep nose hot 0 Oestrus ovis o In nasal sinuses 0 Symptoms nasal discharge 0 Causes Oral human myiasis 7 unusual situation 0 Females deposit active larvae in nostrils of sheep of goats o Larvae crawl into sinuses attach to mucosa feed on blood 0 Emerge in sping pupate in soil Subfamily prodermatinae Dermic 0r subdermic Cattle Grubs o 1 Northern cattle grub o H ypoderma bovis I Larvae burrow into skin migrate dorsally ending up in the lumbar region I Along the way they may enter the spinal cord and tunnel between the dura mater and the periosteum for some distance before exiting to tissues of the back 0 2 Common cattle grub o H ypoderma lineatum I Similar migration through host but enter tissues of the esophagus instead of spinal cord 0 Dermic or subdermic o Subfmaily Hypodermatinae o Cattle react strongly to presence of ies act terri ed gallop back and forth termed gadding 0 Transmission 0 Eggs attach to hair mainly on hind legs larvae hatch in about 1 week 0 Both species reach lumbar region cut hole in skin reverse orientation so spiracles have access to air begin to feed I Feed on secretionsin ammatory cells generated by host in attempt to encyst larva saliva contains collaginase to dissolve collagen for food I Mature 9 emerge from skin 9 fall to ground 9 pupate o Infect reindeer sheep goats humans 0 Results 0 Partialtotal paralysis of legs 0 Loss of cattle o Damage to leather from holes 0 Cost of control Sub family Cutereb reinae 1 Rodent and rabbit bots Skin bots o Cuterebra spp o Rodents rabbits marsupials 0 Eggs laid on foliagetwigseXposed roots near mammal nests or burrows When mammals approach body heat stimulates hatching Larvae enter natural ori ces eyes or a wound 9 move to nasoparyngea tracheal or esophageal areas 9 migrate through thoracic and abdominal cavities 9 ending up warble in the skin Final location characteristic of host species Equot Tropical warble y Human bot y Dermatobia hominis Common from Mexico through S America 0 Host 7 warmblooded animals humans common Unique strategy for delivering eggs 0 Catches bloodsucking insects attaches eggs to abdomen with operculum oriented downward Causes painful lesions Pattern of furuncles is often a clue to vector Wide range of hosts esp cattle but also wild and domestic mammalian hosts including humans Ususally phoretic carriers Control 0 Chlorinated hydrocarbons o Organophosphates o More Old World screwworm o Chrysomya bezzz39ana o Calliphoridae o Opthalmomyiasis New World Screwworm primary 0 Cochlz39omya hominivorax o Diptera Calliphoridae o Damage to livestock o Cattle swine sheep canine deer human 0 Obligatory Myiasis I Wounds 7 larvae that no longer breed in carcasses but are instead dependent on living tissues and therefore live animals 0 Chemical Control 0 Topical dressing of wounds using organophosphates o Matabicheria sprays o Sterile insect technique I male ies from colony are sterilized using radiation and released over screwworm infested areas I this eradicated screwworm from NA Secondary screwworm o Cochliomyia macellaria o Thoracis stripe does not extend the length of the prothorax Control of Grubs and Bots o Organophosphates OP s macrocyclic lactones 7 avermectins Congo oor maggot Calliphoridae o Auchmeromyia senegalensis o Atypical species which does not live on or inthe host but sucks the blood of burrowdwelling aardvark hyena warthogs and occasionally sleeping humans sanguinivorus myiasis o Auchmeromyia ithe only known genus of blood sucking maggot to feed on mammals although others feed on birds 0 Female ies lay their eggs on dry earth or the earthen oors of huts o Larvae o Nocturnal feeding about 20 mins then falling to the ground 0 3 larval instars amp approx 2 wks required for pupation 0 Complete life cycle takes 10 wks 0 Fully grown 18 mm o N0 disease transmission feeding results in irritation swelling Fleece worms Wool maggots o Invade existing wounds weeping sores or areas that are wet ie soiled wool around the anus o Calliphoridae blow ies o In Australia the bronze bottle y Lucilla cuprina produces y strike 0 In N America Phormia regina the black blow y Phaem39cia sericata the green bottle y and Cochliomyia macellaria secondary screwworm are most important wool maggot species Tumbu y 0 Cordylobz39a anthropohaga o Calliphoridae o Parasite or large mammals found in E and Central Africa 0 Life cycle 0 Eggs hatch and larvae seek a host burronw into the skin 0 3 larval instars require 812 days 0 Host develops multiple boillike sores usually on arms back waist o Prepupa exits skin and pupates in soil non myiasis situations calliphoridae used in wound debridement to remove necrotic tissues These maggots feed speci cally on non living tissue Prescription called Lucilia sericata Maggots have small mouthpaIts that can selectively remove necrotic tissue leaving healthy tissue undamaged Additionally they secrete substances that dissolve necrotic tissue combat infection and stimulate healing DELUSONARY PARASITOSIS Diabetic Neuropathy 7 serious complication of diabetes affecting about 12 of diabetics nerves damaged by diabetic neuropathy can produce stinging or burning sensations tingling pain numbness or a crawling sensation on the skin Acute sleeping sickness Ekbom SyndromeDe1us0ry parasitosis o Delusory parasitosis 0 An erroneous unshakable belief that the skin is infested with a parasite o Sufferers claim that fibers or threads infest the skin does not involve insects or mites o Often affects people in pairs groups ifolie a deux o A condition in which the individual considers himself infested by invisible bugs 0 Selfinduced lesions 0 Excoriations 0 Trends 0 Most common in middleaged elderly 0 Disproportionately female 0 Selfdestructive behaviors I Quit jobs I Burn destroy furniture I Abdondon home I Obsessive lauderingcleaning I Repeated pesticide misuse I Home remedies I Selfmutilationexcoriation Provide specimens 7 gobbets of tissue other debris Elaborate descriptions or pest amp life cycle Social isolation Major life event divorce bereavement job loss Consulted several doctors Mean duration of delusion gt 3 years Complain of itching crawling stringing biting Adamant that it is infestation OOOOOOOOO Desperation VENOMOUS amp STINGING 1 European honey bee Apis mellz39fera Family Apidae Widely cultivated 0 Used for pollination 0 Honey production Queens male drones workers 0 Sterile workers I Forage for pollen nectar I Defend hive by stinging modi ed ovipositor Highly social make large hive Problems 0 Envenomation 7 venoms I Disrupt cell membranes I Cause pain I Neurotoxins o Allergic reaction 9 anaphylactic shock 9 suffocation 0 Treatment bee sting kits noradrenalin to maintain blood pressure antihistamines 2 Bumblebee o Bombus o Solitary bees don t make hive 0 Not aggressive but capable of stinging 3 Carpenter bee o Xylocopa virginica o Solitary bees 0 Not aggressive but females capable of stinging 4 Paper wasp Polistes 5 Cicada killer wasp 7 Sphecz39us speciosus 6 European Hornet 7 Vespa crabo 0 can string repeatedly but don t leave stinger like honeybees 7 Mud Dauber Trypoxylon o Builds mud tube nests 0 Provisions with spiders 7 paralyzed but not killed by sting o Solitary 0 Strings only if provoked 8 Yellow jackets Dolichovespula 6 in N America 0 Nest above ground 0 Family Vespidae 0 Workers can squirt venom into nest intruders eyes amp sting o Dolichovespula arenaria 7 Aerial yellowjacket o Dolichovespula maculata 7 Baldfaced yellowjacket 9 Ichneumonid Cant sting humans VENOMOUS 1 Imported re ant 0 History 0 4 species found in SE US I 2 native tropical amp southern I 2 importerd red and black 7 originated from S America 0 Black imported re ant o Arrived 1918 0 Found only in NE Mississippi NW Alabama Tennessee 0 Red imported re ant o Arrived 1930 s 0 Much more aggressive 0 Spread much quicker 0 Physical features 0 10 segmented antenna 2 segmented antennal club stinger 2 segmented pedicel 2 nodes 0 Life cycle 730 days Eggs small hatch into grublike larvae Larvae fed by workers 4Lh instar can consume solid food Adults can t eat solid food Molt ro pupal stage 0 Molt to adult 0 Adults 0 Most adults are sterile worker ants wingless females I Eggs that are fertilized develop into females I Unfertilized eggs develop into winged males 0 Those that receive more food 9 reproductive adults wings I Most common AprilJune o Males 7 develop into winged adult makes 7 black with smaller head larger upper body 0 Hierarchy 0 Queen 7 7 years 1000 eggsday 0 Young workers 7nurse ants 0 Older workers 7 reserves to defend colony constructsmaintain mound 000 0000 o Oldest workers 7 forage for food 0 Nuptial Flight 0 Winged malesfemales mate in midair 0 Male dies 0 Mated queen s wings detach digs a hole in ground where she lays her eggs 0 Damages o Stings humans I Burningitching 9 formation of white pustule I Allergic chest pains nausea dizziness shock o Ecosystem I Displace ground dwelling animals 0 Economic impact 39 6 bil losses in US 0 Nesting I Damage plants lawns electrical xtures reduce property value 0 Biological control 0 Phorid y protozoan parasitic ant Solenopsz39s dagerrez39 0 Best to use combination of control measures 2 Pharaoh Ant 7M0nomorium pharaom39s o Polygynous o Cosmopolitan 3 Harvester Ant Pogonomyrmex occidentalis western harvester am 4 Urticating Caterpillars o Urticating hairs stinging hairs 7 break off on contact 0 Venom gland at base inject venom when broken 0 Many have acetylcholine in venom 0 Can cause caterpillar dermatitis 5 Saddleback Caterpillar o Sibz39ne stimulea 6 Puss Caterpillar o Megalopyge opercularis 7 Scoprpion o Vaejovz39c carolz39m39anus 7 Eastern stripeless scorpion 0 Southern devil scorpion o Centruroz39des hentzz39 7 HentX s striped scorpion 0 Florida south Georgia south Alabama 0 Centruroz39des exilicauda 7 only dangerous scorpion in US 0 Arizona and surrounding states 8 Centipede o Chilopoda o Possesses poison fangs 9 Millipede o Diplopoda o Vegetarians 10 Multillidae velvet ant SPIDERS o All spiders have venom so that they can subdue their prey 0 Silk 8 legs pedipalps 2 body segments cephalothorax abdomen 0 Daddy long legs o Harvestman 0 Order Opiliones o No venom glands 0 Single body segment 0 Do not secrete silk American House Spider Southern House Spider Long bodied cellar spider o bounce in web when disturbed Funnelweb Spiders Orb Web spiders Barn Spider Garden Spider o Argiope Wolf Spider Crab Spider Jumping Spider Trapdoor Spider o Heaviest spider found in GA 0 Subterranean so seldom seen unless ooded out of burrow Tarantulas none in Eastern US Black widow spider o Poisonous o Latrodectus mactans 0 Red markings Brown widow spider o Poisonus o Latrodectus geometricus o Spiked egg sacs 0 Orange hourglass Brown Recluse Spider Loxosceles reculsa Fiddle on cephalothoraX Not in web No abdominal markings 6 eyes in 3 pairs FLEAS Siphonaptera Human ea Pulex irritans No pronotal or genal combs Mesopeuron without thickened bar Primary pest of pigs Found on basically all animals 0 Ocular bristle inserted beneath eye 0 Rare in developed countries Sticktight ea o Echidnophaga gallinacea o Greatly reduced thoracic segments 0 While males are freeliving on host females insert mouthparts into the skin and remain embedded for the rest of their lives sucking blood and producing eggs 0 Typically found on less feathered portions ie the head 0 Hosts California ground squirrel birds Northern Rat ea o Nosopsyllus fasciatus o Nest eas Oriental Rat ea o Xenopsylla chaeops o No pronotal or genal combs o Mesopleuron with rodshaped bar 0 Primary vector in Urban Cycle of Bubonic Plague Y ersim39a pestis Swelling of the lymph glands Bubo and subcutaneous hemorrhages that turn black necrosis Dog ea Chigoe Flea o Tunga penetrans enlarged nodules in toes 0 Tropical and subtropical America 0 Female embeds head into host causing swelling 0 Both combs missing 0 Hosts humans dogs swine and other mammals o not found in north America Cat ea C tenocephalides felis Vectors of Disease 0 Bubonic plague o Murine typhus Rickettsz39a tpr o Vectors northern rat ean and oriental rat ea 0 Similar to rocky mt spotted fever 0 Myxomatosis viral disease of rabbits 0 Dipetalonema reconditum filarial worm of dogs and foxes o Tapeworms 0 Dog tapeworm Dipylz39dz39um caninum o Rodent tapeworm H ymenolepsis diminuta Adult 0 Flies o Flies mate soon after emerging I Females seek food nutrients are used to develop eggs 0 Females oviposit in 23 days following mating Adult ea feces Adulticide 7 insecticide specifically targeted against the adult life stage of an insect Aerial yellowjacket African eye worm o Loa act or Loiasis o Contracted when bitten by an infected deer y 0 Biological transmission 0 Treatment ivermectin diethylcarbmazine African trypanosomiasis o Nagana 7 cattle o Trypanosoma brucei brucez39 0 Symptoms chronic anemia loss of muscle mass scruffy skin enlarged lymph nodes fever 0 Significant impact on establishment of ranching during European colonization of Africa African sleeping sickness human 0 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense 0 West amp Central Africa WINE MES Common Scientific Family Disease Other Name Name Stable y Stomoxts Linnaeus 1 Habronema Control fans cal trans miscostoma Feed on lower summer portion ofbody sorescutaneous habronemiasis 2 Bovine leukosis virus Horn y Haematibua Oviposit in fresh irritans bovine manure haematophagous Deer y Chrysops sp Tabanidae 1 African Eye Males feed on worm Lou 101 pollen large 2 Tularemia moutl1parts Sheep ked Melphagus Anemia haematogpahous 0X139n us irritation wool damage Deer ked Lipoptena sp Bat y Nycteribiidae Flattened lack eyes and wings Tsetse Glossina Glossinidae 1 African Cleaver cell moristans trypanosomiasis larviposting Nagana 2 African sleeping sickness NJ NHTHNG FILHES Common Scientific Family Disease Other Name Name Bazaar y Muscu Trachoma Fecaloral sorbens pathogen transnnssion Black Hermatl39a Stratiomyidae quotWindowpanesquot Soldier y illucens PMI estimation Blow y Calliphoridae Metallic PMI estimation Face y Alusca 1A40raera Fresh bOVdne autumnalis bovis pinkeye feces pupa 2 Thelazia calcified earvvornis 330Wne keratoconjuctivitz s pwe Flesh y Sarcthigidae Larviparous House y Ahmed Pupach h zed dam estica pokilotherms Little house Fannie Exotic New Castle Poultry manure y canicularl39s Syrphid y Eristall39s A 1atic larva Eye gnat Hippelates Chloropidae Yaws Feed around eyes VENEMCQUS SS39FHNGHNG Common Scientific Family Disease Other Name Name European Apis mellfera Envenomation Queens male honey bee allergic drones reaction workers sterile females p er wasp Polistes Bumblebee Capable of Solitary stinging Carpenter bee Xylocopa Females Solitary capable of stingmg European Can sting llornet repeatedly Mud Dauber Trypoxylon Sting only if Feed on provoked spiders Solitary builds mud tub e nests Yellowjackets Dolich ovespula Workers N est ab ove squirt venom ground into intruders eyes sting Circadian Sphecius killer wasp speciosus VEN M U Common Scientific Family Disease Other Name Name Imported fire Stings Originated ant red amp ecosystem from S black economic America impact nesting Pharaoh Ant Monom orium Polygynous pharaonis cosmopolitan Urticating quotCaterpillar Stinging hairs caterpillar dermatitis inject venom when broken Saddleback Sibl39ne stim uleu caterpillar Scorpion Vaejavic Cen truroides caroll39nl39anus exilibauda Eastern only stripeless dangerous Centruroides scoprion in US hentzi Hentz s striped Cen truroides exilibauda Centipede Chilopoda Possesses fangs Millipede Diplopoda Vegetarians Puss Megalopyge caterpillar opercularis HEAS Family Siphona tera Common Scientific Family Disease Other Name Name Human eas PuIeX irritans Pest ofpigs No pronotal or genal combs mesopleuron wout thickened bar Sticktight ea Echindophaga Hosts gallinaceu Califorina ground squirrel birds embedded for life Norther rat Nosophsyllus Nest eas ea fasciatus Oriental rat Xenopsylla Urban plague No pronotal or ea chaeops genal combs mesopleuron with rod shaped bar Dog ea Cat ea C tenocephalitis felis Medical Entomology ENTO 36453650 Midterm Test 1 Sept 20 2011 Name Mle What course are you in Circle one 3645 3650 Multiple choicefill in the blank Each multiple choice question is worth 1 point Fill in the blank questions are worth 2 points 1 Chagas Disease is caused by a A protozoan parasite Trypanosomacruzi b A spirochaete bacteria Barrela akari c Wuchereriabancrofti d Plasmodium falciparum e Plasmodium VivaX 2 The legs attach to an insect s body via the a Femur b Trochanter and coxa c Tarsus d Tibia e Aerolium 3 What is the highest taxonomic group that fits the description quotarthropods with mandibulate mouthparts and one pair of antennaequot a InfraphylumAtelocerata b Superclass Crustacea c Subphylum Arachnomorpha d Subclass Pentastomatida e EpiclassHexapoda 4 What group of arthropods are characterized by having two pairs of antennae generally biramous legs and a fused head and thorax cephalothorax a InfraphylumAtelocerata b Superclass Crustacea c Subphylum Arachnomorpha d Subclass Pentastomatida e EpiclassHexapoda 5 People are infected with Chagas Disease when a b C d The vector injects saliva with the pathogen during blood feeding People inhale infected frass fecal material produced by the vector People scratch and rub infected feces into their eyes or the wound Children ingest the infected vectors 6 Which isnot a characteristic of the Order Aranea E Cephalothorax and opistosoma joined by a narrow pedicel Mandibulate mouthparts Pedipalps small and with sensory function Four pairs of legs Chelicerae modified as fangs 7 Pentastomatids 235 2 Are primarily aquatic and are of little medical significance Are bloodfeeders that live in nests and sometimes colonize houses Have segmented bodies with two pairs of legs per segment Live as ectoparasites in the nasal cavities of snakes and sometimes mammals Have segmented bodies with one pair of legs per segment 8 Evolution of diverse arthropod body plans from a multisegmented ancestor occurred by a process of grouping and fusing segments according to function This process is referred to as E Functionalization Tagmatization Specialization Developmental divergence Existentialism 9 The term chelatequot refers to E Having the head and thorax fused into a single structure Having chelicerate mouthparts Having both compound and simple eyes ocelli Having an appendage modified to form a claw None of the above 10 In chewing insects such as grasshoppers what mouthparts have palps a clypeus and labrum b mandibles c maxilla and labium d hypophyarynx e hypopharynx and labium 11 In insects with piercingsucking mouthparts existing mouthparts have been elongated and formed into a tube no new structures have evolved a True b False 12 Which of the following is not a symptom of chronicChagas diseasae a Megacolon b Megaesopagus c Hydrocoel d Cardiomyopathy 13 Which statement is more accurate regarding insects ability to fly a It is important that the wing have rigidity from front to back so as to maintain consistent air flow over the top and bottom surfaces b It is important that the wing be flexible so as to be able to curl up or down and generate air vortexes c It is important that the wing be able to rotate around its attachment point to generate a propellerlike movement 14 A structure that insects use to guide placement of eggs is the a Ce rcus b c Ta rsomere d Seta e Spiracle Ovipositor 15 Bedbugs are vectors of what disease a Leishmaniasis b Lymphatic filariasis c Onchocerciasis d Sleeping sickness e They do not vector any disease 16 What region of the exoskeleton is largely composed of wax a Endocuticle b Exocuticle c Epicuticle d Epidermis 17 Where might you look if you suspected bedbugs have infested your house a Behind the headboard of the bed b Between the mattress and the boxspring c In and behind the nightstand d In cavities in the bed frame e All of the above f All of the above except cquot 18 The exocuticle is a A rigid layer formed of chitin crossinked by protein b A flexible layer formed of chitin crossinked by protein c A rigid layer formed of calcium phosphate d A flexible layer composed of protein e A flexible layer formed of collagen like vertebrate skin 19 The term myalgiaquot refers to a swelling ofthe brain b Extreme fever over 104 F c Muscle pain d Sensitivity to light e Impaired ability to breath 21 Which is not an advantage ofa rigid exoskeleton 2 a Mechanical strength compared to an internal skeleton b c Energy efficient compared to an internal skeleton Protection from predators amp Waterproof 2 Support for sensory structures 2 What is the term for separation of the old exoskeleton from the epidermis so that a new cuticle may be generated a Dissolution b Resorbtion c Apolysis d Ecdysis e Renewal 23 What hormone initiates the events that culminate in molting a Ecdysone b Juvenile hormone c Bursicon d PTI39H e Molting hormone 24 What hormone directs the epidermis to generate a new cuticle a Ecdysone b Juvenile hormone c Bursicon d PTI39H e Molting hormone 25 Juvenile hormone is secreted from the Corpus cardiacum 73 Corpus allatum fl Subesophageal ganglion Brain 2 Prothoracic gland 26 Actually shedding the old cuticle is termed N 2 8 Dissolution 73 Resorbtion fl Apolysis amp Ecdysis Renewal 2 Insects can store excess food in a structure called a a Foregut b Crop c Esophagus d Midgut e Malphigian tubule The Malphigian tubules have what function a They carry out excretion of metabolic wastes b They are involved in respiration c They help in circulation of the blood d They are a component of the reproductive system e They secrete hormones that regulate homeostasis 29 Female insects can store sperm for later use in structures called Seminal vesicles 72 Spermathecae Vas deferens Oviduct Accessory gla nd 3 2 30 You are looking at an insect antenna through a scanning electron microscope you keep in your basement You observe what appear to be hairs but they aren t flexible and they have pores all over their surface What function would you expect these hairs to have m Mechanoreception b Thermoreception 3 Taste resception Olfaction 3 Defense they protect the antennae against damage 31 Insect compound eyes are conspicuously pigmented The pigments that give eyes their color function as 1 Screens to ensure photons can t cross from one eye element to adjacent ones 5 Photoreceptors that absorb photons and generate an action potential I Filters to regulate the wavelengths that insects can see amp Screens to prevent harmful UV from damaging sensitive neurons 2 Camouflage to obscure the eyes from predators 32 A human disease which is suddenly increasing in frequency is called an a reservoir b epizootic c epidemic d enzootic e pandemic 33 A disease which primarily affects nonhuman vertebrates and which occurs at a fairly constant rate is called an a reservoir b epizootic c epidemic d enzootic e pandemic 34 A mosquito ingests a blood meal that contains a hundred juvenile nematode worms The worms invade flight muscle replicate go through two developmental stages and disseminate into the head After 14 days six mature nematodesreach the mouthparts ready to be transmitted to a new vertebrate host note each part counts as a question A What type of transmission is this a mechanical b zoonotic c existential d biological e reductive B Which term applies to the life cycle of the worms in this mosquito a cyclodevelopmental b cyclopropagative c epidemic d enzootic e propagative C What term applies to the 14day developmental period of the worms in the mosquito a cyclodevelopmental period b cyclopropagative period c extrinsic incubation period d intrinsic incubation period e epidemic developmental period 35 What is the pathogen that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever a Dermacentorvariabilis b Barrefa burgdarferi c Borreliaduttoni d Ixodes scapulaH39s e Rickettsia rickettsii 36 What is the vector of Lyme disease in California a Dermacentorandersoni b Sarcoptesscabei c Ixodes pacificus d Borreliaburgdorferi e Ixodes scapulaH39s 37 What is the pathogen that causes relapsing fever in the Western USA a Rickettsial tsutsumagushi b Borrelia burgdorferi c Borreliahermsii d Ehrlichiaphagocytophila e Rickettsial rickettsii 39 The house mouse mite Liponyssoidessanguineus is associated with transmission of what disease a Rocky Mountain Spotted fever b Sarcoptic Mange c Scrub typhus d Rickettsial pox e No disease is vectored by this mite 4 O What is the correct sequence for the Linneanclassification m PhylumFamilyOrderClassGenusSpecies PhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies PhylumOrderClassGenusFamilySpecies PhylumOrderClassFamilyGenusSpecies ClassPhylumOrderFamilyGenusSpecies 3amp35 41 Which is not a true statement Demodex mites can live at the base of hair follicles can live in the openings to sebaceous glands transmit Borrelia burgdorferi cause mange are usually benign in humans E 42 Which process or processes isare important in the maintenance of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the environment horizontal transmission vertical transmission mechanical transmission both horizonal and vertical transmission none of the above geese 43 In the transmission cycle of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever squirrels function as amplifying hosts 72 tangential hosts dead end hosts bridge vectors 3amp3 squirrels can t be infected and have no role in the transmission cycle 44 Which statement is not true Doxycycline is a a tetracyclinetype antibiotic b useful for the treatment of demodectic mange c useful for the treatment of Lyme disease d used for the treatment of scrub typhus e used to treat Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 45 In Southeast Asia Chigger mites a cause mange in dogs b vector Orientiatsutsumagushi c vector Rickettsia ricketsii d vector Ehrlichiaphagocytophila e produce irritating bites but are not associated with disease 46 Which description best describes the Chilopoda a distinct head many body segments one pair of legssegment predators with venomous fangs b distinct head many body segments two pairs of legssegment predators with venomous fangs c distinct head many body segments one pair of legssegment feed on organic detritus have cyanide for defense d distinct head many body segments two pairs of legssegment feed on organic detritus have cyanide for defense e fused head and thorax many body segments two pairs of legssegment predators with venomous fangs 47 Symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever could include Q fever myalgia headache peticial rash fever myalgia headache erythema migrans fever myalgia thickened crusty skin fever myalgia extreme itching photophobia mild fever headache rash mild disease that resolves without treatment 3amp35 48 llSouthern Lymequot disease or Southern tickassociated rashlike illness is associated with what pathogen a Ehrlichiachaffeensis b Borrelia burgdorferi c Borreliahermsii d Rickettsia akari e Borrelialonestari 49 What arthropod would you look for if you suspected a patient was suffering from tick paralysis a Dermacentorandersoni b Sarcoptesscabei c Ixodes pacificus d Amblyommaamericanum e Ixodes scapulaH39s 50 A parasite undergoes sexual reproduction in its vector a mosquito The mosquito can be called the a definitive host b extrinsic host c intrinsic host d indefinate host e reservoir host 51 The following questions relate to the McDonald model For your reference here is the model again C N Elliquot lnP Also note that human malaria has no zoonotic reservoirs and transmission is strictly horizontal 51A In this model C stands for E vectorial competence vectorial capacity anthropophilicity index total number of vectors in the environment daily survival rate of the vectors 513 In one sentence describe what quotCquot actually is ie what does the model try to calculate 2 pts 51C Suppose a malaria control program chooses to emphasize larviciding breeding sites to kill mosquitoes before they become adults What term in the equation would you need to modify to calculate the impact on quotCquot a m b a c b d P e n 51D f larviciding reduces the number of mosquitoes by half without changing anything else what would be the impact on quotCquot reduced by 5A reduced by half no way to estimate without knowing both quotPquot and quotnquot avg 51E Suppose alternatively that a competing malaria program dispenses bednets that protect people at night when mosquitoes are most active This makes people less accessible and forces the mosquitoes to feed on alternative hosts that don t carry malaria The overall effect is to reduce biting on humans by half What term in the equation will be affected a m b a c b d P en 51F f bednets reduce the number of bites by half without changing anything else what would be the impact on quotCquot f reduced by 5A g reduced by half h no way to estimate without knowing both quotPquot and quotnquot Ento3650L Practical Review 1 E Equot gt 5quot P I Order Orthoptera grasshoppers and crickets 2 pairs ofwings 1St thick long and leathery 2 d broad and membranous Chewing mouthparts long antennae big compound mouthparts powerful hindlegs for jumping Order Coleopterabeetles 2 pairs ofwings forwings hardened and modified into elytra Chewing mouthparts compact body Order BlattodeaIsoptera roaches and termites 2 pairs ofwings very long antennae chewing mouthparts dorsoVentrally attened 2 cerci at bottom of abdomen Order Phthiraptera lice small insects dorsoVentrally attened piercing mouthparts not Visible wingless short antennae and legs all are parasite of mammals or birds Order Hemiptera true bugs aphids leafhoppers white ies cicadas bedbugs piercing and sucking mouthparts beak arising from front of head short antennae 2 pairs ofwings forwings thickened at base and membranous at the tip hindwings membranous throughout pronotum large trapezoidal or rounded triangular scetellum behind pronotum Order Lepidoptera butter ies and moths 2 pairs ofwings generally covered with fine scales often colored or patterned Forewings are triangular and hind are fan shaped Mouthparts forma coiled tube proboscis beneath the head long antennae soft bodied Order Diptera ies Single anterior pair ofwings Hindwings reduced to form halters piercing sucking mouthparts short antennae spread many diseases eX West nile yellow fever malaria Order Siphonaptera eas small bilaterally compressed Study guide test 2 organized De nitions Reservoir speciesthe longterm lLst of thepathogen of an infectious disease Biological transmissionThe parasite colonizes the vector and Completes part of its life cycle there For this to occur the parasite must be adapted to survive in two very different environments the vertebrate and the arthropod The vector generally remains infected for lifeOpposite to mechanical transmission Mechanical transmissiona pathogen or parasite is carried by a vector to a host on the surface or sometimes in the gut without completing any part of its life cycle in the vector Vector is any agent person animal or microorganism that carries and transmits an infectious agent PestVector Cockroaches Order Blattaria General life cycles Incomplete metamorphosis egg case gt nymph gt nymph gt adult 6 13 nymphal stages German cockroach females carries ootheca w 3040 eggs drops it in hidden area females produce ootheca every 2025 days 48 lifetime total 67 nymphal stages in about 60 days depends on temp aggregation pheromones in feces and all stages aggregate in dark enclosed spaces need humid warm environment Oriental Cockroaches ootheca with 16 eggs up 8 oothecae in lifetime deposited in area w food eggs hatch in 2 months development to adults require 1 year prefer humid cooler habitat not highly mobile associated with drains and sewers American C0ckr0achesootheca with 1216 eggs 614 oothecae per lifetime deposited in cracks or crevices hatch in 12 months 13 nymphal molts over 1314 months adults live 1 year or more than 2 prefer warm humid areas pipes water heaters attics basements Br0wn Banded Cockroaches ootheca with 1318 eggs up to 14 ootheca per life glue it to inconspicuous places behind furniture ceilings nymphs molt 68 times over 56 months need high temp but lower humidity than german roaches similar habitat to german Kev mu 39 39 39 39 chracteristics especially those useful for identifying maior vector species Eggs in ootheca Pronotum large shield like head directed downward mandibulate mouthparts antennae bery long long hairy legs fast runners Forewings thickened Paired cerci on abdomen Larval and adult habits Feed indiscriminately on garbage sewage food source of allergens trigger asthma in children Few individuals forage any time bring food back smokeybrown invades houses occupy similar areas as American often live outdoor areas wood piles Order Family subfamily genus and species of important vector species Common names of important species German cockroaches Oriental Cockroaches General aspects of insect control Dont eat in areas where children spend a lot of time Destruction of property Smokey brown controlled thru limiting entry to houses reducing habitat near house lmonitor to discover location of Food Water Harborage hiding places 2 remove access to above as much as possible 3 eliminate existing popns insecticides insecticidal baits boric aciddiatomaceous earth insect growth regulators biocontrolparasitic wasps 4 Continue monitoring to detect reinfestation Insecticide resistance behavioral heritable change that reduces exposure Penetration heritable change in cuticle that reduces insectides penetration into insect Metabolic heritable change in rate which chemicals are metabolized and excreted Target site heritable change in speci c site which insecticide binds know that over treating w chemical exerts selective pressure on popn and resistance evolves ex DDT Prophylactic treatment preventative creates shield Lice Order Pthirapteraa suborder anoplura sucking lice General life cycles Incomplete metamorphosis under normal conditions 910 eggsday 270300 total adult lifespan 3 134 days 3 nymphal stages requires 1619 days egg to adult in 2329 days egg gt nymph l gtnymph 2 gt nymph 3 gt adult Pthiris pubis Crab louse more robust wide triangular body very large claws correlate w coarse hair found in pubic regions armpits eyebrows transferred from sexual contact intense itching dermatitis pathogens not transmitted treat w over the counter pyrethrin lotion or prescription insecticidal shampoo wash clothes Kev mu 39 39 39 characteristics 500 described species wingless dorsoventrally attened small avg 2 mm eyes reduced or absent atennae 3 to 5 segmented piercing sucking mouthparts retracted into head legs with welldeveloped claws for grasping hair buccal teeth on tip of labrum anchor louse to skin
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