INSECTSENVIRONMENT ENTO 2010
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Gracie Roob I
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gracie Roob I on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Guillebeau in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see /class/202269/ento-2010-university-of-georgia in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Parasitoids o Predators kill and eat multiple prey o Parasites do not usually kill their hosts 0 Parasitoids lay eggs in or near the host 0 The host is ultimately killed Parasitoid Wasps o Parasitoid wasps are solitary 0 They are not aggressive o The females lay eggs in the host 0 Parasitoids specialize in one or a few types ofprey Order Hymenoptera Family Sphecidae mud daubers 0 Females make mud nests 0 They provision the nests with spiders o The larvae develop on spiders o Often build in the same site for years 0 Females can sting but they are unaggressive Mud Daubers Three Species to Know in Ga 0 Organ pipe mud daubers o Prefer orb weaver spiders 0 Black and yellow mud daubers o Nest is a unshaped lump 0 Prefer spiders found around vegetation I Iumping spiders crab spiders etc 0 Blue mud daubers 0 Take over old nests of other mud daubers o Prefer black widows and brown widows Bumblebees Hornets Yellow Jackets and Paper Wasps Oh My 0 These hymenopterans form a social colony 0 But it is not permanent like a honeybee hive o Fertilized females overwinter and start new nests in the spring 0 The males and all the other females die in cold weather 0 In areas where winter is mild a colony may persist for several years The Insect Integument o The integument Prevents desiccation Protects the organs Receives information from the environment Facilitates movement and reproduction Epicuticle has several layers and has wax to seal the insect Much ofintegument is chitin OOOOOO Integument Terms 0 Resilin elastic can store energy 0 What insects have resilinwinged insects o Chitin a sugar polymer 0 Provides toughness and exibility Epicuticle on the outside 0 Wax a single molecule thick 0 Water retention Molting or Ecdysis 0 Only immatures molt o Instars period between molts o Ecdysone molting hormone Insect Growth 0 Juvenile hormone immature status Shedding the Old Skin 0 Insect distends with air or water 0 Ptilinum in atable sac on some ies 0 Split usually occurs on the head 0 Insect distends after leaving old skin DigestionExcretion 0 Three sections 0 Stomodeum I Ingestion and digestion o Mesenteron Not lined with chitin I Absorption o Proctodeum Lined with chitin I Removes waste regulates water urea salts 0 Filter chamber 0 Specialized structure that allows uid feeders to obtain more nutrients increases absorption area I Some hemipterans aphids lea loppers scale insects white ies DigestionExcretion Summary 0 Insect digestive system is typically made up of three sections 0 Stomodeum Ingestion digestion o MesenteronAbsorption o Proctodeum Excretion regulation 0 Some uid feeders also have filter chambers to improve nutrient uptake Digestion and Excretion o Aquaticsemiaquatic insects ammonia waste 0 Terrestrial insects solid uric acid Digestion Role of Bacteria o What is cellulose 0 Few insects produce cellulose o Bacteria few beetles o Protozoans termites roaches I When hindgut is shed how are protozoans reintroduced Respiration o Relies very heavily on diffusion Spiracles 0 Up to ten pairs one pair per segment 0 Abdomen meta mesothorax Circulation 0 Circulatory system does not transport 02 o Insect blood is called hemolymph o Insects have an open circulatory system 0 Heart functions as a circulatory pump 0 Blood dumps at the end of the aorta Circulation Summary 0 Circulation serves to distribute and filter not to move oxygen 0 Insect circulatory system is open 0 Insect blood is called hemolymph o Circulation is facilitated by the heart or dorsal aorta Insect Nervous System 0 Two different systems 0 Central Nervous System 0 Stomatogastric Nervous System 0 Innervates interval organs 0 Made up ofneurons nerve cells 0 Afferent carry signals to CNS 0 Efferent carry signals away from CNS stimulate muscles and glands Central Nervous System 0 Neuron groups form ganglia o CNS brain and segmental ganglia o Thoracic ganglia control legswings o Protocerebrum Vision integration of multiple behaviors o Deutocerebrum Antennal inputs 0 Tritocerebrum Connects to Stomatogastric system integrates input from other brain lobes o Subesophageal Ganglion Mouthparts salivary glands neck muscles Insect Vision 0 Simple eyes Ocelli and stemmata 0 Compound eye 0 Do not detect images but rather changes in light intensity 0 Stemmata 0 Form images equivalent in quality to compound eye with much less quothardwarequot 0 Found in holometabolous larvae and other forms lacking compound eyes Insect Chemoreception o Chemoreception taste and odor 0 May occur on mouthparts legs antennae and ovipositors Insect Hearing 0 Insects hear with tympana 0 Usually located between the thoraX and abdomen but may be elsewhere Insects and Plants 0 About half of all insect species are phytophagous o Insects are a key primary consumer ofplants o Competing directly with humans 0 Phytophagy has evolved repeatedly o Probably from scavenging o Coevolution evolution of one group affects evolution of another group and vice versa 0 Many plantinsect interactions are not detrimental to the plant Types ofinteractions o And o Mutualism o And 0 o Commensalism o And o Predation parasitoids parasites o And 0 Competition Insectplant coevolution 0 First interaction herbivory and accidental pollen transfer Beetles Important Early Pollinators 0 Well diversified in the Mesozoic era 0 Beetles may eat ovules ofplant that was pollinated Coevolution Next Steps 0 Odors to attract insects from distance 0 Flower colors insects color vision 0 What do diurnal pollinators look like 0 Nectaries 0 Role of Homopteran honeydew Mutualistic relationship Ants and homopterans Pollination o Pollination o Pollen onto receptive stigma 0 Wind pollination 0 Mechanical transfer 0 Usually by insects 0 Birds bats and other animals can also be pollinators PlantPollinator Interactions o Disadvantage of wind pollination o Untargeted o Decreased likelihood of outcrossing 0 Much larger production of pollen needed 0 Plants don t disperse well 0 Advantages 0 Not dependent on a quotthird party 0 No need to supply quotrewardquot 0 Advantages of insect pollination o Facilitates outcrossing even ifplants very dispersed o Coupled with seed dispersal by birds and other factors helps plant colonize new habitats more rapidly o Reliable dispersal facilitated plant specialization 0 Which results in greater diversification o Disadvantages 0 Third party involved 0 Plant must produce reward Nectar 0 Rich in sugars 0 Amino acids proteins and lipids PlantPollinator Interactions 0 Plants reward for services 0 Plant gets its pollen transferred from anthers to stigmas o Pollen is a reward with lipid starch or protein 0 Nectar is an important food reward o Nectar from oral and eXtra oral nectaries o Extra oral nectaries rarely important in pollination o What is the function of eXtra oral nectaries o Edible ower parts are another reward Nonedible pollinator rewards 0 Heat 0 Usually involves beetles 0 Flowers metabolize lipids and starches 0 Includes water lilies palms and cycads 0 Heat also helps disperse scents 0 Difference from outside temp may be 50 C or more 0 Insect mimics 0 Several hundred species of Orchids in Europe and Australia 0 Wasps saw ies and ants are all deceived by some owers 0 Flower mimics female 0 Scent o Sight 0 Flower mimics prey o quotAphidsquot attacked by wasps 0 Flower mimics territorial bee o Males attack 0 Other mimics 0 Flowers mimic other owers that offer rewards o Smells like a dead animal attracts ies PlantPollinator Interactions 0 Costs to the pollinator 0 Energy 0 Thermoregulation 0 Traveling o Extraction of reward o Risks 0 Exposure to predatorsparasites 0 Costs to the plant 0 Resources to produce reward o Risks ofbeing robbed how do you try to avoid this 0 Attraction of herbivores Pollination patterns 0 Beetles clumsy iers hard exoskeleton 0 Usually associated with dishbowl owers Magnolias o Flies a lot ofvariation 0 Some ies but not most have elongated mouthparts 0 Fly owers typically shallow with nectar exposed 0 Flowers often drab or white with musty or bad smell 0 Lepidoptera long tongue 0 Flowers erect often with place to land 0 Sweet odors o Colorful red is common 0 Moth owers less color more odor Pollination Patterns 0 Bees largest group of efficient pollinators 0 Both sexes take nectar 0 Bee adaptations for plant interactions Plumose hairs Pollen transport structures Modifications of the tongue Diet ofnectar and pollen 0 Social behavior in some species 0 Plant adaptations for bees 0 Colors in bees range ofvision 0 UV re ectance common 0 Red uncommon for bee owers Separate petals Odors Open at certain times Landing platform Butter y Life Cycle 0 Egg a few days 0 Larva a few weeks 0 Wandering phase looking for a place to pupate Pupa variable Adult a few weeks Overwintering 0 Different types of Lepidoptera spend the winter in each life stage 0 Some do not overwinter they spend the winter in warmer climates General Principles 0 Larval food Depends on species Adult food Continuous nectar sources Other adult needs 0 Water 0 Minerals 0 Places to rest diversity of plants 0 Places to bask in the sun stones Don t use insecticides on larval or adult food sources Most insecticides are broad spectrum 0 Kill many different insects Adult attracted to red yellow orange pink and purple blossoms that are at topped clustered and have short ower tubes Adults feed in sunshine Watermineral sources must be shallow Good Butter y Plants 0 Diversity is good 0 Native plants are important 0 Coevolution of plants and butter ies o Butter ies may be fooled larvae don t survive Common Georgia Butter ies o Monarch o Larval food Milkweed o Viceroy o Mimics the poisonous monarch Or vice versa 0 Viceroy butter ies are also poisonous Phytophagous insects 0 Approximately 50 of all insect species feed on plants 0 Insects are the dominant herbivores on the planet EXAM 1 REVIEW Mosquitoes are the most deadly insect Insects usefullness Pollination Recycling decomposition controlling pests food and other products Smallest Megaphtagma Trichogrammatidae 3 could fit on the edge of dime Biggest Mass Goliath Beetle Longest Australian phasmid stick insect 25 cm Wing span Atlas moth 24 cm lnsect Succes Adaptable exoskeleton small body size short generation time early dry land colonizers ef cient flight metamorphosis lnsect vectored diseases Human diseases malaria chagas disease west nile virus dengue yellow feaver encephalitis sleeping sickness river blindness typhus filariasis tularemia Animal diseases heartworm eastern equine encephalitis trypanosomiasis bluetongue Plant diseases tomato spotted wilt pierces disease mosaics yellows dutch elm disease fire blight plum pox iris yellow spot aster yellows lnsects in environment decompose organic materials modify soil make some areas unlivable key element of many food webs Fruit ies are used in research as 177 human genes are shared insects account for o 75 of all described animal species 50 ofall described plant and animal species not in the ocean occur from antartica to the 75th parallel and 6000m mountains Taxonomy is the science of naming things Three domains of life Prokaryotes no nuclear membrane Archaea the prokaryotes of extreme environments EukaryaDNA contained in nuclear membrane protists plants fungi animals Arthropods exoskeleton must molt to grow segmented jointed appendages ventral nerve chord open circulatory system bilateral symmetry sexual reproduction Crustacea nearly all aquatic 3 pairs oflegs two pairs of antennae compound eyes gills usually wings 5 pairs of legs or more biramous one pair of antennae head and thorax fused trachea cephalothorax Division Exopterygota nymph similar to Arachnida adults no antennae wings develop externally chelicerate mouthparts incomplete metamorphosis pedipalps sperm parts on front Division Endopterygota wings as order araneaespiders internal buds spcorponidascorpions wings develop internally acariticks and mites complete metamorphosis Varroa mites Basic insect taxonomy suck blood out of bees kingdon animal kills bee colonies phylum arthropoda move with drifting and robbing bees class insecta difficult to manage order hymenoptera Tracheal mites family apidae spend nearly entire life in bee Ephemeroptera May y trachea Over winter as naiads aquatic kill bee colonies nymph transmitted with drifting and robbing four triangular wings with many veins bees adults with vestigial mouth parts Chilopoda Centipedes two to three cerci one pair of legs per segment 15 to abundant in permanent freshwater 177 pairs habitats one pair of large antennae immatures are aquatic plant and nearly all predaceous detritis feedrs Diplopoda Millipedes adults typically emerge two pairs of legs per segment up to synchronously 375 pairs not venomous chemical release common Odonate dragon y lnsecta short antennae 3 body regions two pair membraneous wings chewing mouthparts male dragonfly rest wings down eggnaiadadult incomplete metamorphasis adults live several months Plecoptera stonefly long antennae two pair of membraneous wings chewing mouthparts Orthoptera grasshoppers katydids and crickets hindlegs adapted for jumping chewing mouthparts males sound producing organs eggnymphadult incomplete meta eggs laid in soil by ovipositor herbivorous Blattaria Blattodea Cockroaches many generations per year imcomplete metamorphisis head concealed by pronotum wings usually present antennae long and slender chewing mouthparts protozoan symbionts allow digestion Roach IPM Roaches trigger asthma Minimize food and water sources caulk up cracks dont bring them home use sticky traps and baits Mantodae Mantids over winter as eggs incomplete metamorphosis chewing mouthparts lsoptera termites soft bodied no constriction of waist reproductive alates with four similar wings Eusocial Most advanced social behavior cooperative care of young at least two generations overlap reproduction and labor divided reproductives can live up to 15 years and have 2 million eggs both male king and female queens secondary reproductives exist as well whole social structure controlled by hormones Termites IPM Build wood 12 from soil inspect annual prophylactic protection insecticide baiting signs of termites alates wings inside blistering paint dirttubes damaged wood Phasmatodea stick insects 3 cm 20 cm Long slender legs not adapted for jumping digging or grasping chewing mouthparts Ento Test Review wwwsnsneww39e I I I I I I I I H m g l PwNI O39 NN mm Do immatures and adults molt What are instars Define Ecdysone How and when do insects distend Aquatic and semiaquatic insects excrete Terrestrial insects secret What is cellulose Name an animal that produces cellulase Respiration of insects relies very heavily on what Insects have what type of circulatory system True of False Insects transport 02 What is insect blood called What are the 2 different types of insect nervous systems True or False The Insect nervous system is made up of Neurons True of False Afferent Carries signals to the Central Nervous System True or False Efferent Carries away from CNS Stimulates Muscles and glands Neuron Groups form what Central Nervous System is in charge of what ganglia What does the Thoracic Ganglia Control The Protocerebrum of the brain controls what The Deutocerebrum of the brain controls what The Tritocerebrum of the brain controls what The Subesophageal Ganglion controls what Name the two types of insect eyes Do insects also have compound eyes What is the function of the Ocelli What is the function of the Stemmata What kind of insects have stemmata What two sense does Chemoreception deal with Where on the insect does chemoreception occur What do insects hear with Where is this quotquotquot located True of false about half of all insect species are phytophagous True or False Phytophagy evolved at once What is coevolution True or False Most of plant and insect interaction is detrimental to the plant Define these interaction a and b and 0 c and U39IU39IU39IU39I U1wa U39IU39IU39IU39I RDme 1 P d and True or False the first plant and insect interaction was herbivory and accidental pollen transfer Beetles were important early pollinators they were well diversified in the Mesozoic era True or False Beetles may eat ovules of plant that was pollinated What were some of the coevolution steps that flowers made in order to attract insects Define Pollination What are the two general categories of pollination Name two disadvantages of wind pollination Name one advantage of wind pollination Name two advantages of insect pollination Name one disadvantage of insect pollination What is nectar rich in True or false Plants get their pollen transferred from anthers to stigmas n pollen transfers to animals always receive a reward s heat an example of a nonedible pollinator reward How so What are some cost to pollinators How do flowers mimic females True or false Do flowers mimic other flowers that offer rewards What is the cost to plants for pollination What is the typical pollination pattern of beetles and what types of flowers are they usually associated with What type of flowers do flies associate with True or False Lepidoptera typically have a small tongue What color do Lepidoptera usually attract to In comparison to butterflies Moths are normally attracted too What is the largest group of efficient pollinators True or False Only male bees take nectar Name 2 adaptations of bees for plant interactions Name 2 plant adaptations for bees What is the butterfly life cycle What is overwintering in terms of the Lepidoptera True or False Does Larval of lepidoptera food depend on species What does adult food consist of for Lepidoptera What are 2 other adult needs of Lepidoptera Are most insecticides the same Describe what color and features adult Lepidoptera are attracted to True or False Water mineral sources must be large True or False Approximately 67 of all insects species feed on plants Name an example of an external feeding insect External feeders do what What is only external feeders What is Galls cause by
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