MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY ENTO 3645
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Gracie Roob I
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gracie Roob I on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 3645 at University of Georgia taught by Hinkle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/202271/ento-3645-university-of-georgia in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
SiphonapteraFeas 0 Double poured dog tapeworm DiplydiumCaninum o Proglottid egg pouch exits anus dries and falls to substrate Foraging flea larvae bite into the proglottid and consume tapeworm eggs 0 Cycle Attached to perianal skin Eggs ingested by fleas eggs hatch in fleas intermediate host eaten by dog or cat Development into tapeworm in dogcat o Flea eggs are not sticky and they collect in host environment Flea Larvae 0 Slender yellowwhite legless eyeless o Segmentally arranged bristles o Chewing mouthparts 0 Feed on dried blood and other organic debris o 1 week several months to pupate o Larvae spin silk cocoon to look like debris o COCOON o PUPA 0 Within the cocoon the larva moults to the pupal stage and then the pupa moults to the adult stage under good environmental conditions this requires about a week The pre emerged adult can survive within the cocoon for months until it senses host proximity movement warmth carbon dioxide 0 EGGS9LARVA9PUPACOCOON9ADULT Regulation SYNGENTA INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS METHOPRENE PYRIPROXYFEN Ascertain that boric acid formulation can be used on carpetKLLS ONLY LARVAE Treat area where host is all humans and animals must not be present do what the label says o FLEAS ARE 0 SMALL lt3mm HAVE STRONG JUMPING LEGS DO NOT HAVE WINGS FEED ONLY ON BLOOD OOO Pulexirritanshuman Flea Worldwide distribution Hosts humans cats dogs swine rabbits squirrels foxes opossums Both gena and pronotalctenidia are absent ChigoeTungaPenetrans Tropical and subtropical America Hosts humans dogs swine and other mammals Both gena and pronotalctenidia absent Female embeds head into host causing swelling Sticktight FleaEchidnophagagallinacean Abundant in the Southern States but found worldwide Hosts wild birds domestic fowl various mammals including man Oriental Rat FleaXenopsyIIacheopis Plague Hosts rats ground squirrels rabbits humans Primary vector in Urban Cycle of Bubonic Plague Yersinia Pestis bacteria Lymph glands swell and hemorrhages that turns black Humans Rodents and pets affected Cycle 0 Rodentwid or urban infected9cycle between rodent and flea9 Flea infected bites human Reservoirs Rats Prarie dogs ground squirrels Murine Typhus Rickettsia Typhi Vectors Northern Rat Flea and Oriental Rat Flea Flies Diptera o Brachycerahorse flies deer flies 0 Characteristic antenna first two segments greatly expanded remainder reduced to filamentlike structure called arista 0 Mostly stoutbodied flies 0 Large compound eyes 0 Many strong fliers but some wingless o NEMATOCERA mosquitoes biting midges black flies o CYCLORRHAPHA house fly face fly stable fly tsetse fly eye gnat bot flies louse flies blow flies flesh flies Nonbiting Flies 0 Muscadomestica house fly 0 Muscaautumnalis face fly 0 Hippelates eye gnat o Muscasorbens bazaar fly 0 Fanniacanicularis little house fly 0 Sarcophagidae flesh flies o Calliphoridae blowflies 0 Eristalis syrphid fly rattailed maggot o Hermetiaillucens black soldier fly HOUSE FLY LIFE CYCLE o Muscadomestica produces 100 to 150 eggs per batch eggs can hatch within one day 0 Larval development can be as short as three days 0 Adults can emerge within three days of pupation 0 So how rapidly can the generation turn over 0 lnsects are poikilotherms so development rate varies with temperature Control of flies 0 Exclusion keeping flies out of structures 0 Source reduction eliminating larval development sites making such sites unsuitable for oviposition or larval survival 0 Sanitation eliminating food and other attractant substances Biological control using parasitoids 0 Entomophthora is a fungus that attacks adult flies The fungus penetrates into the body cavity and grows within the body producing conidia that erupt with sufficient force through the body wall to be propelled several centimeters Other flies become infected through environmental exposure or through direct exposure to fly cadavers o Dung beetles 0 Family Scarabeidae o Disrupt manure to maximize rapid drying 0 Traps Chemical Control o CLASSES OF INSECTICIDES o ORGANOPHOSPHATES o PYREI39HROIDS o INSECT GROWTH REG ULATORS o OTHERS Spinosyns and Neonicotinoids Muscaautumnalis Face fly 0 Mechanically vectors Moraxella bovis pinkeye and Thelaziaeyeworms o Calcified pupaFace Fly compared to chitinized pupahouse fly Muscasorbens o Bazaar fly 0 Human enteric disease 0 Muscasorbens is similar to the common house fly being closely associated with humans and their habitations Because of their affinity for humans they provide a bridge for fecaloral pathogen transmission Little House Fly 0 Fanniacanicularis 0 Cool season pest in opensided poultry houses Larvae develop in poultry manure 0 Carry pathogens such as Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus Rarely enter homes 0 Notice that these larvae are not like other muscoid larvae Sarcophagidae Flesh fly Larviparous eggs hatch internally so that larvae are laid by female Play significant role in forensic entomology providing postmortem interval PMI estimations CALLIPHORIDAE BLOWFLIES Syrphid Fly Typically adults have metallic appearance and may be green black blue or bronze Common on decaying carcasses significant in forensic entomology providing post mortem interval estimation RatTailed Maggot E ristalis Harmless but frequently cause alarm when people discover them erroneously assumed to be internal parasites that have been passed in feces The larva is aquatic and breathes through the snorkellike posterior extension the lrat tail Adults are called llhover flies or llflower fliesquot adults feed on nectar and pollen HERMETIA ILLUCENSBLACK SOLDIER FLY Used in biological control against house flies Soldier flies are harmless not able to bite or sting Black soldier fly larvae leathery exoskeleton Black Soldier Fly Hermetiaillucens Black soldier fly larvae compete with house fly larvae excluding them Presence of black soldier fly larvae repels female house flies preventing oviposition Larvae develop in decaying carcasses so important in forensic entomology providing postmortem interval estimations Biting Flies StomoxyscalcitransLinnaeus O O O O O O O O O O 0 Known as the quotstable fly Sole species of Stomoxys in Americas from Canada to Argentina Worldwide there are 18 species of Stomoxys Thought to have arisen in Africa where largest number of species exists Native to Africa Europe Asia and the Orient Larvae require 1 Organic material for food and 2 Moist substrate Both Sexes Blood Feed Minor role as mechanical vector of equine infectious anemia virus and bovine leukosis virus Developmental vector of Habronemamicrostoma spirurid nematode causing summer sores in horses HORN FLY Haematobiairritans Both sexes are haematophagous and spend their entire adult life on the host Thus residual insecticides on the host are more effective against horn flies than against stable flies Except for the problem that many horn fly populations have developed resistance to most of the available insecticide classes TABANIDAE HORSE FLY and DEER FLY SemiAquatic Larva develops in mud predaceous Only females blood feed Can mechanically transmit agents of anthrax Bacillus anthracis tularemia deer fly feverquot Francisellatularensis equine infectious anemia and other diseases biological transmission of Elaeophoraschneideri arterial nematode of deer and sheep Strong fliers so may originate from miles away making source reduction not feasible DEER FLYChrysops sp L001 00 or African eye worm is transmitted by Chrysops spp in east Africa People contract the worms when bitten by an infected deer fly The worms migrate through the skin producing local inflammatory reactions called Calabar swellings and can often be seen migrating across the cornea of the eye hence the name quotAfrican eye wormquot Symptoms of loiasis can arise months or years following the transmitting fly bite The condition can be treated with diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin Tularemia also known deer fly fever or rabbit fever is caused by the bacterium Francisellatularensis a Gramnegative nonmotilecoccobacillus The primary vectors are ticks and deer flies This is mechanical transmission effected by contamination of the mouthparts with F tularensis so that subsequent hosts become infected SHEEP KED o Mcluphayumiuw nuurinedm miiKgiand Mature Aduiti WinEiP host DEERKED o LipapteMspp fiarva is retained in mutner39s uterus nourished by miiiltgiand Matureiarva is ian inn itnd i i i i i associated With that host Not known to transmit any disease agents NVCI39ERIBIIDAEQBathies o Higniv nustspecific Eutn sexesfeed on biuud Fiattened spiderriike in appearance lack eves nd Wings STREBLIDAE 0 Eat Fiies Tsetse Ft GlossinaMorsitansi Family Glossinidae Tsetseflies l AFRICANTRVPANDSDMIASIS NAGANA Trypanasamalzmcei livestock AFRICAN SLEEPING SICKNESS H UMAN TIypanasamaszr39 Mladensi Issue By Stag Numan Stages Epimaw ams inuiliulr m mmwam my quotamenme mam magnum x i mm Manama quot a W wwwmmmem f eimiamsmm mmon Wm F an and m m m rn amp VYWRIasrigales muilipiy by mm nmm m vzmu may um ea him Mum andsnmnrtruia pimm irynumls igoies iuve m mm m mum m enimaswms Emma emmm ll w W wmm samwmwmmw A imxsanmnlunrewciit rwain mm mm WWWMWM quot mam chiictwpnsmmvjmes r inuiinv39YbYuinarYnamn A Wm my A Annizgwmm Myiasis Chronic sleeping sickness Trypanosomabruceigambiense 1 2 4 West and Central Africa skin lesion and swelling develop within about a week trypanosomes spread to lymph nodes cause enlargement Winterbottom s sign after months to years parasites enter nervous systemcausing behavioral and personality causinghallucinationsdrowsiness by day sleeplessness at night tremors convulsions coma death Winterbottoms sign enlarged lymph nodes on neck Acute sleeping sickness Trypanosomabruceirhodesieni 1 East Africa acute onset of fever headache dizziness within days of bitelittle or no involvement of lymph nodesmyocardial and pericardial in ammation leads to arrhythmia tachycardiageneralized damage to red blood cells vasculature in heart brain other organs anemia thrombocytopenia abnormal white cell counts disseminated intravascular coagulation follow parasites localize to blood vessels of central nervous systemneurological symptoms similar to chronic form of disease death occurs within weeks to months of infection Dermatobia Homnis Tropical or human botfly larvae Gasterophilusintestinalis thecommon horse bot fly 1 Violent reaction of horses to presence of ovipositing female injury 1 2 3 2 First instars irritate oral tissue pus pocket 3 Attachment to stomach wall in large numbers probably interferes with digestion 4 Larval migrans from 1st instars Gasterophilusnasalis the throat bot fly Oestrusovis Sheeg nose bot 1 Egg laid in nose larvae Pupa9 Fly Ceghenemzia see cervid bot Dermic Hmodermalineatum common cattle grub Hmodermabovisn northern cattle grub Control of Myiasis 0 Organophosphates Macrocylic Lactones o Cuterebra spp rodent and rabbit bots 0 60 species in N amp S America 0 Dermatobiahominis tropical warble fly 0 South American species from several hosts 0 Treatment 1 Chlorinated hydrocarbons rarely used 2 Organophosphates OP s eg dichlorvos DDVP coumaphos chlorfenvinphos diazinon famphur fenthion 3 Pyrethroids eg permethrin cypermethrin 4 Naturalytes eg spinosad 5 Phenylpyrazoles eg fipronil 6 Macrocyclic lactones eg ivermectin eprinomectin doramectin avermectins 0 New World screwwormsCochliomyiahominivorax r I Primary r Maggots instead of surgery 0 Why are these therapeutic maggots better than surgery 0 1 Tiny mouthparts are more selective avoiding damage to healthy tissue 0 2 Maggots secrete substances that stimulate tissue healing such as allantoin o 3 Maggots also secrete substances that have antibiotic properties4
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