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Gracie Roob I
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gracie Roob I on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 3650 at University of Georgia taught by Hinkle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/202272/ento-3650-university-of-georgia in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
ENTO EXAM 3 Nonbiting flies Class lnsecta Order Diptera Arthropods outnumber all living things plants Flies Characteristics antenna 1st 2 segments greatly expanded remainder reduced filament threadlike structure called arista mostly stoutbodied fat g compound eyes many strong fliers some wingless Suborder Brachycera Rhagionidae tabanidae muscidae glossinidae calliphoridae hipoboscidae streblidae nycteribidae horse flies deerflies suborder Nematocerapsychoidae culcidae ceratopogonidae simpliidae slender body thread body suborder Cyclorrhapha house fly face fly stable fly tsetse fly eye gnat bot fly louse flies blow flies flesh flies House flies no piecing mouthparts piercingsucking mosquitos stable fly horn fly tsetse fly louse flies sponging house fly face fly flesh flies blow flies nonfunctional atrohpiedwarble flies and bot fles types of mouth parts fat par flilabellum nonbiting KNOW ALL NAMES Musca domestica house fly Musca autumnalis face fly Hippelates eye gnat Musca sorbens bazaar fly Fannia canicularis little house fly Sarcophagidae flesh flies Calliphoridae blowflies Eristalis syrphid fly rattailed maggot Hermetia illucens black soldier fly fith flies house and face eggs laid in manure larvae feed on manuregt so do adults microbes pick up mechacially pathogens gt cholera shigella TB Sponging stimulated by fly tasting something salivary glands accomplish external digestion resulting material is imbided via cap actiongt same as us spitting on cracker Our own digestive enzymes break down nutritens and we can slup capillary aciton Lifecycle egg1 mm length larvae called maggot require food moist nutrients never in clay poorly chitinised only cephaloparyngeal skeleton is can determine species spiracles on posteior end Spiacular plate 2 plates on end peritreme is chitinous ring that surrounds spiracle plate Pupa larva forms pupariem shell to change into adult hardens last larval skin and gets stubby depending on food availability and temp larval dev through 3 instars requires a few days to month darkens over 3 daysgt puparium changes to almost black emerge within 24 hrs Larvae seek drier pupation sites moves to surface or migrate awaycant find and are harder to control emerging shrugs way out end of puparium pops off and comes out head first wings are not expanded builds up internal pressure and pushes wings out with blood mate soon after emerging Lifecycle 150 eggs per batch can hatch within 24 hrs adults emerge in 3 days 3 instars poikilotherms dev depends on temp habitat fith spilled feed organic material for oviposistion and larval dev nutrients and moisturell fly control exclusion keeping flies out of structures screens source reduction eliminate larval dev sites making sites unsuitable for ovipo or larval survivalgt clean fecal material sanitation eliminate food and other attractant substance biological control using parasites parasitoid predators pathogens or competitors to eliminate pest flies parasitoid tiny wasps an organism that spends immature stages in or on another organism on the host which it kills black dump fly feed on house fly larvae musca donestica hydrotaea aenescens will stay in chicken houses Nasonia Spalangia muscidifurax control of filth fliesgt heavily used for horses can t sting humans oviposit in fly puparia larva consumes the dev fly inside the puparium grows from egg to adult eats up fly pupates in puparium entomophthora flies also susceptible to disease agents like bac viruses and fungi but no human risk fungi attacks adult flies when spores land on fly penetrate walls and reproduce in hemolymph huge population and builds up and had conidiagt splits apart body Dung beetles family scarabeidae disrupt manure habitat to enhance rapid dryinggt rolls into chamber and larvae dev trap using light doesn t diminish pop but also kills beneficial insects Chemical control insectidies adulticides and larvacides classes organophosphate pyrethroids commonly used low mammal toxicity insect G regulators other pyrethrins come from an aster plant botanical just knock down can wake back up Face fly Musca autumnalis mechanical vectors moraxella bovis pink eye thelazia eyeworms cattle lacramal feeders pupariumgt why is it white calcium from cows manure face fly puparia white calcified vs house fly puparia chitinized black Eye gnat family chloropidae Genus hippelates need loose ground like with sand pliable feed around eyes and body orafaces lapping fluidsgt cause yaws Bazaar fly Musca sorbens human enteric disease simialar to house fly fecaloral pathogen transmission problem in dessert and attracted to site of moisture like a face Trachoma bac chlamydial infection of tissue of lining the eyelid causes eyelids to fuse and clouds cornea eventually blindness Little house fly fannia canicularis cool season pest in chicken houses where larvae dev larvae are harder and have spikes pathogens exotic newcastle disease virus don t enter homes Sarcophagidae flesh fly larviparous eggs hatch internally so larvae are laid by female don t oviposit actually gives birth forensic ento found on dead things postmortem interval estimations robust setae on rear Calliphoridae blowflies blue black green bronze on decaying carcases VIP in forensic ento PMI estimations bue are first species to reach carcass upon death within seconds Eristalis syrphid fly rat tailed maggot snorkel feed on nectar and flowers develop in eutrophi water high in nut wash water from dairies freak ppl out by thinking they are parasites Hermetia illucens black soldier fly Family stratiomyidae bio control against house fly lays eggs where house flies are and repels them don t bite or sting ook like wasp two wings only no stinger has windows in front part of abdomen larvae leathery exoskeleton Fly indentification mouthparts chaetotaxy setal patterns antennal mor wing version look at patterns of veins l llaaia infestation of live human and vert animals with dipterous larvae which at some time feed on hosts livingdead tissus liquid body substances or ingested food skin organs body cavities Accidental myiasis quot pseudomyiasisquot can be in fecal materialdiapers in digestive tract of man or animalsgt ingested from food or water normaly no pathological manifestations who metabolists Psychodidae drain flies or moth flies Syrphidae hover flies Tephritidae the true fruit flies Calliphoridae blowflies Facultative myiasis larvae dev in decomposing organic matter can invade necrotice tissues woo maggot only prob in western hemisphere Wool maggots feed on fecal material high humidity feed on skin itself dig deeper invade existing wounds Obligatory true must develop in host can only dev in a vertebrate NORMALLY dev in or on body of living subdivided by predilection location where parasitic larvae are found Order diptera family oestrida subfaiy cuterebrinae gasterophilina hypodermatina oestrinae types digestive gasterophillnae nasopharngea resiratory oestrinae dermicsubdermic hypodermainae and cuterbrinae wound cochilomyia hominivorax calliphoridae wohlifartia sarcophigidae Oestrid flies 1 robust larvae bots or grumbs that are obligate parasites 2 no in vitro rearing from egg to pupae of any species 3 1st instars enter host molt twice spend entire larval life inside hosts as parasites 4 late 3rd instar leave host to pupate in soil dermatobia hominis tropical or human bot fly subfam cuterebrinae gasterophilus intestinalis common horse gasterophilus nasalis throat bot fy lays eggs on front of horses legs horse licks legs eggs hatch with humidity Subfamily Gasterophilnia damage 1 violent rxn of horse to presence or ovipositing female injurt 2 first instarts irritate oral tissue pus pocet 3 attachment to stomach wall in large s interferes with digestion 4 larval migans from 1st instars Subfamily Oestrinae ovoviviparity hatches live larvae Cephenemyia deer nasal fly in sinuses this is them sneezingcoughing in spring Oestrus oive sheep nose botgt doesn t feed as adut lifecyclegt adult female flicks eggs near cheep notes and crawls into nasal passages grows sneeze out larvae into ground pupates in chamber dev into fly can occur in humans Subfamily hypodermatinae and Cuterebrinae Hypodermatinae worvul on cow larvaebot cutere ra Hypodermatinae Hypoderma lineatum common cattle grub hypoderma bovis northern cattle grub Larvae developing inside eggs Ovipositor extruding egggtRow of eggs attached to hair shaft with glue in groupgtFirst instar burrowing into host skingtLarva migrating through connective tissue at back can enter spinal cord gtrear end emergence burrows into soil and pupatesgt grub darkens as it pupatesgtadult emerges Damagegadding bolting meat trim to get ride of damage host reduction abscesses hide d bot hypoderma larva warble swelling resulting from skin reduction to presence of larva H lineatum enters tissues of esophagus instead of spinal cord both reach lumbar feed on secretionsinflammatory cells generated by host in attempt to encyst larvae collagenase to dissolve collagen for foodblood not food can infest humans surface in neck systemic control macocycic lactones avermectins Cuterebrinae common in N America rodent and rabbits cuterebra spp squirrl bots comtimes dogs and cats lays egg on opening of host burrow rabbit hole hair brushes against opening and eggs burrow into skin dematobia hominis tropical warble fly human bot fl eggs attached to body of zoophilous flies or mosquitos phoretic vectors with zoophilous habits diurnal fliers day moderate in size and activity famiies include culicidae simullidae tabanidae ganniidae anothoyidae muscidae sarcophagiae calliphoidae host pref to vector not parasite furuncles is clue to vector wide range of vectors almost any warm blooded animal humans 48 species of flies mosquitos and tick from Mexico through SA adult flies resemble bluebottle very noisy in flight delivers eggs catches bloodsucking insects attaches eggs to abdomen with operculum downward carrier lands to feed warmth of skin stimulates larvae to hatch enter unbroken skin and dev wo migrationgt lesions 6 wks large larvae emerge and drop to soil to pupate Chemical control chlorinated hydrocarbons rare Organophosphates OP s eg dichlorvos DDVP Pyrethroids Naturalytes Phenylpyrazoles Macrocyclic lactones Screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax diptera calliphoidae wounds larvae that no longer breed in carcases but dependent on living tissues and live animals New WorldAmericas screwworm fly New world Cochliomyia hominivorax amp Cochliomyia macellaria ifecyce oviposition larvae in wound adults emerge papae in soil Chemical control Topical dressing of wounds using organophosphates like dichlorvos or coumaphos still used in poorer countries Matabicheira sprays Some success with fipronil Avermectins are all labeled for control treat many times per year steriization Males are sterilized using radiation Millions of flies are released by air over screwworm infested areas Wild female screwworms mate with sterile males becoming refractory to further mating insecticide applications The remarkable success of SIT sterile insect technique against the NWS huge in parasitology Eradication zone has reached the Darien Gap in Panama maintained Old World screw fly Chrysomya bezziana Auchmeromyia senegalensis congo floor calliphoridae sanguinivorous myiasis Sub Saharan Africa does not live on or in the host but sucks the blood of burrowdwelling aardvark hyena warthogs and occasionally sleeping humans sanguinivorous myiasis only known genus of blood sucking maggot to feed on mammals although others feed on birds Female flies lay their eggs on dry earth Larvae are nocturnal feeding for about twenty minutes then falling to the ground 3 larval instars and approx two weeks for pupation Complete life cycle 10 weeks and is continuous throughout the year Not known to transmit disease agents feeding results in irritation and swelling Cordylobia anthropophagaTumbu fly calliphoridae E and Central Africa large mammal Lay eggs in sandy soil or on damp clothing The eggs hatch and the larvae seek a host and burrow into the skin 3 larval instars 8 to 12 days Host develops multiple boil like sores usually on the arms the back or around the waist Prepupa exits skin and pupates in the soil wound debridement using maggots calliphoride larvae to remove necrotic tissue feed on non living tissue FDA approved 1 Tiny mouthparts more selective avoid damage to healthy tissue 2 Maggots secrete substances stimulate tissue healing such as allantoin 3 Maggots also secrete substances antibiotic properties Stable flygt Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus only species in americas canada to argentina 18 species worldwide from Africa where lg number of species exist native to africa europe asia and orient feed on lower portion of body legs udder butt avoid by running kicking stomping licking headslinging bunching damp decaying plant material NOT manure 39 areas both sexes drink blood looks like house fly but has blocks on abs attack around head pinna provide house to escape to adults 8 mm in length mating when females are 23 days old and 1 mating per life engorgement they become sluggish and fly to rest and digest bm vector of Habronema mircostoma nematorde causing summer sores in horses transmit Equine infectious anemia virus and bovine leukosis virus not on body long enough to be killed by insecticide Hornfly Haematobia irritants not on horses usually Both sexes are haematophagous and spend their entire adult life on the host Thus residual insecticides on the host are more effective against horn flies than against stable flies Except for the problem that many horn fly populations have developed resistance to most of the available insecticide classes Why do insecticidal ear tags promote rapid insecticide resistance TABANIDAE HORSE FLY DEER FLY SemiAquatic Larva develops in mud predaceous Only females blood feed Can mechanically transmit agents of anthrax Bacillus anthracis tularemia deer fly fever Francisella tularensis equine infectious anemia and other diseases biological transmission of Elaeophora schneideri arterial nematode of deer and sheep Strong fliers so may originate from miles away making source reduction not feasible HIPPOBOSCIDAE louse flies or keds Don t transmit disease agents don t cause illness Ticks have 8 legs insects only 6 deer ked lipotena spp sheep ked melophagus ovinus NYCTERIBIIDAE bat flies rarely seen Highly host specific Both sexes feed on blood Flattened spiderlike in appearance Lack eyes and Wings don t transmit diseases BAT FLlES NYCTERIBIIDAE AND STREBLIDAE Don t transmit any disease agents just novel apterous ectoparasitic flies Glossina spp Tsetse Fly spp speices plural Larvipositingproducing a fullydeveloped thirdinstar larva instead of laying an egg larva is laid on the ground negatively phototactic and positively thigmotactic burrows into the soil few hours it forms u arium AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS Nagana Trypanosoma brucei brucie catte African Sleeping sickness HUMAN Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and trypanosoma brucie rhodesiense affects brain become lethargic native cattle survive Eiders No nonpoisonous spiders no vegetarian spiders sik 8 legs 2 body segments pedipaps cephalothorax abdomen pedipaps used as antenna no antenna daddy long legs are NOT spidersgt only one body region Harvestmen Order opiliones class arachnida no venom glands don t secret silk Southern house spiders female gt most common doesn t hang in web American House spidergt second most common hangs 39n web Long bodied cellar spidergt third most common bounce in web when disturbed Funnel web spider Orb web spiders barn spider arrowshaped microthena and spined microthena both are small can t bite garden spider argiope very small males egg sacs chill all winter long looks like fig wolf spidergt in south carolina carried egg sac sixspotted fishing spider walks on water jumping spider TRAPDOOR SPIDER The heaviest spider found in Georgia Subterranean so seldom seen unless flooded out of burrow make tunnel and lid no tarantulas in eastern US Poisonous spiders incompetent outside of web australian red spider doesn t live in US black widow immature may have stripes males too small to bite Latrodectus mactans won t die from bite Brown widow orange hourglass spiked eggs Latrodectus geometricus Brown recuse outdoors never in web has violin on back has six eyes instead of 8 in 3 pairs no abdomen markings spider bites 963 bites only 19 brown recluse spiders don t do well in Ga only in northwestern area chance of being bit by brown recluse low gt more likely to die in car accident going to doctor barn spider indoors in web dermonectrotic wound not recluse spider bite Venomous and stinging arthropods Hymenoptera honey bee apis mellifera amily apidae only insects with stingers derived from ovipositor true defensiveoffensive venom european honey bee apis mellifera pollination only workers can string have Queen male drones don t have ovipositor so can t sting gather nectar arge 39 social stinger and surrounding tissue dies venom glands go with it Venom histamine and other vasoactive amines mellitin a protein with detergent activity apamin a neurotoxin the enzymes phospholipase A2 acid phosphatase function to disrupt cell membranes cause pain and hyaluronidase breaks down extracellular matrix allows venom to spread in skin Death can result from envenomation Rare as LD50 gt1000 stings for adult male gt800 stings for female First aid Remove stinger immediately with fingernail or by grabbing it and pulling it out Venom gland will continue to pump venom for a minute so quick removal less venom injected less pain Pinching gland won t increase amount of venom injected Time is critical factor don t waste time looking for credit card lce pack or similar cold compress good for pain More serious problem severe allergic reaction leading to anaphylactic shock excessive drop in blood pressure due to histamine constriction of bronchial tubes and hence suffocationgt A single sting can be fatal About 50 deathsyr in US due to stings TX bee sting kits noradrenalin to maintain blood pressure antihistamines Nevergve NSADs such as Tylenol Advil Aspirin These block pain by inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymes to block prostaglandin synthesis this will increase production of leukotrienes make problem worse Africanized bees aka Killer Bees Accidental release of 26 queens of the African honey bee Apis mellifera scutellata in Brazil in 1957 mated with local honey bee males so problem is introgression of africanized genes into local populations Spread North at about 400 kmyr in Texas 1990 other southern states soon after October 2010 south Georgia Appearance almost exactly like European honeybees shorter wings Less venomsting compared to European honeybees Problem Aggressive vigorously defend hive larger zone of defense end to move hive frequently so suddenly appear in new areas will attack in response to minor disturbance noise mass attack will follow for up to A mile f attacked get into vehicle where bees are less able to get at you if unable drop and cover face neck Northern US limit bc for cold winter Bumble bee Bombus don t make hive solitary not aggressive but can sting Carpenter bee has slick abdomen males come up to face and threaten but can t sting white spot don t make hive solitary not aggressive but can sting Family Vespidae Yellow 39acket 13 species in NA underground nests workers aggressive when Queens producing colonies most eat protein garbage burgers gt keep eye on food so not to ingest it cut down on s Plastic dish pan or wash basin A tbsp of liquid dish soap nonscented 3 sticks about 13 inches long 2 or 3 tie wires A 3 or 4 inch piece of wire12 inches of string A piece of raw fish don t lure in yellowjackets Paper wasps polistes caps on cells have larvaegt egg to larvae European hornet Vespa crabro no cross rxn with allergies to honey bees Mud daubermud tube nests with spiders paralyzed soitary sing only if provoked Family Sphecida C Killer Cicada Killer Waspgt black body compared to hornet that has pale body Sphecus specosus largest species in GA male cannot sting Loxosceles reculsa are reclusivegt not in GA lchneumonid Clark Beusse s can t sting humans 3 in long ovipositor to drill hole in tree in or more to get to grub can sense grub vibrations velvet ant Mutillidae wingless wasp not an ant male does have wings femae winglessgt can sting very painful sting but not deadly feed on nectar undergound nests of soliary bees lay one egg and parasitize bee larvaa Fire ant stinger that injects venom causes problem Four species found within the southeastern US Two native tropical and southern and two imported species red and black have displaced natives black and red imported from South America and entered at the port of Mobile in soil used as ballast Black imported fire ant arrived around 1918 and red imported fire ant arrived in the late 1930 s exploded since got here red more aggrissive and quicker spereadiing in southeats The black imported fire ant is found only in extreme northeast Mississippi northwest Alabama and a few counties in Tennessee Life cycle consists of egg larva pupa and adult Eggs are small hatch into grublike larvae Larvae are fed by the workers fourth instar can consume solid food Adult ants can t eat solid food sieve like structure Older larvae eat and convert to liquids eaten by workers queen and younger larvae baits are effective Molt to pupal stage which is initially white but darkens as it matures Molt to an adult no fire ants can feed on solid food adult queen Most adults are sterile worker ants all wingless female Those that receive extra food become larger larvae reproductive adults winged Produced once a year in the spring in preparation for mating flight Male larvae develop into winged adult males which are black with a smaller head and larger upper body Winged males and females mate in midair They then fall back to the ground where males die shortly after Mated queen s wings detach she digs a hole in ground this sealed hole nest is where she begins to lay her eggs which will develop into small workers in about a month or two One queen in a colony is called monogyne ight with each other More than one queen is polygyne will not fight These are more difficult to control Spread by budding Have much higher mound densities 1000 per acre Average 60 mounds per acre 300 mounds per acre in Texas Mature colony may contain around 400000 individuals imporeted 320000000gt 14 states Medical importance Sting Humans Burning and itching sensation followed by formation of white pustule remains for weeks Allergic chest pains nausea dizziness or shock Ecosystem Displace ground dwelling animals Economic Impact cause 6 billion losses in the U S Nesting Can damage plants ornamental and crop lawns outdoorindoor electrical fixtures and reduce property value Biological control phorid fly protozoan parasitic ant solenopss dagerrei must combine efforts Bite vs sting fire ant sting hurts worse insecticide slow acting in oil ant love oil bait spread ants find them every 4 6 months shade 5090 deg UV activated after a rain is really apparent Pogonomyrmex harvester Ant impressive mounds intensely painful sting but rare bc ants are large and avioded Monomorium pharaonis pharaoh ant can even be in book inside lV lines in hospitals transmit pathogens polygynous cosmo Uriticating caterpillars stinging hairs break off on contact vemon gland at base inject venom when broken hairs continue to irritate acetylcoine in vemon caterpilar dematitis saddleback catterpilla sibine stimulea late summerfall on oaks and nut trees pine walnut Puss caterpillar spines under hairs don t pet lo moth hag mothgt 4 are most likely in GA NOT harmful Hickory horned devil and tomato hornworm Vaejovis carolinianus eastern stripeless scorpion southern devil scorpion stinger in anus rear end Diplopoda millipedes feet in pairs harmless can t bite or sting Chilopoda house centipede wheel bug cut down on caterpillars mouthpart can go into sin Delusory Parasitosis Ekbom syndrome individual considers himself infested by invisible bugs an erroneous unshakable beliefthat skin is infected with a parasite deusion false belief that isn t consistent with pt intelligence ed level or cultural bkgnd DP is common most common delusional disorder 250000 cases ppl in pairs or groups in shared folieadeuxgt entire offices families anyone can have it demographics symptoms management behaviors medical hx comorbidites elderly female self destructive behavior jobs burndestroy furniture abandon home OCD cleaning pesticide misuse home remedies selfmutulationsexcoriation provide specimens tissue debris elaborate descriptions of pest and life cycle social isolation major life event divorce job loss several physicians are consulted 3 yr is avg time of delusions complain of crawling stinging biting and itching sensation adamant its an infestation express desperation deusion eventually shared by others formication bugs crawling on skin neuropathy from diabetes cocaine bugs and meth mites psychological causes stress anxiety depression don39t call wounds bites no insect or bite can live in environment and switch to infest human body can t feed on inorganic mat no furniture or carpeting no winged insects invisible mites or insects infest humans no external animal parasites can infest bird mites can infest ive and scabies live exclusively on human bodies no role for pest control in tx medical condition Test 3 study guide Apis mellifera european honey bee I usedforpollination 30 ofallfood honey production I Queen male drones workers highly social make large hive I sterile workers forage for pollen nectar will defend hive by stinging modified ovipositor I death can result from envenomation venom contain many components including histamine and other vasoactive amines mellitin apamin neurotoxin and enzymes phoslipase A2 acid phosphatase and hyaluronidase neurotoxin I more common problem is allergic rxn leading to analphylactic shock excessive drop in BP due to histamine constriction of bronchial tubes I treatment noradrenalin to maintain BP antihistamines I DO NOT GIVE tylenol aspirin will increase leukotrienes and make problem worse Auchmeromyia senegalensisi congo floor maggot I i e cyclefemales lay eggs on dry earth or earthen floors of huts Larvae are nocturnal feeding for about 20 minutes then falling to ground They have 3 larval instars and about 2 weeks needed for pupation Complete life cycle takes 10 weeks and is continuous throughout year I habitat of each stage in subsaharan africa I feeding habits of each stage does not live on or in host but sucks the blood of burrowdwelling aardvark hyena and occasionally sleeping humans only maggot to feed on mamma s I why it s a pest I pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how not known to transmit disease but feeding causes irritation and swe 39ng I where it s found I common and scientific names I any distinctive or unique features fully grown maggots 18 mm long I control Bacillus anthracis transmitted by tabanidae C entruroides exilicaudo orizona bark scorpion only dangerous scorpion in US found in arizona and surrounding states C entruroides hentzi H entz39s striped scorpion found in orida south georgia and south alabama Cephenemyia deer botfly I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s foun common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I control Chrysomya bezziana old world screwworm Chrysops deer fly I life cycle they lay eggs near wound or on leaves larvae develop in wound 2001000 eggs larvae with 3 instars they have a siphon predaceous pupae 13 weeks adults mate in swarms habitat of each stage larvae associated wmucky soil adults are often close to water feeding habits of each stage adult make a hole lap up blood Females feed on blood males feed on pollen why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how obligate myiasis dependent on living tissues and therefore live animals Transmit Loa loa filarial disease worms migrate through skin producing treated wivermectin I where it s found I common and scientific names I any distinctive or unique features large moutparts large amount of blood on mouthparts allow for mechanical transmission I control Cachliamyia haminivarwc new world screwwarm y I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why its a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s oun common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features control topical dressing of wounds using organophosphates like dichlorvos or coumaphos still used in poorer countries 39 39 sprays 39 T quot treatment of each individual animal I Using the sterile insect technique male ies from colonies are sterilized using radiation millions of ies are released by air over screwworm infested areas Wild females mate with sterile males becoming refractory to f mating Effort supplemented with insecticide applicatoins Cachliamyia macellaria secondary screwwarm y I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features control Cardylabia anthrapaphaga T umbu y I life cycle females lay eggs in sandy soil Eggs hatch and larvae seek host and burrrow into skin 3 larval instars require only 8 to 12 days Prepupa exits skin and pupates in soi habitat of each stageparasite of large mammals found in east and central africa feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and howHost develops multiple boillike sores usually on arms back or around waist where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features control can be extracted in similar manner as dermatobia bacon therapy Clenacephalidesfelis cal eas I life cycle pupation may last 1 week to several months Larvae spin silk cocoons which adheres to debris Larva molts to pupal stage and then it molts to adult stage This requires about a week Preemerged adult can survive within cocoon for months until it senses host proximity habitat of each stage host eas spending adult life on vertebrate host feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features larvae slender yellowwhite legless and eyeless segmentally arranged bristles chewing mouthparts feed on dried blood and other organic debris I control steam cleaning kills call eas stages in carpet and remove adult ea feces so ea larvae starve to death Cuterebra rodent and rabbit bots I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I ontrol Cuterebra emasculator i e cyc e habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I control Dolichovespula only 2 particularly dangerous aerial yellowjacket D Arenaria and baldfaced hornet D maculata nest are above ground workers can squirt venom into nest intruder s eyes as well as sting Underground nests workers most aggressive when colony producing queens and males Dolichovespula arenarz39a aerial yellow jacket Dolichovespula maculata baldfaced hornet Dermatobia hominis tropical warble fly I life cycle development requires about 6 weeks large mature larvae mature larvae emerge and drop to soil to pupate habitat of each stage almost any warmblooded animal used as host attacks humans feeding habits of each stage adults catches bloodsuckers attaches eggs to abdomen with operculum oriented downward When carriers land to feed warmth of skin stimulates larvae to hatch The larvae enter unbroken skin and begin to develop without migrating Causes painful lesions if on scalp bot can swell to large size If fuInucles are concentrated around legs then carrier is probably a cow why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s oun common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I control pyrethroids permethrin phenylpyrazoles macrocyclic lactones ivermectin Dipylidium caninum dog tapeworm transmitted by dog or cat biting the ea Tapeworm proglottids are ingested by ea larva and they develop along with the ea with the ea with infective cysticercoid stage in adult ea In grooming dogscats consume eas Cysticeroid is released within host intestine The tapeworm attaches attaches to the small intestine wall and tapeworm matures there releasing the eggfilled terminal proglottid which migrates down intestinal tract exists the anus and falls into host39s environment Flea larvae grazing in area accidentally bite into dried proglottid and ingest tapeworm eggs starting cycle over Echidnophaga gallinacea I life cycle complete metamorphosis I habitat of each stage eas prefer areas around head bc they like less densely feathered portions feeding habits of each stage females insert mouthparts in skin and remain embedded for rest of lives sucking blood and making eggs why it s a pest attack mostly birds but also mammals pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names poultry sticktight ea I any distinctive or unique features I control Elaeophora schneiden39 I 39 e cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s oun common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features control Entomophthora fungi that affects flies insect specific so no risk to other animals fungus penetrates into body cavity and grows within body producing conidia that erupt with sufficient force through the body wall to be propelled several centimeters Other flies become infected thru environmental exposure or through direct exposure to y cadavers Eristalis rattailed maggot I life cycle habitat of each stage larvae are acquatic and breathes thru snorkel posterior extension rat tail feeding habits of each stage adults are called hover ies and feed on nectar or po en why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how harmless but frequently cause alarm when ppl discover them ppl think they are internal parasites I where it s found I common and scientific names I any distinctive or unique features control Fannia caniculan39s little house y I life cycle habitat of each stage cool season pest in opensided poultry houses Larvae develop in poultry in manure feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how carry pathogens such as Exotic newcastle disease virus Rarely enter homes I where it s found I common and scientific names I any distinctive or unique features I contro Francisella tularensis cause of tularemia Gasterophilus intestinalis I life cycle female fly glues eggs to hair on horses foreleg Horse licking stimulates larval emergence Larvae are licked into the horse39s mouth where they burrow into oral epithelium producing pus pockets The second instar is swallowed Larvae attach to nonglandular portion of stomach wall Large numbers of mature larvae can occlude a significant portion of stomach Third instar completes development detaches and is carried out thru intestines and deposited w feces habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why its a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I control Gasterophilus nasalis nose bot flies I life cycle I habitat of each stage I feeding habits of each stage I why it s a pest I pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how I where it s found I common and scientific names I any distinctive or unique features I control Glassina Islese y I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features cleaver cell in wing bayonet like mouthparts I contro Glassz39na marsitans tstese y I life cycle larva nurtured in uterus fed thru milk gland egg hatches in 4 days lst instar 1 day 2nd instar 15 days 3quoti instar 25 days Laid as mature 3quoti instar larvae Burrows into soil and pupates Adult females can live 2040 days produce one offspring a week habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how trypanosomes enter with infective blood meal replicate within fly s gut confined by peritrophic matrix cyclopropagative undergoes both development and multiplication Move posteriorly exit peritrophic matrix at hindgut where natural rips and tears appear begin to move anteriorly in space between peritrophic matrix and gut wall lLigrate up salivary duct to infect salivary glands epimastigotes When fly feeds on next host trypanosomes are injected along with salivary secretions I where it s found I common and scientific names I any distinctive or unique features I control no Vaccine available bc antigenic variation Trypanosomes express abundant surface glycoprotein which is antigenic elicits antibodymediated immune response They have genes encoding over a thousands such proteins genetic splicing results in many thousands of potential different proteins only one promoter so only one surface protein expressed at one time at any one time the vast majority express 1 variant but there will be a few individuals that have had a genetic rearrangement and express a different surface protein Eventually the imune response kills off the parasites expressing the common protein but the rare ones arent recognized to they proliferate As they proliferate a few rare ones undergo a further resrrangement so now they are different from the rest Eventually again common ones killed but rare ones escape and proliferate Result is continuous upanddown cycles of parasite numbers in host Host will never catch up bc thousands of surface proteins possible cant be eliminated by immune system I Past strategy of control remove trees where flies rest largescale insecticide spraying both suffer from undesirable environmental impact cost I current strategy trapping flies are visual hunters stimulated by silhouette blue against black coloration traps can be baited w cow urine It takes advantage of low reproductive capacity of tsetse ies Females produce few offspring invest heavily in those few Additionaly mortality traps on top of natural causes of mortality cant be made up so populations decline Habranema micrastama spirun39d nematode I auses summer sores cutaneous habronemiasis in horses Haematabia im39lans Ham y I life cycle oviposit only in fresh bovine manure I habitat of each stage I feeding habits of each stage both sexes blood feed spend entire life on host I why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how blood loss and animal irritation but not known to transmit disease where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features control residual insecticides are effective use dung beetles to limit maggot habitat Hermetia illucens soldier y I life cycle I habitat of each stage I feeding habits of each stage larvae compete whouse y larve excluding them Prevents house y oviposition by repelling female house ies why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how harmless cant bite or sting where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features windowpanes in first abdominal segment larvae have dark leathery exoskeleton I control used in biological control against Important in PM estimation Hippelates eye gnat I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage feed around eyes and body orifices lapping uids why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how they can mechanically vecot causative agent of yaws and some other diseases where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I contro Hydrotaea aenescens I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s foun common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features control Hypoderma bovis northern cattle grub I life cycle I habitat of each stage eggs attached to hairs larvae burrow into skin migrate dorsally ending up in the lumbar region Along way they may enter spinal cord and tunnel between the dura mater and the periosteum for some distance before exiting to tissue of back feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I control Hypoderma lineatum common cattle grub I i e cycle similar migration thru host as northern cattle grub but enter tissues of esophagus instead of spinal cord Both species reach lumbar region reverse orientation so spiracles have access to air They feed on secretionsin ammatory cells generated by host in attempt to encyst larva39 saliva contains collaginase to dissolve collagen for food Blood not normal component of food When mature grubs emerge from skin they fall to ground pupate Life cycle requires about a year I habitat of each stage I feeding habits of each stage I why it s a pest I pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how infestation can result in partial or total paralysis of legs I where it s found I common and scientific names I any distinctive or unique features I control main impact is loss of cattle damage to leather from holes cost of control Control with organophosphates OP s macrocyclic lactones ivermectin etc highly effective againsst bot fly larve whether administered orally by injection or applied topically absorbed thru skim Lipaplena deer ke I larva is retained in mother s uterus nourished by milk gland Mature larva is larviposited immediately pupates and falls to the ground The newly emerged adult is winged and must fly to seek a new host Once it locates a host it breaks off its wings and is thenceforth associated with that host Not known to transmit any disease agents Loa loa Lucilia cupr ina I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I contro Loxosceles reclusa Lucilia cuprina Lucilia sericala I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I control Melaphagus avinus sheep tick sheed ked I life cycleflightless entire life cycle completed on host adult female incubates larva in uterus retaining until ready to pupate mature third instar larva is attached to hair of host to pupate Lature larva is larvaposited and glued to host39s wool Adult emerges in 19 to 36 days depending on temp Each female can produce 10 to 15 larvae Engorged females can live up to 8 days off host habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s oun common and scientific names any distinctive or unique featuresPiercing pouthparts to suck blood cause anemia irritation I control M egalopyge opercularz39s puss caterpillar M onomorium pharaom39s Pharoah anti cosmopolitan polygnus main problem is contamination in hospitals nursing homes clinics etc Maraxella bovis I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage Why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how Where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features control Musca autumnalis Face y life cycle habitat of each stage oviposit in fresh bovine feces Larvae feed and develop in manure pat pupa are calcified so they are White feeding habits of each stage why its a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how mechanically vectors moraxella pinkeye and Thelazia eyeworms Where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features control Musca dames ca life cycle produces 100150 eggs per batch eggs can hatch Within 1 day Larval development can be as short as 3 days and adults can emerge Wihin 3 days of pupation Maggots need organic material for food and moisture to prevent desiccation habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage Why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how Where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features control keeping flies out of structures Musca sarb ens bazaar I life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage Why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how human enteric disease Where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features closely associated Whouse ies they provide bridge for fecaloral pathogen life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage Why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how Where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features control I Muscidifurax parasite Musca Domestica Nasam39a parasitoid wasp that parasitize blow flies and esh flies Nasapsjyllusfascialus northern ral ea life cycle complete metamorphosis eggs 7 larvae a pupa a cocoon a adult habitat of each stage most are nest eas spending most of time in the host39s nest I feeding habits of each stage move onto host to feed when its sleeping most feed during the day ea egg laid on host not sticky collects in host environment why its a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names northern rat ea any distinctive or unique features hematophagous can39t survive wo host I control Nycteribiidaebat ies highly host specific Both sexes bloog feed Flattened spiderlike in appearance Do not have eyes or wings Oestrus ovis sheep nasa but life cycle habitat of each stage in nasal sinuses feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how symptom nasal discharge where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I contro Peromyscus vector of harttavirus lyme disease bubonic plague Phaenicia sericata greenbottle y Phormia regiria black blow y used in maggot therapy Pogonomyrmex harvester ant 7 intensely painful sting but rare as ants are large and red and generally avoided Pollstes paper wasps Protocalliphora bird blow ies Pulex irritans human flea ife cycle complete metamorphosis habitat of each stage adults feed on host feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest blood sucker pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s foun common and scientific names human ea any distinctive or unique features 7 no pronotal or genal combs mesopleuron without thickened bar primarily pest I control Rattus rattus rats that vector yersiriia pectis Rickettsia typhi 7 Flea borne Typhus 7 circulates among peridomestic opossums dogs and cats transmitted by cat eas Ctenocephalides felis 7 Symptoms fever headache joint pain and confusion About half of patients develop rash that resolves within 34 days 7 it can cause death l2 but is easily treated w doxycycline Sibirie stimulea saddleback caterpillar Spalangia wasp Stomoxys calcitrans stable fly I life cycle larvae are typical muscoid larvae needs organic material and damp environment compost piles are good incubators Mating only occurs when females are 23 days old 1 mating per lifetime adults live 23 weeks I habitat of each stage sole species of stomoxys in americas thought to have arisen in africa where largest exist Native to africa europe asia I feeding habits of each stage feed on lower portion of body both sexes blood feed attack around head particularly pinna I why it s a pest most important arthropod pest of cattle in the US 1 billion pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how developmental vector of habronema microstoma spirurid nematode minor role as mechanical vector of equine infectious anemia virus and bovine leukosis virus where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features adults 78 mm checkerboard on abdomen control avoidance behaviors by cattle running kicking stamping headslinging licking bunching standing in water farriers use fans mechanical control strategy Because they spend such a short time on host they dont pick up enoudh insecticide to kill them Tabanus life cycle habitat of each stage feeding habits of each stage why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how where it s found common and scientific names any distinctive or unique features I contro Thelazia eyewarms vector is musca autumnalis ace y Trypanasama bmcei bmcei Nagana cattle all glossina species involved as vectors Native large mammals can be chronically infected function as reservoirs Introduced domestic large animal highly susceptible Causes chronic anemia weakness loss of muscle mass scurfy skin enlarged lymph nodes fever Significant impact on establishment of ranching during colonization of africa Trypanasama bmcei gambiense Chronic African sleeping sickness human I in west and central africa I skin lesion and swelling within a week trypanosomes spread to lymph nodes cause enlargement I after months to year parasites enter nervous system causing behavioral and personality changes and hallucinations I drowsy during day sleepless at night tremors convulsion coma and eat I trypanosomes only have freeliving trypomastigote and epimastigote stages in vertebrate host not inside host cells Trypanasama brucei rhadesiense Acute African sleeping sickness human I in east africa acute onset of fever headache dizziness within days of bite little or no involvement of lymph nodes myocardial and pericardial in ammation leads to arrhythmia tachycardia generalized damage to red blood cells vasculature in heart brain and other organs anemia thrombocytopenia abnormal white count disseminated intravascular coagulation follow parasites localize to blood vessels of CNS neurological symptoms similar to chronic form death occurs weeks to months after infection I trypanosomes only have freeliving trypomastigote and epimastigote stages in vertebrate host not inside host cells Trypoxylon Mud dauber Builds mud tube nests Provisions with spiders paralyzed but not killed sting solitary stings only if provoked Tunga penetrans I life cycle complete metamorphosis lays 2025 eggs a day I habitat of each stage skin of host Eggs therefore are laid while the female is on the host and eggs fall off the host larvae develop in soi I feeding habits of each stage female adults have mouthparts permanently embedded in skin and attached to capillaries for continuous feeding why it s a pest pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how tungiasis from bite of ea where it s found common and scientific names chigoe eas any distinctive or unique features control Vaejovis caroliriiarius eastern stripeless scorpion our most common scorpion occuring throughout southeast Vespula Wahlfahrtia eash y 0r screwwarm y Cause Myiasis Xenapsylla cheapis I life cycle complete metamorphosis I habitat of each stage I feeding habits of each stage I why it s a pest I pathogenesis or pathogens transmitted and how Yersinia pestis plague bacteria increase in ea creating plug that blocks proventriculus ea cant swallow so when it tries to feed blood rebound and ows back into host carrying plague bacteria I Transmission partly temerature dependent below 275 degrees eas have a blockage and proventriculus is occluded 4 bacteria proliferation 4 warm blood partially dissolves clot releasing large number of bacteria I in mammalian host capsule protects against phagocytic destruction complement I where it s found I common and scientific names oriental rat ea I any distinctive or unique features mesopleuron with rodshaped bar I contro Xylocopa carpenter bees solitary don39t make hive not aggressive but females capable of stinging Yersinia pestis small gramnegatice nonmotile rods Bubonic plague is the typical form associated w ea bite lymph nodes become very swollen bubos they may ulcerate releasing large numbers of bacteria septicemic plague occurs when bacilli move to a bloodborne infection and disseminate throughout body loss of vascular integrity often followed by gangrene pneumonic plague infection in lungs can be transmitted directly by coughin plague is treatable with antibiotics but death can occur in couple of days if not antibiotics still around lk to 3k deaths a year Brachycera in order diptera first two degments of antenna greatly expanded remainder reduced to filamentlike structure arista mostly stoutbodied ies large compound eyes many strong yers some wing ess Calliphoridae typical adults have metallic appearance and may be green black blue or bronze Common on decaying carcasses significant in forensic entomology prociding PMI estimations one of first organisms to dead carcasses Chilopoda possess poison fa s Chloropidae grass ies This family contains eye gnats Culicidae mosquito Cuterebrinae rodent bots Diplopoda millipedes Diptera ies Gasterophilinae bot ies Glossinidae tsetse Fly Hippoboscidaeproboscis covered by palps antennae in pits head short shrunken into thorax legs widely separated abdomen saclike body doroventrally attened some species ightless other can y to new hosts then drop wings ectoparasites as adults nurture young internally in uterus nourished by milk gland They dont transmit disease or illness Hypodermatinae warble ies Muscidae house ies and stable ies Mutillidae Velvet ants Nematocera elongated ies Nycteribiidae bat ies dont trasmit disease just wingless bloodfeeders Oestridae robust larvae known as bots or grubs which are all obligate parasites of mammals lst instars enter host molt twice and spend entire larval life inside host as parasites late 3 instars leave host to pupate in soil Adults are beelike with reduced moutparts and dont feed Oestrinae bot y Opiliones daddy long legs Sarcophagidae esh y play significant role in forensic entomology providing postmortem interval robust setae on posterior estimations Scarabeidae scarab beetles Simuliidae black y Siphonaptera eas Stratiomyidae soldier ies Streblidae bat ies dont trasmit disease just Wingless bloodfeeders Syrphidae hover ies Tabanidae horse y deer y semiaquatic larva develops in mud predaceous only females blood feed Can mechanically transmit agents of anthrax tularemia equine infectious anemia and other diseases Biological transmission of elaeophora schneideri artificial nematode of deer and sheep strong iers may originate from miles away making source reduction not feasi e adult adult ea feces eas eat it adulticide pesticide designed to kill adult or mature insects aerial yellowj acket sting or squirt venom Africanized bees killer bees appearance like european honeybees They are aggressive defend hive larger zone of defense they will attack in response to minor disturbance even noise they may follow up to A mile African eye worm also known as Loa loa filariasis African trypanosomiasis from tsetse y African sleeping sickness african trypanomyasis from glossina American house spider antenna anthrax anthropophagous eating hum ans esh anthropophilic preferring human beings to other animals antigenic apterousno wing or winglike extensions arista on antenna of brachycera arterial nematode of deer lumpy jaw arthropod atrophied autogeny spontaneous generation of an organism avermectins pesticide bait baldfaced hornet dolichovespula maculta barn spider bat y bazaar y biological control using parasites parasitoids predators pathogens or competitors to eliminate pest ies biological transmission involving a biological process eg passing a stage of development of the infecting agent in an intermediate host Opposite to mechanical transmission black dump y black imported fire ant originated from south america came to mobile ala Black imported fire ant arrived around 1918 found only in extreme east of mississippi NW alabama and some of tennessee Hase 10 segmented antenna 2 segmented antennal club stinger two segmented pedicel 2 nodes Life cycle consists of egg larva pupa and adult Eggs are small39 hatch into grublike larvae Larvae are fed by workers 43911 instar can consume solid food adult ants can39t eat solid food Older larvae eat and convert to liquids eaten by workers queen and younger larvae baits are effective Molt to pupal stage which is initially white but darkens as it matures molt to an adult Most adults are sterile worker ants all wingless female Those that receive extra food become larger larvae reproductive adults winged Produced once a year in the spring in preparation for mating ight Male larvae develop into winged adult males which are black with a smaller head and larger upper body Winged ants most common in spring Queen can live up to 7 years and produce 1000 a day Younger workers are nurse ants move the queen and brood Older worker ants forage for food Worker ants live 6090 days Eggs that are fertilized develop into sterile workers on fertile winged females Unfertilized eggs develop into winged males winged males and females mate in midair then they fall to ground and males die Mated queen39s wings detach and she digs a hole in ground This sealed hole nest is where she begins to lay her eggs which will develop into small workers in about a month or two One qu black soldier y black widow spider latrodectus mactans blocked ea blow y bovine bot bot y bovine keratoconjunctivitis pink eye in cows bovine leukosis virus brown recluse spider fiddle on cephalothorax not in web no abdominal markings 6 eyes in 3 pairs brown widow spider egg sacs spiky like a sandspur bubo blister bubonic plague yersinia pestis transmitted by xenopsylla cheopis bumblebee solitary bees don39t make a hive not aggressive but capable of stinging if handled bunching cows bunch together with their butts facing out bc of stable ies cadaver dead body Calabar swellings local in ammatory reactions produced by Loa Loa african eye worm from it migrating through host39s skin Calcified calcified like how musca autumnalis pupae are face y carcass carpenter bee castration cat ea ctenocephalides felis caterpillar dermatitis centipede cephalopharyngeal skeletonarticulated sclerites of the mature larva chaetotaxy arrangment of bristles on insect chigoe ea chitin substance that hardens the insect exoskeleton chitinized chronic sleeping sickness cholera cicada killer wasp sphecius speciousus cleaver cell common cattle grub complete metamorphosis Congo oor maggot cosmopolitan crab spider crepuscular animals that are active during twilight ctenidium cutaneous habronemiasis summer sores Habranema micraslama cyclodevelopmental cyclopropagative the agent undergoes both development and multiplication in the transmitting vehicle daddy longlegs harvestman opiliones no venom glands do not secrete silk single body segment debridement removal of dead infected tissue deer y deer y fever tularemia caused by fancisella tularensis primary vector is deer y deer ked deer nose bot dehorning dermic dermonecrotic causing necrosis of skin desiccation diethylcarbamazine treatment of some patients with filarial disease diurnal active in daytime dog ea dog tapeworm dorsoventrally attened drone dung beetle family scarabeidae 7 disruptmanure to maximize drying Remove manure reduce pasture fouling limit maggot habitat dysentery egg egg sac Ekbom Syndrome endemic infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs enzootic infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs but for non humans epidemicnew cases of a certain disease in a given human population and during a given period substantially exceed what is expected based on recent experience epizootic new cases of a certain disease in a given nonhuman population and during a given period substantially exceed what is expected based on recent experience equine infectious anemia virus European honey bee European hornet vespa crabro can sting repeatedly don39t leave stinger like honeybees eutrophic eutrophic water high in nutrients such as water from dairies exclusion keeping ies out of structures ex using screens on windows and doors exoskeleton external digestion by musca domesticus eyeworm face y facultative myiasis diptera whose larvae normally develop in decomposing organic matter but will occasionally invade necrotic tissues of living animals fecaloral transmission fishing spider ea ea allergy dermatitis eaborne typhus fleece worms invade existing wounds weeping sores or areas that are wet such as soiled wool around anus esh y y strike myiasis forensic entomology the application and study of insect and other arthropod biology to criminal matters freeliving funnelweb spider furuncle boil gadding moving from one place to another genal ctenidium glycoprotein gonotrophic cycle egg production laying cycle of the female mosquito gru haematophagous blood feeders hag moth halteres harvester ant harvestman hatchet cell holometabolous complete metamorphosis horn y horse y host ea house centipede house y human bot y Hym enoptera only insects with stingers derived from ovipositor true defensiveoffensive venom imported fire ant infestation insect growth regulatorexample is methoprene insect growth regulator IGR that kills ea larvae Also penetrates egg shell and kills embryo within Animals treated with it retain enough residue on hair so eggs on animal pick up lethal dose lnstar developmental stage of arthropods such as insects between each molt ecdysis until sexual maturity is reached io moth ivermectin anti parasitic jumping spider kselection ked keratoconjuctivitis when the cornea is in amed larval migransa skin disease in humans caused by the larvae of various nematode parasites the most common of which in the Americas is Ancylostoma braziliense larvicide larviparous eggs hatch internally so that larvae are laid by female larviposition laterally compressed little house y loiasis longbodied cellar spider 7 bounce in web when disturbed louse y macrocyclic lactone treatment against parasites includes ivermectin maggot therapy maggots have small mouthparts that can selectively remove necrotic tissue leaving healthy tissue undamaged additionally they secret substances that dissolve necrotic tissue combat infection and stimulate healing mammalophilic manure mechanical transmission the transfer as of a disease from one person to another Mesopleuron the lateral surfaces of the mesothorax metamorphosis methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus methoprene insect growth regulator IGR that kills ea larvae Also penetrates egg shell and kills embryo within Animals treated with it retain enough residue on hair so eggs on animal pick up lethal dose milk gland millipede monogyne one queen in ant colony MRSA methicillin resistant staphylococcua aureus mud dauber myiasis infestation of live human and vertebrate animals w dipterous larvae which at least for a certain period of time feed on host39s living tissue liquid bodysubstances or ingest food nagana nasopharyngeal nasopharyngeal myiasis necrosis neonate nest ea nocturnal nonfunctional mouthparts vestigial northern cattle grub northern rat ea obligatory myiasis those species of diptera having larvae which normally develop in or on body of living vertebrates May be further subdivided into their predilection sites or the location where parasitic larvae are found ocular bristle Old World screwworm ophthalmomyiasisNOSOC0mial myiasis developed in comatose patient when Calliphorid y oviposited in the canthus Larvae fed on ocular exudates orb web spider organophosphate Oriental rat ea oviposition ovipositor ovoviviparity maternal care by scorpions mother carries babies around on her back paper wasp parasite parasitic antSolenopsis dagerrei queen attaches to host queen and takes her food slowly killing her Brood is taken care of by host workers parasitoid an organism that spends its immature stages in or on another organism the host which it eventually kills Adult parasitoids are freeliving Some examples are hydrotaea aenescens black dump y larvae develop in manure and feed on house y larvae and eggs Some parasitoids used to control filth ies they oviposit in y puparia and the larvae consumes developing y in the puparium Parasitoid s life cycle from eg through emerging adult occurs in host39s puparium peridomestic peritremechitinous ring that surrounds spiracular plate peritrophic matrix pharaoh ant phoresy One animal attaching to another for transportation only phorid y coffin y phototactic moving in response to light stimulus piercingsucking mouthparts pinkeye 7 moraxella vectored by musca autumnalis pigeon y plague pneumonic plagueCats are susceptible to plague often acquire infection thru huntin and biting infected prey allows bacillus to infect submandibular gland gt which progresses to pneumonic plague infection in lungs can be transmitted directly by coughing poikilotherm insects development rate varies with temperature pollination polygyne more than one queen called polygene More difficult to control spread by budding Have much higher mound densities average 60 mounds per acre 300 mounds per acre in texas mature colony may contain around 400000 ants postmortem interval estimation succession of insects that colonize the body Based on the insects present at the time a reasonable time frame for death may be established predaceous preemerged adult proboscis proglottid successive segments progottids pronotal ctenidium protozoan proventricular plug related to plague pruritus itching pseudomyiasis dipterous larvae found in digestive tract of mananimals which have been accidentally ingested wfood or water Normally no pathological manifestations Larvae especially from families psychodidae syrphidae tephridae and calliphoridae pupa puparium shell within which larvaae will change into an adult y form ed by hardening of larval skin pus pocket puss caterpillar pustule uid filled blisters pyrethrin type of insecticide low mammalian toxicity knowdown but no persistance pyrethroid pyriproxyfen is a pyridine based pesticide which is found to be effective against a variety of arthropoda queen rselection rabbit fever tularemia red imported re ant arrived in the late 1930s from south america More more aggressive and spread quicker Has replaced native fire ant species and displaced black fire ant Sting humans In ecosystem displace ground dwelling animals Economic impact 6 billion Nesting can damage plants lawns reduce property Biological control phorid y protozoan parasitic ant Use ant baits spread them as ants will find them reproductive capacity reservoir resilin a highly elastic protein that is highly efficient at storing and releasing energy When compressed it stores energy When released it allows the metathoracic legs to rapidly release energy propelling the ea up to 150 times its length Resilin is found in a few other insects such as migratory locusts acute sleeping sickness rural plague yersinia pestis entered wild rodent pop following west coast plague in 1920s reservoirs field mice voles chipmunks ground squirrels prairie dogs Dogs are resistant to Y Pestis but bring eas into contact whumans Occasionally hum ans acquire plague thru hunting skinning and fielddressing game Plauge most common in africa but in past it was common in asia saddleback caterpillar salivary secretions sanguinivorous subsisting on blood sanitation eliminating food and other attracting substances scorpion screwworm screwworm eradication secondary screwworm septicemic plaguea deadly blood infection one of the three main forms of plague setae bristles sheep ked sheep tick ightless entire life cycle completed on host adult female incubates larva in uterus retaining until ready to pupate mature third instar larva is attached to hair of host to pupate Adult emerges in 19 to 36 days depending on temp Each female can produce 10 to 15 larvae Engorged females can live up to 8 days off host Piercing pouthparts to suck blood cause anemia irritation sheep nose bot slashing mouthparts source reduction eliminating larval developmental sites making such sites unsuitable for oviposition or larval survival southern devil scorpion southern house spider fiddle on cephalothorax not in web no abdominal markings 6 eyes in 3 pairs spiracles spiracular plate maggot s posterior end has respiratory openings Pattens are diagnostic Small circular spot interior edge of spiracular plate is called button sponging mouthparts salivary uids accomplish external digestion resulting materials are imbibed via capillary action proboscis extends when sensors on feet are stimulated stable y sterile insect technique male ies from colonies are sterilized using radiation millions of ies are released by air over screwworm infested areas Wild females mate with sterile males becoming refractory to further mating Effort supplemented with insecticide applicatoins Eradication zone has reached Darien Gap inpanama Where it is to be maintained sticktight ea stinger stinging hairs summer sores syrphid y hover y tarantula tessellated the plane is a pattern of plane gures that fills the plane with no overlaps and no gaps Like hives thigmotactic movement of an organism toward or away from any object thatprovides a mechanical stimulus trachoma bacterial chlamydial infection of tissue lining eyelid39 irritation causes clouding of cornea and untreated results in blindness trapdoor spider heaviest spider found in georgia subterranean so seldom seen unless ooded out of burrow trapping trypanosomiasis tsetse y tularemia deer y fever or rabbit fever caused by bacteria Francisella tulaensis gram negative nonmotile coccobacillus Primary vectors are ticks and deer ies Mechanical transmission thru contamination of mouthparts tumbu y tungiasis ungulate hoofed animals urban plague reservoir peridomestic rodent esp rattus rattus Vector mainly xenopsylla cheopis three great pandemics justinian s plague black death modern pandemic Last out break in US in san francisco 19241925 fatality rate 143 urticating caterpillar stingin hairs break off on contact Have venom gland atbase inject venom when broken Hairs
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