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by: Gracie Roob I


Gracie Roob I
GPA 3.62


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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gracie Roob I on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 3140 at University of Georgia taught by Ross in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see /class/202273/ento-3140-university-of-georgia in Entomology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
39239 Order Dermaptera gt Earwigs gt Elytra are modified thickened forevvings of dermatpera and coleoptera that lack venation gt They have large cerci on their terminal ends gt Nocturnal and omnivorous 00 Order Orthoptera 3e Crickets katydids grasshoppers locusts and allies gt Primarily a tropical groupTymphanum thin innervated disc of cuticle that serves as the quotearquot on many insects and is located on the front leg on the first abdominal segment gt Suborder Ensifera crickets and longhorned grasshoppers I Use scraper and a file to make noise gt Suborder Caelifera shorthorned grasshoppers and locusts I Have stridulatorypegs on femur that make noise gt They have an ovipositor which is the terminal abdominal segmental appendage modified as an egglaying tool in females Forewings are tegmina modified leathery front wings Some species lack wings Locusts become more active when they are out in close proximity with other locusts I Anatomy changes in swarms 0 Develop wings and warning coloration when before they were green and solitary 0 Can revert back to solitary stage once the swarm phase is over Order Phasmatodea gt Stick bugs and leafinsects gt Reduction or loss ofwings gt Have very short tegmina WWW gt Very good cryptic coloration 9 Some species seem to be female only Order Hemiptera abmm True bugs cicadas aphids ect All have piercingsucking mouthparts Lots have reduced or absent wings Most are plant eaters Stylet needlelike mouthpart Suborder Heteroptera true bugs I Forewings usually modified into hemelytra thickened basally but membranous distally I Wings are held at over the body at rest I Mostly plant feeders I Mouthparts arise from the front of the head I Most terrestrial but many are aquatic I Family Pentatomidae VVV 0 O salivary channel 0 o VVVVVV slylas A Merl view Mme Mad shaming hank mm the Iahmm dammed mm In mm a bank ammunme VVVVVV Stinkbugs Moat are plant feeders Secrete odors to repel predators Aposematic coloration Have a scatellum plate in between top wings Family Coreidae o Leaffooted bugs ad squash bugs 0 Expanded hind tibia Family Reduviidae o Elongate and narrow head 0 Widened abdomen 0 Strong piercingsucking beak o Kissing bugs are blood feeders and are vectors fro Chagas disease Family Cimicidae o Bedbugs o Wingless 0 Flat and small Family Gerridae 0 Water striders o Grasping forelegs and tarsi covered with fine hairs 0 Feed on stuff that falls in the water Family Notonectidae Backswimmers Swim upside down Oar shaped legs fringed with fine hairs All predators o Trap air bubbles underneath wings to stay underwater longer Suborder Auchenorrhyncha and Sterorrhyncha Forewings are uniformly membranous Wings geld rooflike along the sides of the body while at rest Mouthparts arise from the rear of the head All are plantfeeding and terrestrial Suborder Auchenorrhyncha Cicadas frog hoppers leafhoppers plant hoppers and tree hoppers Family Cicadidae o Cicadas o Tympals paired soundproduction devices on the first abdominal segments of males 0 Live a long time but their life cycles are in prime numbers 0 Some of the longest lived solitary insects o Nymphs feed underground on sap for most of their lives Family Cercopidae o Froghoppers as adults but spittlebugs as nymphs o Nymphs secrete spittle from rectum and inject air bubbles into it to form a casing gt Suborder Auchenorrhyncha and Sterorrhyncha I Relatively uniform in terms of feeding ecology but highly variable in body form and life histories I Plant parasite I Family Aphididae o Aphids 0 Have cornicles paired tubular abdominal secretory structures in aphids that secrete an alarm pheromone Can be winged or vvingless Many are clones so that s why they want others to escape danger Agricultural pests Produce honeydew that is eaten by other insect Honeydew sugary secretes waste of aphids that is an important source of carbohydrates for many insects 0 Many do not have sex and have live birth 6 Leads to high reproduction rate and a high need for protein I Superfamily Coccoidea 0 Scale insects and mealy bugs 0 Plant parasites 0 Adult males are small and can y 0 Adult females are blobs with piercingsucking mouthparts genital pore and digestive system covered in wax or scales 0 Mealy bugs use wax 0 Scale insects use scales 0 Have a quiescent stage which is a pupalike stage but they are still not endopterygotes 39239 Order Phthirap tea gt Parasitic lice gt All wingless gt Suborder Mallophaga I Chewing and bird lice I Chewing mandibulate mouthparts I Head is wider than the thorax gt Suborder Anoplura I Sucking lice I Eyes either absent or almost absent I Only transferred through direct contact I Head narrower than the thorax Large claws used to cling to hair ofhosts I Piercingsucking mouthparts 0 Three needlelike stylets o Rostrum with teeth I Vector of typhus o 00 0 0 Order Thysanoptera Thrips Wings are fringed with hair Majority are plant feeders Raspingsucking mouthparts I 3 stylets rub the plant In metamorphosis have quiescent stage like the scale bugs Endopterygotes V VVVV Order Neuoptera Dobson ies alder ies lacewings Lots of venation of the wings Weak iers Larvae I Some aquatic and some terrestrial I Well developed mandible gt Family Corydalidae I Adults dobson ies I Larvae hellgrammites o All predators gt Family Chrysopidae I Lacewings I Adults Large bulging eyes 0 Predators ofplant feeding pests I Larvae 0 Covered with long hairs o Elongated and pointed mouthparts o Often pile debris on themselves to hide 0 Eggs on stalks on bottom ofleaves gt Family Myrmeontidae I Doodlebugs and antlions I Adults look like mya ies I Larvae make pitfall traps in the sand to capture prey Order Mecoptera 539 gt Scorpion ies I gt Unique head I Ventrally extended gt Larvae found in soil and leaflitter I Some take prey out of spider webs gt Males must have food in their mouths in order to copulate with females Order Tricoptera gt Caddis ies gt Adults small with lots of hairs on wings VVVV Scorpion th 0m antmm mmmuna eye I msw bumblebee c rg tantrum o 00 gt Larvae all aquatic I Have terminal hook I Well developed head and legs I Labial gland is modified to produce silk I Case makers herbivore portable cases with silk respire will gills I Net makers detritovores make silk nets respire cutaneously I Free living predators hooklike cerci respire cutaneously Order Coleoptera Largest order of insects Have elytron and hind wing Broad chewing mandible Adults are uniform throughout Larvae are diverse and not alike Beetles are pretty much everywhere and will feed on anything gt Family Carabidae I Ground beetles I Elytra are longitudinally striped I Larvae are active hunters gt FamilyCicindelidae I Tiger beetles I Chase down prey I Good tlyers I Larvae are found in the soil in vertical burrows gt Family Dytiscidae I Predacious diving beetles I Both adults are larvae are aquatic I Larvae respire cutaneously I Adults have a streamlines shapre I Hind legs are fringed with hairs I Need to come up to the surface for air I Trap air bubbles under the elytra to breathe I Modification on males on front tarsus that are like suction cups gt Family Gyrinidae I Whirligig beeltes I Spend lots of time on the surface of the water I Dive in the water I Short broad back legs used for diving I Have an upper eye and a lower eye so they can see above and below water at the same time I Feed on insects that fall on the surface of the water I Larvae are aquatic and respire cutaneously gt Family Staphilinidae I Rove beetles I Short elytra I Still have wings maxillary palp Inand iblc VVVVVV 05 mm Order 0 0 000 O 0 Order 0 0 000 O 0 Order 00000000 0 m m Phasmatodea Walking sticks stick insescts leaf insects Masters of camouflage All are plant feeders Walking sticks Blend in by pretending to be a stick Leaf insects Blend in by pretending to be a leaf flat and broad body abdomen big flanges on front legsLeaf insects have highly venomous wings The only group of insects that can regenerate limbs only if they have another molt immature Many are chemically defended from glands in thorax glands use as back up if cryptic look doesn t keep predators away Many species where males haven t been found asexual female only species Dermaptera Earwigs General mandibulate mouthparts 1200 species worldwide distribution mostly tropical Adults Winged I Front wings thick and leathery modified lost all veination I Called elytra singular elytron not tegmen tegmen have veins I Long broad membraneoushindwings very highly and complicatedly folded to fit under elytra longer than entire abdomen Modified cerci as pincher like forceps I Large quotpinchersquot size depends on species used for defense courtship mating and tucking hindwings under elytra Found in soil and leaf litter Some are Wingless and live in fur of bats or rats ectoparasites Old wives tale that they crawl in your ears and burrow in brain We have European earwig most common species Orthoptera crickets katydids grasshoppersallies 2quotd largest exopterygotra order after Hemiptera generalizedmandibulate mouth parts most are plant feeders herbivores crickets are omnivores very long hindlegs elongated femur and tibia good jumpers femur looks like chicken wing lots of muscles Most winged but can be Wingless Tegmen front wings not involved in ight Large membranous hindwings folded fanlike under tegmina Antennae with lots of segments mostly 39 bet also in areas Cerci always present Adule females have ovipositor structure at end of female abdomen modified 939 and 1039 segment Eggs pass through tube for specific placement different in both suborders I Suborder Ensifera crickets katydids long horned grasshoppers Very prominent ovipositor long and swordlike o Impale plant with ovipositor Tiny ridges under left tegmen and scraper on right tegmen Rub tegmina together to vibrate and produce sound used by male to attract female Tympanumthin disk or innervated cuticle ear located at basal part of front tibia Almost all plant feeders except crickets scavengers and decomposers I Suborder Caelifera shot horned grasshoppers and locusts Short very segmented antennae Typanum located on side of 1St abdominal segment Stridulatory pegs located on inside surface of beefy hind femur Rub hind femurs over tagmina to produce sound Smaller ovipositor inserted into soil Larger eggs laid in groups All plant feeders I Biology of Locusts Old world locust Schistoceragregaria 1 in 10 people affected by locus plagues Solitary phase green Gregarious phase yellow 0 Both phases are same species just with a radical shift in life history Mechanosensory hairs on hind femur In large populations they touch others and release serotonin which causes change in behavior 0 Takes a few generations for complete shift 3 Begin to seek out company of each other Gregarious phase Build up in populations and vegetation is reduced a Fly until they find new vegetation and swarm upon and devour it this devastates the land a Run out of food and start dying revert from gregarious phase 0 Order Hemipteratrue bugs aphids mealybugs scale insects leafhoppers 0 order suckling 5 h largest order of insects largest of non endopterygote insects 90000 exoterygote Extremely diverse but all have one single unifying feature mouthpart piercing and I Pierce skin and suck juice out of host plants for the most part Mouthparts highly modified for piercing and sucking from a modified labium I Stylet needle like structure found in the labium 4 and maxillae I Mandibles chewing structures on outside of mouth Labium 3rd set of mouthparts modified no palps body is elongated and grooved interior concave in posterior section of mouth sheet holding 4 stylets Maxillae paired large fleshy main body Maxillary palp and labial palp are nonexistent Maxillary stylets are inside labial stylets and form two channels food channel opens up to oral cavity pharynx and the salivary channel opens up to ducts in the thorax o Suborder Heteroptera True bugs Distinguished by beak arising from front of the head Forewings usually modified into hemelytra 39 39 39 basally distally Wings are held flat over body at rest Mouthparts arise from front of head Mostly plantfeeding some predaceous some parasitic on mammals and birds Mostly terrestrial but many aquatic Family Pentatomidae Stinkbugs Triangular shield scutellum large and prominent o Odor producing glands in thorax Bright contrasting warning coloration o Harlequin and southern stink can be major agricultural pests 1 Mostly plant feeders Famin Coreidae Ieaffooted bugs squash bugs quotleaf footed flattened cuticle that sticks our of hind tibia Not all species have this expanded tibia Family Gerridae Water striders 0 Unusual type of predator that specialize on terrestrial incidentalsinsects that fall on water 0 Tarsi covered with fine hairs allows them to not break surface tension of water 0 Aquatic 0 Most Wingless o Grasping forelegs Family Reduvidae Assassin Bugs 0 Stout beaks which they impel prey o Elongated head longer than is wide 0 Tribe Triatominae kissing bugs are now blood feeders on humans vector Chagas disease by pathogen Trypanosor nacurzi 0 Many predators or other insects Most have laterally widened abdomen Family Cimicidae Bedbugs O a Vestigal wings Very small and flat Ectoparasites blood feeders of mammals and birds Nocturnal Do not vector disease Ex Cimexlectularius I Family Notonectidaebackswimmers Swim upside down on their backs Live in the water have to come to surface to respire no true bug has gills 1 cm long backswimmer is a good size Hydrodynamic body shape bullets Cuticle is hard and waxy Hind legs are highly modified for propulsion use them as oars long and broad hind legs are cocked at all times in order to catch prey Tibia and tarsis are packed with long and thin fine hairs Hang upside down in the water opening to tracheal system in end of abdomen so can respire Have a beak used to impel prey Do not handle painful bite Feed on crustaceans aquatic insects nymphs of stoneflies and mayflies and fish Use well developed eye site to locate prey and impel with beak Use front pair of legs and climb down vegetation underwater and wait for prey to float above them then release and impel prey with beak How do they stay underwater so long Use modified front wings to trap bubbles of air to bring below water with them Can stay under water for a fairly long time I Suborder Auchenorrhynchacicads frog hoppers leaf hoppers plant hoppers tree hoppers and Sternorrhynchaaphids scale insects mealybugs whiteflies psyllids Forewings are uniformly membranous or leathery in adults not modified as hemielytra Wings are held rooflike along sides of body at rest Mouthparts arise from rear of head due to huge pharyngeal dilator muscles in front of head All plantfeeding All terrestrial Suborder Auchenorrhyncha o FamilyCicadidae cicadas I Quite large largest Auchenorrhyncha or sternorrhyncha I Forewings are membranous O O 0 Bullet like shape Huge pronounced forehead for point of attachment for massive pharyngeal dilator muscles Lengthy life cycle live during prime years don t have defenses as adult cryptic so have mass emergences of numbers Predator assesiation safety in numbers best way to achieve unpredictability to predators is to have life cycles based on m numbers Mated female cicada lay eggs in stem of tree killing stem in a couple of days nymph hatch and bails from stem then burrows down in soil Won t see sunlight again for a vast amount of years Molting occurs in soil When full grown crawl up hardwood trees and fix claws into tree and molt last instarnympth one last time to adult stage Once major after a few days males sings to attract females copulation and cycle repeats Adults live about a month after mating usually dead by middle of September Sound production in males Tymbal paired soundproduciton devices in dorsal part of first abdominal segment of male cicadas Found on top part one of the left and one on the right side Preferred position is convex Muscles contract tymbals from convex to concave over and over again generating sound Family Cercopidae spittlebugs nymphs and froghoppers adults Froghoppers are small never more than a cm in length Front wings are thickened and colored Spittlebugs nymph have completely unique habit of producing a frothy spittlelike mass around them It is a substance they exude from anus and mix gland secretions with it Very resistant to rain and weathering Provide a moist protective habitat for soft bodied nymphs to live in Suborder SternorrhynchaAphids mealy bugs Relatively uniform group in terms of feeding ecology but highly variable in body forms and life histories Family Aphididae aphids Huge family 3 mm to V2 a cm The majority are V2 a mm Pear body shape Aggregate in groups not only are they relatives but they are probably clone mates genetically identical Cornicles paired tubular abdominal secretory structures in aphids function in defensealarm Release of chemical warns neighbors that a predators is here sacrifice s itself for the better of the group because they are all genetic clones Honeydew sugary secreted waste of aphids and some other Sternorrhyncha important carb food source for many insects ants wasps bees huge resource for other insects Ants Tending farming Aphids Ants have mutualitic relationship with aphids protect them from predators in exchange for endless honeydew fireants guard aphids and enjoy honeydew but then go back to nest at night Lasiess ants take aphids into nest at night and bring to best part of plant during day for maximum honeydew Winged and wingless forms One of the biggest agricultural pests and vector numerous plant diseases especially viral Life cycle Very complex involving numerous changes Females are asexual and have live births until males appear The only time when males appear is during autumn in order to mate and have sexual reproduction occurs and eggs are laid He said today they give live birth lut this doesn t make SEI ISE 0 me o SuperfamilyCoccoidea scale insects and mealybugs Extremely small males Membranous forewings aid during flight Hind wings are vestigial not involved in flight Adult females are ultimate in lacking in morphology Have no wings legs and antennae Cannot move and basically only have a beak and a butthole Parasitic sitting on plants Females produce eggs under waxy like coating and lay on them while they suck juice out of plant Wax or scale covering keep the adult females from drying out I Cover themselves with a type of material that is impossible to penetrate by predators I Mealybugs adult females cover themselves with a waxy secretion secreted from cuticle of the exoskeleton I Scale insects adult females glue cast skin of immature stages onto their backs Is a secretion from exoskeleton like a hard varnish or glue every time nymphs molt the adult females add the cast on top of their back creating a scaly appearance I Nymphs come out of eggs and they are tinything that run around plants lainstar crawlers 0 Don t look like adults at all Once the nymphscrawlers find a spot in the pant they undergo a 2quotdinstar multiple morphs losing their antennae legs and tail know as sedentary nymphs No transformative stage is needed to change to adult sedentary females Transformative stage to mature male adults quiescent stage Pupa have evolved complete metamorphism independent of endopterygote complete metamorphisis Solves common problem immature stage looks very different than adult stage so need transformative stage Legless antennaeless and tailless nymphs undergo transformation to the winged adult form I Mealybugsimmatures and adult females only certain species have vestigial legs and are able to move around a little bit 0 Infraclass Neoptera Series Exopterygota o OrderThysanopteraThrips I Adults thrips minute cylindrical insects maybe a mm in length I Virtually all plant feeders I Won t see wings like these in any other order of insects o Venation is either completely absent or highly reduced 0 Front and hind wings are identical and symmetrical 0 Narrow elongated wings are fringed with 100 or 1000s of hairsfeathers 0 Not suited for powered flight 0 They move byjumping up with wings and get taken in air currents Rasping sucking mouthparts o 3 needle like stylets that fit through collar like labium and ratchet along each other Don t use mouthpart for piercing or sucking use rasping sucking mouthparts to destroy cell wall and suck out juices from plants crop pest o Labium collar like structure that allows 3 needlelike styletsto pass through 3 stylets Only one mandibularstylet and the other 2 stylets are derived from the maxillae 2 immature phases no wing buds pre pupa wing buds appear no feeding 0 Order Phthirapterra Parasitic lice Highly specialized parasites of warmblooded vertebrates Must remain ion host due to having to feed every few hours if off host they will die quickly Legs not suited for walking or running but designed for clinging to hairs of host Mouthparts differ between two suborders Ectoparasites of mammals and birds Wingless Reduction of sensory functions Suborder Mallophaga o Chewing lice mandibulate mouthparts 0 Bird lice o Chew as base of feathers on host a Head is wider than 1 I thoracic segment SuborerAnoplura o Sucking lice 0 Blood feeding parasites only found on mammals cannot live off host for long at all 0 Highly modified sucking mouthparts 0 Can t homologize their mouthparts to a particular set of insects o 3 piercing needle like stylets that are inverted through a rostrum o Rostrum part of the head capsule labiumis used to bite into host I Contain little tiny teeth on the inside 0 3 Stylets are used to pierce host and draw blood up Flare back rostrum latch onto host with teeth then pierce and O draw blood up through stylets 0 When the 3 piercing stylets are not used they are held in stylas 0 Head is narrower than thorax 0 Legs are highly modified for hanging onto hairs of mammal hosts 0 Not good for walking or running 0 Coccis femur tibia end has tibial thumb proximal segment of leg is tarsus has 2 claws at the end one of tarsal class is vestigial and holds back on to the tibial thumb and is used to hold onto hairs of host 0 Human Crab Lice PediculoseHumanisPupis 0 Very small 1 mm sucking lice o Recognized by crablike appearance due to spherical abdomen and thorax 0 Have stout hairs protruding from abdomen 0 Found primary in the hairs of pubic region transmitted by contact 0 Do not vector any known diseases but are irritating and debilitating 0 Human Body and Head LicePediculoseHumanisHumanis 0 Look to be genetically distinct species o In the process of special divergence 0 Time of separation of ancestors of body lice and head lice somewhere bt 17000 and 18000 years ago Separation coincided with the loss of most of our hair and the development of clothing and the Stage 6 ice age Most happened why human ancestors were still in Africe 0 Gene flow between human body and head Louse is minimal Human body Lice generated from head lice 0 Head lice pediculoushumanuscapitis Common in children due to long periods wout combing or brushing heads Transmitted from kid to kid more so than adults Females gluelay eggs onto the hairs of eggs If you brush your hair regularly you are going to dislodge the head lice Does not vector any human diseases 0 Body licepediculoushumanushumanus Newly evolved variant of the human head lice Lives on the body or cling to clothing Females lay eggs in the seams of clothing Transferred from host to host by contact via clothing Outbreaks occurs when bathingchanging clothessanitation does not occur I Leads to build up bidy lice and if epidemic typhus is presentvectored it will spread through lice population and eventually through human populations 0 Epidemic typhus was a serious disease and involved in the major killing of Neapolitan s army in Moscow 0 M chemical was invented and got rid of body lice and stopped epidemic typhus Can still cause outbreaks but we have means of controlling body lice Suborder Mallophaga 0 Bird lice o Chewing mouthparts feed at shaft of feather on carotene skin cells 0 Priming and grooming by birds in order to get rid of parasites 0 Flat body form head is wider than the first thoracic segment Problem in the poultry industry can build up large populations on turkeys or chickens o A debilitating parasite due to constant irritation 0 Past from one host to another host during feeding or mating o Infraclass Neoptera Series Endopterygota Complete Metamorphosis 9 Order Neoraptera Dobbinson flies alder ies snakeflies lacewings antlions and allies nerve wings lots ofveins and crossveins Medium to large soft bodied adults Wings fold over body in rooflike manner Mandibulate mouthparts many adults dont feed though or may only take up liquids Aquatic or terrestrial larvae Larvae o All predators much more intense mandibles o Elongated and sickle like mandibles in terrestrial nymphs terrestrial lacewing and antlion aquatic dobsonfly and alderfly Family Corydalidae o Hellgrammites larvae and dobsonflies adults 0 Aquatic larvae strongly toothed mandibles feed on other qquatic insects have gills typically found in streams Family Chrysopidae I Lacewings terrestrial larvae o Largest family 0 Adults DO feed on aphids 0 Farmers best friend most beneficial family because they eat aphids 0 Wings are greenish o Distinctive eyes I Larvae covered with debris o Lacewing eggs under leaves at the end of tiny stalks I Family Myrmeleontidae o Antlions doodlebugs o Larvae terrestrial o Predators sit and wait 0 Massive sickle like tooth mandibles Hang out on soil 0 In one subfamily larvae dig pit fall traps in soil 0 Adults look a lot like damselflies but they fold their wings over body at rest 0 Order TriasopidaeLacewings I think you meant for this to be Chrysopidae I Front wings and hing wings are the same size and shape I Adults are greenish with large golden eyes 0 Aphids predators I Larvae are hairy and elongated and collect a lot of organic material 0 Order MecopteraScorpion flies I Head is elongated and prolonged ventrally I Mouthparts are standard manibulate parts I Males have large bulbous genetaliastructures I Wings are dark and with patterns dusky patches I Very small order I Found worldwide typically tropical I Lots of veins and crossveins I Hindwings slightly smaller but very similar I Very elongated head I Adults feed on weak animals or newly dead more scavenger like ext Steal spiders food from webs I Interesting mating habits must present gift to female usually a meal I Larvae Predators look like caterpillars Live on top of soil 0 OrderTrichopteraCaddisflies I Sister group to Lepidoptera I Adults are boring 0 Look like mothscuz have tiny hair that cover Wings 0 Often don t feed I Mandibulate reduced mouthparts Long segmented antennae I Wings held in rooflike position I Larvae all aquatic I Don t live very long I Larvae are extremely interesting All aquatic o Casemakers o Modified hooklike cerci drag protective casehouse behind them for them to live in o Herbivores o Modified abdominal gills for respiration located alongside abdomen inside case 0 Small tubes made of stone sand plant material bark etc that larvae live in 0 Head and 1st or 2nd thoracic segments stick out o Netmakers 0 Silk produced from modified labial glands make nets which trap organic material trapped in nets and they feed on this detritivores and herbivores o Cutaneous respiration Only found In streams where water is moving have to have current 0 Nets catch sediments flowing in water that larvae feed on o Freeliving 0 Do not make a net or case 0 Hop around on bottom of stream or lake and prey on other animals 0 Cutaneous respiration o Predators 0 Order Coleoptera40 almost half of all insect species 370000 Species Beetles I JBS Haldane quotAn inordinate foundness for beetles I Where Beetles Live and What They Eat o Habitats 0 Plants all parts Weevils like the fruit and nuts of plants Soil and leaf litter Decomposing material Molds or fungi OOO Aquatic or semiaquatic habitats o Nest of mammals birds or social insects social parasites o Feeding habits o Herbivores Majority Predators Scavengers decomposers Moldsfungus feeders OOO Parasites of other insects Blister Beetles Adults have fairly uniform external morphology Due to modified frontwings as elytra which are thickened protective structures and conservation of rest of body The frontwings lack venation They are more like armorshields thick tough and brittle but are not involved in flight Membranous hindwings are organs of flight and are folded up in a complex under the elytra y meet in a straight line down the middle of back but are not involved with flight Defining characteristic is elytra Reduction of the elytra but fully formed hindwings 0 Road beetles 2nd largest family Staphlamenadae Reduction of hindwings but fully formed elytra 0 Ground beetles Elytra are fused along mid line and to the abdomen thus not capable of flight Reduction of both pairs of wings 0 Some species of fireflies Some variation in the mandibles elongated and sharp for predation or other beetles have broader tooth mandibles for chewing through wood Head of mouthparts of beetles project upward and have developed a goola hard protective plate cuticle that protects under the neck Range in size in adults is great Larvae differ greatly in morphology from other beetle larvae Actively Hunts Food 0 Active predator Ground beetles 0 Large eyes compared to other endopterygote larvae 0 Well developed cerci 0 Long spindly legs that are loosely articulated with body run over soil surface and chase prey down 0 Sharp mandibles Lives in Food 0 Bark Beetles Wood Borer and Weevils 0 Highly reduced larvae 0 Lack eyes cerci and antennae o Legs are completely reduced 0 Mom lays eggs inside fruit nut leaf so all larvae need to do is feed no need for well developed legs eyes or antennae Subterranean Food 0 Scarab Beetles Root feeders 0 Move through soil to find soil and plants to feed on 0 Butt end is fleshy bulbous and musculature that pushes them through soil o Legs are highly modified with hindlegs being the largest 0 Use well developed mandibles to latch onto roots and feed Accessible Food in Vicinity 0 Leaf beetles leaf eaters I No cerci eyes are reduced reduced legs do not need to run far for food cuz mom has laid eggs on plant with good leaves for eating 0 Lady beetles slow predator I Mom lays eggs on plant with aphids and this is what they feed on I Cerci eyes and sensory function are greatly reduced Family Carabidea 3rd largest family of beetles Ground beetles Adults are medium sized 34 inch or 1 inch flattened dorsal ventrally elongated darkly colored blue or black they all posses these longitudinal ridges or striations along elytra Tend to be nocturnal Larvae have sickle like mandibles Adults are all predators nocturnal feed at night Larvae are also predaceous well developed antennae cerci and legs burrow in the soil Family CicindellidaeTiger beetles Adults and larvae are all predators Adults have huge eyes big ferocious mandibles predation strategy is to spot and run down prey with extremely modified legs excellent fliers best flying beetles almost all are metallic with greenishblueish coloration or brownish or grayish has defensive properties to flash sun in the eyes of predators so they can fly away all have specific marking on urethra Larvae dig vertical burrows in soil 68 inches down and then prop themselves at top with mandibles open and wait for prey to come and then snatch then with sharp mandibles Family Dytiscidae Predaceous diving beetles Hard waxy cuticle Fast and agile swimmers Tarsi lined with hairs so function as oars Beat hind legs in unison Well developed eyesight to find prey in water Larvae predators too o Aquatic insect that uses front wings to trap air life elytra and take under water 0 Air in contact with spherical to breather I Family Gyrinidae o Whirligig beetles 0 Sit on top of water and spin in circles with hindlegs 0 From legs life grasping structures to catch bugs that happen to fall on water like water striders 0 Well developed eyes upper and lower compound eyes on each side head Lower adapted to water upper for air 0 Feed under water too surface accidentals I Family Staphylinidae o Rove beetles 2 d largest of beetles 0 Variety in sizes 0 Very short elytra I Family Scarabaeidae Scarab Dung June Flower Goliath and Hecules beetles o Antennae 3 terminal platelike segments 0 Front legs modified for digging front tibia expanded and toothed a Feed on dung or other decoosing material I Some are plant feeders molcl or fungi 0 Some have circularly polarized color caused by comples helical nanostructures in the cuticlequotappears as green iridescence o Larval scarabs grubs Feed on roots I Family Elateridea Click beetles wireworms a Straight edge elytra I Flexible joing between 1S1 and 2quot thoracic segments o Anti predator clicking I Able to get off back 0 Eyespots on 15 thoracic segment as warning 0 Larvae i Wireworm Shiny o Elongate 0 Big mandibles c Subterranean root feeders a Found in rotting logs o Predators I Family Lampyridae 0 Fireflies lightningbugs 0 They are bioluminescent o llGlow wormquot bioluminescent larva or wingless adult female of some lampyrids 0 Produce light for species recognition and a source of acquiring a mate 0 Visual communication for adults and an antipredatory function in larvae 0 Each species has its own pulsing of light and flight pattern resulting in different types of light recognition Engaged in reciprocal signaling male will flash and then female flashes o Firefles make light within specialized cells in the terminal segments of their abdomen using a two step bioluminescence process release light energy by exergonic processes 0 The 02 is supplied to the cells through the tiny tubes of the tracheal system pattern of 02 delivery controls pace of flashes o Wavelength of light gives off is 510670 nanometers pale yellow to orange green color 0 Colors and flash patterns are speciesspecific 0 Adults medium sized to large beetles o Softbodied urethra is soft and bendable unusual 0 First thoracic dorsal plate covers head from above 0 Activefeed at nighttime 0 Larvae 0 Flat broad looking don t look like insect larvae o Thoracic segments are flattened and expanded laterally o Predators found in soil or plants I Family Coccinellidae 0 Lady beetles ladybird beetles 0 Adults smalls to medium sized o Urethra are shiny and have a nice coloration o Spherical body is unique to this family 0 Predators ofaphids Universal beneficial predators o Overwinter in aggregations outdoor under leaf litter or indoors in attics o Larvae o Predators of aphids o Elongated long spindly legs well developed eyesight nice antennae move around on plants looking for aphids o Aposymatic with color but may or moy not be a defensive mechanism color warning patterns black and yellow blue and yellow 0 Unusual spines 0 SubFamily that are minor agricultural pests and feed on crops I Family Curcullionidae o Weevils 0 The largest family of insects and beetles over 40000 species 0 They have had a profound impact on the history of GA 0 Boil weevil eatscotton plants Drills to edible part eats and lays eggs inside making the plant useless O Chemists were able to synthesize some sort of chemical and incorporate it into bright green fluorescent traps and the cotton boil weevil was eradicated from 19871995 GA cotton production is now up to 13 billion acres 0 Adults 0 Highly variable in terms of size and body shape but all have one feature that is distinct the head head capsule is elongated in a narrow cylindrical snout Mouthparts maxillae and labium are reduced are at the tip of elongated head capsule Modified head capsule is adapted for use as a drill Drill past non edible part of plant until they get to the good stuff and feed Females also use this as an ovipositor site 0 Feed on roots stems leaves flowers 0 Larvae 0 Live in food 0 Eat and poop in food is the only function 0 Sensory structures are greatly reduced Bonus Dr Ross does research on fire ants Reddedhorted fire ants Emerging as a major pest throughout the world llBeach Head Effectquot invasive species being spread from populations to populationsWinged males contribute no labor to the colony they only get fed and fly off to mate Complete Metamorphosis during 4 hinstar they can feed on own but workers provide food Workers regulate caste differentiation by what they feed larvae larvae that become queens are fed different food at a late stage of development compared to regular females quotPleometrosisquot multiple colony founding fire ant queens Fire ants sting and bite END OF SECOND EXAM 0 Order Lepidoptera sister order is tricoptera I Moths and butterflies Ento 3140 Final 11811 0 Order Lepidoptera moths and butter ies 000000000 0 Huge order 150K species 2 1 largest order The name refers to the wings being covered in scales Important ecologically and economically The adults are pollinatorsAdults are all nectar feeding Moths have learned how to feed on our clothes The majority of all larvae are plant feeders they feed a lot too The adults are quite uniform in their identity The scales the adults all have scaled wings body and legs Flattened and modified hairs Hugely ecologically important I Adults pollinators I Larvae almost all are plant feeders pests and produce silk economically important The sister group to Lepidoptera trichopteraon exam I The leps have evolved by just attening out the hairs on their body s I Also have silk producing labial gland instead of saliva Scales I Each scale is lattice work on the wing the scale is separated into many different chambers I The scales are very intricately structured I Sulfer butter ies have scales similar to the scarab beetle and when under uv light there are different patterns on their wings This is due to these nano scales on their wings I Ifa butter y gets stuck in a web then it has a chance of escaping if it can get its legs free It can lose some ofits scales instead of getting stuck to the webNo scale regeneration they can live with loosing some I They are clear membranous wings that are covered with fine hairs modified as scales I Function of wing scales in Lepidoptera o lAposematic colors that are warning to predators that warn them to not eat them because they are poisonous Example the monarch butter y the caterpillars feed on the milkweed plant and hold the alkaloids over into the adult stage and then are poisonous Warning colors There are patterns on the wings used for mating mate recognition There are also patterns on the wings like eye spots that are used for scaring away predatorsstartle defense ex Peacock butterfly and luna moth eyespots o Thermoregulation color esp dark color on wings can act as solar collectors Angle wings perp to sun to maximize surface area irradiated Crypsis ex Peppered moth 0 They have plain old sucking mouthparts They can coil it up under their head when not in useproboscis They can extend it down into owers when they want nectar The straw is a modified maxilla Vestigial mandibles Proboscis coiled sucking feeding apparatus of adult Lepidoptera modified maxillae The adults feed on carbohydrates that s what the nectar provides Labium is unimportant The labial palps are infront of the headbig they are involved in smelling and tasting the owers They are just very sensory filled vestigial in feeding Maxilla is important esp galea Highly modified paired tube structure 2 maxillae each a 12 that coils and makes up proboscis Galea is soft and eshy part of maxillae body The owers that they feed on are only able to be fed on by the butter ys because the bees and others cant get down to the nectar because they have the wrong kind ofmouthparts 0 Wing Coupling in Lepidoptera hindwings and forewings must be couple I s for their particular type of ight Frenulum stout bristles1 in males multiple in females at anterior base ofhind wing ofmost moths used in wing coupling Retinaculum scales modified as hook at base of forewing of most moths used in wing coupling 0 Hearing and bat avoidance in moths Moths tend to be nocturnal while butter ies are diurnal Face completely differente predators Moths use ecolocation and screech out of our hearing range ultra high requencies to find prey Most moths have tympanum 1 on each side of thorax Use it to respond to and avoid bat preadators Moth can process which tympanum is firing more sensory action potentials to see where the bat is bats hunt with sound 0 Smell in male moths are involved on their antennae Males have plumose antennae that are covered in hairs that are able to detect the pheromone chemical that the female exudes I Antennae have chemosensory hairs that face into the wind so they maximize surface area to catch pheromones o Larvae I Prolegs falseabdominal legs of caterpillars I Crochets tiny hooks at end ofprolegs of caterpillars used to grasp substrate I Elongate cylindrical body I 3 segment thorax 10 segment abdomen 0 5 pairs of abdominal prolegs segments 36 and 10 generalized mandibulate mouthparts Also have thoracic legs Typically external foliage feeders some plant feeders that bore into plants 0 111011 Larval Defense in Lepidoptera Silk Shelter construction social behavior many moth species have solitary caterpillars that use their silk to roll leaves or tie them together they feed inside these protective structures A few species have gregarious caterpillars that cooperate to construct large silken retreats nests Eyespots they look like vertebrate eyes and are pretty good at fooling their predators 7 Most are cryptic Some caterpillars show aposematism Some chemically defended by chemicals produced by their hairs Startle defense many tropical Lepidoptera species have caterpillars that have evolved eyelike patterns to deceive birds foraging in the rainforest Just plain ugly Differences between moths and butter ies o Moths I 1 Adults typically noturnal vision unimportant I 2 Adults usually drably colored I 3 Frenulumretinaculum common wingcoupling device I 4 antennae not knobbed or hooked I 5 tympanum often present I 6 pupation often in silken cocoon o Butter ies including skippers I 1 Adults typically diurnal vision important I 2 Adults often brightly colored I 3 No frenulumretinaculum for wing coupling I 4 Antennae knobbed or hooked I 5 No tympanum I 6 Usually naked pupa chrysalis o Microlepidoptera O Dozens of families gt100000 species of small nondescript brown or gray moths making up the majority of Lepidoptera species 0 Family Sphingidae hawk moths sphinX moths hornworms 00 000 00 Not microlepidoptera Robust heavy bodied moths body tapers at the front and back Have very short wings that they must beat very fast in order to y Can get few inches long Front wings are narrow and elongate I Beat at very high fast rate I Related to feeding habits Hover in front of a plant to feed and extend a long probiscus into ower for nectar Fantastic coloration Larvae are bad news I Caterpillars have long dorsal spines with horns hornworms I Big robust and eat a lot 0 Family Geometridae geometrid moths loopers inchworms measuring worms 0 Not microlepidoptera 0 Still boring o Prolegs 6 amp 10 loss 35 3 pairs ofprolegs 7 0 Distance mode of ambulation o Crypis try to imitate twigs o Superfamily Papilionoidea butter ies excluding skippers O O 0 Family Papilionidae swallowtails paranassians I Knobbed antennae I prolongationof hind wing swallow tails I confuse birds to attack that arera I largest butter ies I SE asia and Australia Family Pieridae whites sulphurs orangetipes I Medsmall I Light colored I Black markings around tip of wings I Important agricultural pests as larvae I Knobbed antennae Family Nymphalidae brushfooted butter ies I They walk around on their hind legs their front legs are vestigial or reduced I Females use sensory hairs on tarsi of first leg to taste the host plant prior to laying eggs host plant discrimination The first leg appears to have evolved new chemosensory function in conjunction with loss of walking 0 Order Siphonatera eas Long beak for piercing to take meal piercingsucking mps Have front coxa that are elongated for jumping Muscular femurs The hind tibia are used for extreme jumping Some species attack birds They have a tough cuticle Laterally attened They can go with out a blood meal for an extended period of time Sensory structures reduced tiny antennae reduced or absent eyes Adults are all external parasites Serious vectors of human disease plague Blood feeders have piercing sucking mouthparts I They have 2 maxilla stylette I Have a food channel I The labial palp sheath surrounds all ofthem I Epipharynx 1stylette form a piece of head capsule I Cuticle bit from cranial capsule modified and elongated o The larva I Have no legs I Feed on the adults poop o The host I It will find the nearest warm body and take a blood meal I The bubonic plague the eas would bite rats and spread it though the rats and then if they couldn t find a rat they would jump on a human and bite them and transfer it to them then 0 O O O O O O O O O O 0 111511 0 Class insecta Subclass pterygota infraclass neoptera series endopterygota 0 Order Diptera ies 0 They are usually active during the day 0 They feed on carbohydrates uid feeders visit owershoneydew to obtain carbs for ight 0 Many species are blood feeders on other insects predators mosquitoes black ies horse ies etc 0 Single pair ofwings attached to 2 d thoracic segments 0 2M1 pair reducedmodified to halteres o Haltere reduced hindwing of adult Diptera modified as organ of balance but not actually involved in ight 0 Middle segment that holds wings is large 1st and 3ml thoracic segments are reduced which gives them a humpback like shape 0 Mouthparts are sucking but with many variations I Don t have to memorize the different mouthparts there is just too much information I Mosquitoes stab repeatedly until they find a capillary to take a blood meal from O O I Elongate tubular labium modification fairly general in all Larvae maggots I Detritivores and sometimes predators I Like moisture I Some aquatic or semi aquatic Can find them associated within moist compounds ofplants Some species can attack humans Some larvae live inside other insects as internal parasites Have no heads Atrium invaginated 1st or 2 101 head capsule rudiments 0 Don t have mouthparts have mouth hooks don39t have normal mandible maXillae labium Importance of order Diptera I Some serve important ecological roles as scavengersdecomposers larvae I Some act as important pollinators adults I Some act as important agricultural pests larvae herbivores I Many are serious public health pests 0 Direct feeding damage eg screwworm y larvae horse y adults 0 Vectors of disease pathogens eg adult quotfilth ies horse ies tsetse ies black ies mosquitoes 0 Family Tipulidae crane y 0 00000 Common and abundant as adults Commonly found in wooded areas High humidity and shade Adults are medium sized Look like large overgrown mosquitoes Larvae are aquatic large ugly found in sediment of standing water feed on decaying matter 0 Family Culicidae mosquitoes 0 000000 00 0 Sexual dimorphism in the antennae Males have large plumos antennae and the females are more simple The lavae are detritivores they feed on the sub stance in the water They feed on the larvae of other mosquito larvae Wings have veins with very tiny scales Females all blood feeders of other vertebrates male styletts are somewhat vestigial Both sexes will feed on nectar or honeydew Scales on wing veins and margins Antennae female long and simple male large plumose have mechanoreceptors used to pick up sound beats wings of females Larvae I Typically detritivores some predacous on other larvae Larvaepupa don t have gills have breathing tube at tip of abdomen Aquatic Anopheles don t have breathing tube have spiracular palte an lay sideways on water Transmit some very serious human diseases 111711 0 Family Ceratopogonidae Biting midges punkies noseeums sand gnats 0 Tiny little ies that you can barely see 0 They have an intense bite though 0 They can get on the scalp 0 The larvae appear to be detritivores human biting species larvae live in very moist sandy soil 0 Adults are blood feeders External tempterate parasites 0 Typically found in warm areas 0 quottheir bite is our of all proportion to their size 0 Family Tabanidae horse ies deer ies o Larvae I Aquatic occur in nasty warm low 02 content water I Tidal pools swamps and marshes 0 Adult females all blood feeders on mammals o Males are not blood feeders 0 Very bright eyes with strange patterns often turquoisegreenish 0 Eyes meet in center ofhead on males but not females 0 Family Asilidae robber ies o Quite large family 0 Common ies o All are predators adult and immatures 0 Have very distinct morphology o Built for ying and feeding on the y capture prey on wing and eat it o Abdomen is quite narrow and tapering streamlined o Legs are long and stout with long spines or hairs or legs kind of stick out in front of animal 0 Use legs almost like a catching basket 0 Beard like appearance 0 Some are bumble bee mimics 0 Huge 2 d thoracic segment with large muscles to power wings 0 Family Muscidae house y face ies stable ies horn ies tsetse ies o Musca domestica 0 They feed on liquid nutrients 0 Adults males and females tend to be blood feeders 0 Have sets of teeth 0 They rasp a whole in the skin to take a blood meal 0 Family Caliphoridae blow ies bluebottle ies screwworm ies 0 Large number of species 0 Larvae are decomposers live in filth o Blow y lay eggs on dead animals and then the larvae go and feed on the dead animal 0 Not the only family that has habits like this lay eggs on orphus of animals 0 Tough metallicish cuticle greenishblueish 0 Adults found around decaying materials or in owers taking nectar as a carb source 0 Larvae High specialized on feeding on decaying animal esh Most are decomposers lth ies like muscidae Females smell dead animals and lay eggs on mammals Some species females can smell dead esh that is not necessarily on dead animal Larvae has antimicrobial compounds in saliva and it basically quotcleansquot wound and doesnt harm in tact cells Another species feeds on dead and live tissues bad EX Screw worm ies Order Hymenoptera o This order has the most impact on other orders causing harm of to other insects something about a division parasitica o Ecologicaleconomic roles as parasitespredators of other insects most important order ofpredation on other insects o The larvae destroy an insect host parasites o Ants are predacious hornets and others as well females collect prey and feed babies 0 Pollinators bees super family apoidea most important pollinators of all insects 0 Importance of order Hymenoptera 0 Wings Many serve important ecologicaleconomic roles as parasitespredators of other insects Some serve important ecological economic roles as pollinators beessuperfamily Apoidea Members of Division Aculeata stinging Hymenoptera display most complex behaviors known among insects including advanced eusocial behavior 2 pairs ofwings when presenthindwings smaller than fore reduction in wing veination 2 pairs ofwings act in unison for ight Hamuli tiny wing hooks on anterior margin of Hymenopteran hindwing used for wing coupling When wings present there are two pair There is a reduction in wing veination Hindwings are sub ordinate to the forewings they are coupled together as a single unitary unit of ight o Mouthparts 0 They have generalized mandibulate mouthparts adults and larvae 0 Adults like to feed on sugarnectar as a source for carbs o Maxilla and labium modified to take nectar o Elongated glosi And some have elongated labial tongue 0 Most adults of the species take nectar to fuel their ight o Ovipositer 0 Very important in both suborders 0 Used at egg laying structure to lay eggs directly into plant or host parasitic if in host 0 Some not used in egg laying Modification of ovipositor to a venom delivery structure is a major morphological development in the hymenoptera stinger 0 Two Suborders 1 Suborder Symphyta Saw ies stem ies wood wasps o Tendancy for 1st abdominal segment to fuse with thorax Very small group Ovipositer ejects eggs directly into plant Substantial ovipositer quotsaw y Larvae I 8 prolegs on abdomen and 3 normal thoracic legs I All external folidage feeders very similar in morphology to caterpillars I Difference 36 amp 10 in caterpillars 28 amp 10 in Symphyta And Symphyta lacks crochets that caterpillars have 0 Convergence of Larvae of Symphyta and Lepidoptera I Arisen because of feeding habitsecology external foliage I Cylindrical body with well developed head capsule mandipbulate mouthparts 3 thoracic legs and abdominal prolegs I Plant feeders mostly external foliage feeders I Often leaf rollers or leaf tiers silk from modified labial gland I Some social with cooperatively constructed silk shelters o Suborder Apocrita waspwaistedquot Hymenoptera Secondary form of tagmosis added constriction between 1St and 2m1 abdominal segments propoedum is 1St abdominal segment fused to 3ml thoracic segment with thin pedicel between 1St and 2m1 abdominal segments Instead of between thorax and abdomen Gives them quotwaspwaist 90 Larvae I No eyes loss of thoracic and prolegs I Deposited within food source no need for sensory features Two Divisions A Division Parasitica B Divison Aculeata A Division Parasitica parasitoid wasps Parasitioid insect larva that consumes all or most ofhost insect tissues eventually killing host The mother lays her eggs onin a host insect and the larvae feed on the insect and then eventually kill the insect in the end Superfamily Ichneumonideaichneumonid wasps and braconid wasps I Large group I Not any common names I Adults are wasp like in appearance I Ovipositor in females is well developed often extremely long The ovipositor is a tool for depositing an egg in a particular circumstance Usually on or in a host insect The mother can smell the odors ofa y pupae and then she sticks the ovipositor into it and they slide the egg down the ovipositor and into the pupae to develop Larval host continues molting They also use their long ovipositor to dig into the wood and bore down into the wood to find the beetles in the wood and deposit their eggs in the larvae in the wood I The ovipositor is derived from segments Superfamily Chalcidoidea chalcid wasps I Attack early immature stages I Ovipositor is well developed used to deposit inside or even around the host I Endoparasitoid develops inside the host and consumes from inside most are endo I Ectoparasitoid develops around the host and consumes from outside I Only 1 vein losss of all other veination I Some powered ight but greatly helped by wind B Division Aculeata Stinging Hymenoptera The ovipositor is modified into a stinger in many of the insects The females are the only ones who can sting because the males never had an ovipositor You typically will not see the stinger until she is ready to sting The egg falls out ofa sting chamber the eggjust kind of rolls out and the workers place it where they want Cant pass egg through ovipositerstinger Cuticle form segment 8 amp 9 have become modified to rigid sting housing all held inside sting chamber ovipositer of other division just hangs out Oviduct opens into sting chamber now not end of ovipositer Have venom to cause pain or to paralyze Venom sac and venom duct were originally accessory glands Most acuelata are nesting insects Nest protected shelter constructed by an insect as a site to feed and rear its young also serves as a restinghiding place for adults Eusociality most advanced form of social behavior in insects features permanently sterile individuals workers Family Sphecidae ants bees wasp s o All are nesting burrow in soil hollowed out stems etc o No eusoical memebers in Sphecidae all slitary 0 Mom finds host stings and paralyzes it brins it badk to lay eggon Offspring larva slowly consumes host Mom continues bringing back multiple hosts 0 Mud dauber builds nest out of mud relatively few make free standing nests o Generalized mandibulate mouth parts used to fashion materials into species specific nests Family Vespidae potter wasps paper wasps yellow jackets hornets 0 Most solitary but some eusocial ie paper wasp and hornets 0 Fold wings longitudianly and make them look like thin slivers paper wasps o Eusocial species build free standing paper nests chew wood and saliva makes paper like material 0 Yellow jackets make huge nests typically located in cavities in the soil


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