CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY
CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY BIOL 1103
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Tuesday February 15t Cells Leaming Objectives Identify or recall the different structural components and reproductive strategies present in prokaryotes eukaryotes and viruses Given data about an organism apply your knowledge of prokaryotes eukaryotes and viruses to determine what the organism is Explain why various treatment methods work to speci cally kill one class of organisms while remaining harmless to human cells or other organisms Understand the evidence supporting the endosymbiotic theory That membrane enclosed organelles found in eukaryotes originated as freeliving prokaryotes that were engulfed and then maintained because they established a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with their host cell Given evidence about the commonalities among organisms predict the evolutionary relationships of those organisms Three Major Categories of Pathogens Viruses O In uenza Virus Is spread primarily through respiratory droplets from sneezing or coughing The virus has a single strand of RNA surrounded by phospholipidprotein envelope 80120nm Is too small to be seen in a light microscope so you need an electron microscope to see it 0 Size I The smallest virus is 50 nm I Viruses are 100 times smaller than bacteria 0 Composition I Outer envelope Repetitive protein often inserted into a lipid membrane responsible for recognition and infection of host cell I Protected capsid that contains genetic material DNA or RNA with important protein enzymes required for duplication o A virus cannot reproduce by itself It hijacks a host cell to replicate itself Scientists therefore say viruses aren t alive 0 Bacteria Sometimes the virus s outer shell acts like a syringe shooting itselfinto the victim cell The virus infiltrates a cell via a vesicle which will in turn bond with a lysosome The virus interprets its meeting with a lysosome as a signal I m inside the cell Then it will manipulate the cell s DNA to replicate itself White bloods cells WBCs help to stop the spread of infection Tami u Blocks the neuraminidase enzyme made by all in uenza A strains which cause the u and avian u Viruses are unable to remove sticky sialic acid and can t escape the host cell Tami u doesn t remove the virus but instead prevents the virus s spread Unfortunately viruses change quickly and have become significantly immune to the medicine 0 Coxiella Bacterium can only survive inside cells and causes 12 weeks fever called Qfever Infection occurs 23 weeks after inhalation of barnyard dust It is gram negative Prokaryotes o Unicellular o Reproduce asexually Two daughter cells are genetically identical 0 Composition Protected interior cytoplasm that contains genetic material one circle of DNA as well as protein enzymes to carry out necessary functions of gathering energy manufacturing proteins ribosomes etc Think of a studio apartment many rooms with each having a specific purpose but the whole is unified A bacterial cell is typically surrounded by a plasma membrane and cell wall containing peptidoglycan carbohydrates amino acids The amount of peptidoglycan determines differences in their staining properties Two major categories of bacteria Types of antibiotics o Gram positive Have large amounts of peptidoglycan with a gram stain Can be either pathogenic or nonpathogenic o Gram negative Have small amounts of peptidoglycan With a Gram stain Solely pathogenic Size 0210 micrometer pm 0 Amoxicillin Penicillin and other beta lactams Blocks the enzyme that normally creates links in peptidoglycan molecules Kills Gram positive bacteria Not effective on Gram negative bacteria some Grampositive bacteria Streptomycin Blocks prokaryotic ribosomes Effective on many Gramnegative and Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride Cipro Blocks bacterial enzyme needed to prepare DNA for copying Effective on Gramnegative and Grampositive bacteria Eukaryotes Prokaryotes DNA 0 Linear strands within 0 Single circle in membranebound nucleoid region nucleus Size 0 5100 pm 0 0210 um Organization 0 Often multicellular 0 Usually singlecelled some have cell walls bacteria have no peptidoglycan peptidoglycan cells walls Metabolism 0 Usually need oxygen 0 May not need oxygen to exist to exist Organelles o Membrane bound 0 No organelles small organelles like mitochondria large ribosomes ribosomes Thursday Februagy 3E 0 Because your immune system doesn t know what it ll run into it builds a wide variety tens of millions of different shapes of white bloods cells that ght off different types of pathogens 0 Due to this wide variety your body can t produce suf cient amounts of all white blood cells to ght off every pathogen 0 When you re sick the white blood cells that can ght off the infection divide to make large numbers to ght off speci c pathogens Some viruses like chicken pox stay in your body forever and have the potential 0 to resurface shingles your body doesn t rout the virus because it s relatively inactive in the body Vaccinations are a small dose of pathogen that is intentionally put into a body so that the body will retain the WBCsantibodies to ght off viral infections Pregnant women should avoid eating deli meats or cleaning litter boxes to avoid exposure to Toxoplasma gondii a protozoan that can be passed to the child Suspect 3 Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans o A 2510 um encapsulated fungus found in decaying pigeon or chicken droppings o The cells have a cell wall It is inhaled as spores that eventually can infect all organs of the body and spread to the brain causing meningoencephalitis Eukaryote suspect 4 Protozoan Toxoplasma gondii o 46 pm singlecelled protozoan parasite of mammals and birds 0 Most likely spread through ingesting undercooked meat 0 Sexual life cycle occurs in cats so infection is typically spread through cat feces Antieukaryote medicines o Pyrimethamine Sulfonamides Interfere with enzymes used to make the folic acid needed to make thymine and uracil nucleotides Pyrimethamine Sulfonamides work on protists don t affect humans 0 Folic acid is primarily used for the development of DNA That s why pregnant women need it so much 7 they have a growing fetus within them that undergoes a huge amount of cell division o Polyenes combine with a component of fungal and some bacterial membranes disrupt and break them Inhibits Betaglucan found in cell walls of fungi 0 We don t have cell walls so we don t have to worry about taking polyenes The mitochondrion o It converts raw fuel into a usable form ATP 0 Chloroplasts do a similar process that converts sunlight as a raw fuel into glucose 0 Chloroplasts and mitochondria have oxygen gas and carbon dioxide as a waste products respectively Mitochondria have two membranes chloroplasts have three 0 o It is the Power House ofthe Cell 0 It has its own DNA 0 Question Through how many phospholipid membranes would a drug have to pass to get from the blood stream into the center of a protozoan s mitochondrion 0 Answer Three First the drug would have to pass through the cell s membrane Next it would have to pass through the outer and inner mitochondrial layers Eukaryotic organelles and endosymbiosis ul 1 I o Endosvmbiotic Theorv A ia and 39 39 r 1 cell would survive simply by eating other cells Eventually the cell would swallow a prokaryote without being able to break it down The union benefitted both the prokaryote and the cell the prokaryote got food and the cell got a continuing supply of efficient ATP and energy production The prokaryotes became mitochondria and chloroplasts explaining the multiple membranes around the organelles binary fission and the uniqueness of their DNA 0 Strange similarities o Chloroplasts and mitochondria are the same size as prokaryotes 0 Both have circular DNA without histones with similar sequence to photosynthetic bacteria cyanobacteria and intracellular rickettsia bacteria Both divide like prokaryotes O Mitochondria have their own protein synthesis machinery ribosomes more like 0 bacteria than eukaryotes eg sensitive to Streptomycin 0 Inner membrane of mitochondria contains an unusual phospholipid characteristic of bacterial membranes 0 Mitochondria are more similar to gramnegative bacteria 0 If toxoplasma gondii is inhaled by pregnant woman it can cross the placental barrier and harm the fetus Agony and Ecstasy o Ecstasy and pure MDMA Molly are two different things Mentions of MDMA in the ER have increased dramatically in the last few years MDMA 34 methylenedioxymethamphetamine is a synthetic psychoactive drug chemically similar to the stimulant quot A 39 39 and the 39 quot 39 quot MDMA acts as both a stimulant and psychedelic It produces an energizing effect distorts both physical and cognitive sensations amp may impair memory MDMA affects a neuron s ability to use the chemical serotonin Serotonin plays an important role in regulating mood aggression sexual activity sleep and sensitivity to pain Research in animals indicates that MDMA is neurotoxic MDMA is considered harmful to health and on rare occasions may be lethal o MDMA may affect 0 Blood pressure 0 Pulse rate 0 Body temperature I Hyperthermia I Hypothermia 0 Water Balance I Dehydration I Excess water Tuesday Februagy 8m 0 Concentration amount of one substance solute dissolved in a given volume of another substance solvent o The primary solvent in our bodies is water 0 Cell transport 0 O O O O O O O O O Individually molecules move randomly In groups molecules are more likely to move in a speci c direction Question Which of the following molecules H20 NA Oz and amino acid could move through a phospholipid membrane with the difficulty Answer Oxygen gas is nonpolar it s electrons are equally shared so will pass through the phospholipid membrane with the least amount of difficulty Hydrophobic molecules cross membranes through simple diffusion Hydrophilic molecules cannot cross membranes with simple diffusion but can through pathways channeltransport proteins in facilitated diffusion that open and close as necessary Aguaporins channel proteins that let water cross the membrane I This protein is usually open If there is more salt inside the cell than outside the cell water will move in both directions but more water will come into the cell I Salt can t move because it s linked to water with hydrogen bonds I Since more water is coming in than leaving this results in swelled cells and tissues Cells can move things against the gradient but they need energy ATP This is called active transport using energy to move a molecule against its concentration gradient I Active transport is usually enacted with polar molecules How do big molecules cross the membrane I Through endo and exocytosis I Exoc osis proteins made inside the cell or random particles are pushed out of cells through vesicles I Endoc osis cells engulf proteins or other particles with vesicles Thursday F ebruagy 10t h 0 Why do nerve and muscle cells need energy 0 Synthetic work building macromolecules I Making proteins etc 0 Mechanical work moving molecules past each other I Muscle shortening etc 0 Concentration work creating chemical gradients I Storing glucose etc 0 Electrical work creating ion gradients I Unequal distribution of sodium and potassium ions 0 Types of energy 0 Fire is an example of kinetic energy and a piece of wood is an example of potentialenergy 0 Kinetic energy is the energy of motion or energy that is actively being used to cause a change do work etc 0 Potential energy is energy that has the potential to use work it is stored 0 Forms of energy Organisms take advantage of all these forms of energy 0 Heat 0 Light 0 Soundmechanical I Sound is the vibration of molecules 0 Chemical I Our focus in class will be on chemical energy Energy is stored in chemical bonds Some molecules store more energy than others Generally larger molecules are expected to store more energy Lipids store more energy than carbohydrates remember one gram of lipid produces nine calories while one gram of carbohydrates produces only four calories This is why energy is stored in fat lipids are more ef cient 0 Electrical 0 Magnetic 0 Radiation I Some bacteria can live up to two miles underground feeding from the energy produced by radioactive decay 0 Energy can be transferredtransformed o C5H1205 9 6COZ 6HZO Heat I Sugar has more energy than carbon dioxide and water In this case energy is usually transferred with heat and light In our bodies some is heat while other is converted into a different form for storage 0 Rules of energy transformation 0 Laws of Thermodynamics I Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed The net energy of the universe does not change I With every transfertransformation of energy the net entropy of the universe goes up 0 En pj is the disorganization of energy I Heat is the least organized form of energy 0 Exergonic Reactions 0 Net release of energy available to do work 0 Breakdown reactions The process of structured molecules breaking down into simpler ones produces heat 0 Spontaneous o Endergonic Reactions 0 It requires an input of energy Energy must to be added to the reaction in order for the reaction to occur 0 Synthesis reactions 0 Not spontaneous In endergonic reactions the amount of entropy is lower in the product 0 Living Organisms o Metabolism All the chemical reactions that take place inside the body I High energy large complex molecules low energy simple molecules This process is referred to as catabolism and it releases energy for work 1511 sprung711116 nu nm n th M b t yuur seeeen end the testversmn tennd tn the fame en the reverse stde et thts sheet Y Y n Wh yuu are nntshed ntsn yuurexam ever and walk fur them te be muected Factua1ltnnwkdge n Etetetns are mede up et umpes are ammsuflhesame 5mm Lhatdx erm A m 5 3 be E nucleuudes c s sts E number eteleetmns D Brim Buds c nmbernfpmmns E h d5 D nember nfpm ens and electmns P E nene et the ebeve tt 2 Whet results stem an eneqeet shenng eteteettens 3901 7 between alums V A amnpnlar mvalentbnnd E a hydra band 7 The meteeete shewn above ts esnbnntt et c anm te n A Pm D a pularmvalentbund 3 T TM EES E a h the hebte mtErachun P 5 y P D neetete ends 3 whteh bends must be bteken furwater te E Smith vepense A mam bands E Whteh et the fulluwmg weetd Norbe a quotgnarlquot E Pm mvdembmg hbtd acmrdmg te the anthers et Rebuxldmg the c tente bends D nunpular eevetent bends E hydmgen bends 5 y d5 4 whteh et the fulluwmg scluhunsls mest eetdte7 D PW quotmama39squot 5quot d5 as A gestne Jetee atpH 2 E eshe ma 1 539 P 4 9 whteh et the fulluwmg wuuld Norbe a eembtete c hensehetd bteeeh at pH 12 mm D vmegaratpH3 A mm E blackcn ee atpHS 3 mm c em 5 whteh et the fulluwmg are palysacchandes D mm A eh n E SEES E starch c glycugen e and E nnly E A E end c 10 The difference between one amino acid and another is A the type of peptide bond that each contains B whether or not it is saturated C the type of sugar that each contains D the type of quotR group that it may contain E the type of base groups it contains 11 Which of the following statements is true A HDL carries cholesterol throughout your body to the cells that need it B LDL carries cholesterol to you liver where it is destroyed C You must obtain cholesterol through your diet D Plants do not produce cholesterol E HDL is sticky and builds up on your arteries Concept Application 12 Nitrogen has seven protons and hydrogen has one proton Based on your knowledge of the rules of covalent bonding which of the following molecules will form from the reaction of a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen A NH4 B NHQ C NH D NH3 E NH5 1 2 H He 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li Bo B C N O F Ne 11 12 13 1 I 15 16 17 18 Na Mg A Si P S Cl Ar 13 Which of the following combinations of atoms is most likely to form a covalent bond A Mg Cl 14 Water is a polar molecule because A hydrogen is more electronegative than oxygen B oxygen has more neutrons than hydrogen C oxygen has more electrons than hydrogen D hydrogen has more neutrons than oxygen E oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen H H C quot O H H C H I I C CI H H C H H H E E 15 Which of the two molecules above is likely to be more hydrophobic A A B B C A and B would be equally hydrophobic D It is impossible to tell 992 16 Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules the solute molecule shown in the figure above is most likely A hydrophobic 113 BIOL1103 Biology for NonMajors Norris Armstrong Required Materials httpelcugaedu Course Info Krogh llBiology A Guide to the Natural Worldquot 4 h edition Mastering Biology subscription comes with new textmasteringbiocom Clickers Interwrite Personal Response System RF Forming Cooperative Groups Group signup on ELC Group Stuff gt Signup for a group Schedule is on Home Page gt DATE on ELC Why Learn about Biology a Need to make biology based decisions in life b What is life i How do we know ifsomething is a living organism ii Characteristics of Life 1 Does it have cells 2 Is it moving or breathing 3 Can it reproduce 4 Does it consume energy 5 Does it respond to stimuli Atoms and Molecules a Explain why some elements are reactive and others are stable Distinguish between the different ways that atoms are held together chemical bonds Predict the type of chemical bond that will form between two atoms 9957 Atoms i Subatomic Particle Charge Mass 1 Electrons Negative No Mass 2 Neutrons Neutral One AMU 3 Protons Positive One AMU n pure elements the number of protons is the equal to the number of electrons The Atomic Number is the number of protons held by each element s atoms nuclei 118 e Electron Properties i Electrons are located around the nucleus in orbital shells 1 1st Shell 2 e 2 2quotd Shell 8 e 3 339d Shell 8 e Atoms can exist in different states a ons i ons have either gained or lost electrons ii Anions gain electrons negative charge iii Cations lose elections positive charge b Isotopes i Isotopes have either gained or more often lost neutrons i Some isotopes can be unstable iii They breakdown and release subatomic particles or energy 9 radioactivity Atoms amp Molecules a Explain why some elements are reactive and others stable b Distinguish between the different ways that atoms are held together chemical bonds c Predict the type of chemical bond that will form between two atoms All Matter Combinations of Atoms a Compounds Molecules Compounds are combinations ofatoms When you combine atoms you can dramatically change the physical properties 39 Chlorine 1 Highly poisonous extremely volatile Sodium 1 Metal highly reactive explosively with water iquot Combining Chlorine and Salt produces Sodium chloridesalt an essential nutrient Why do atoms react together a If an atom has a full valence shell outer electron orbital it is stable relatively unreactive b Ifan atoms has no full valence shell it is still reactive Three Kinds of Chemical Bonds a onic One atom loses an electron becomes the cation One atoms gains an electron becomes the anion iquot The two oppositely charged ions then attract iv This forms a crystal structure b Covalent i Electrons are shared amongst the atoms equally Tend to be very strong because the atoms must be closely associated c Polar Electrons are shared amongst the atoms but not equally because of different electronegativities Polar compounds have partial charges associated with them although the compounds themselves are neutral iquot Electronegativity refers to the tendency of an atom to hold on to its valence electrons Elements on the left side of the Periodic Table are less electronegative they hold on to their electrons loosely than elements on the right iv Carbon or Hydrogen Nitrogen or Oxygen Polar For the majority of the molecules we ll be looking at this will hold true Water and pH a Explain water s unusual physical properties b Explain how molecules dissolve in water c Predict whether a molecule will be water soluble or insoluble d Water molecules are unusual i Water can do something many other molecules can t form Hydrogen bonds ii The negative partial charge from the Oxygen side of the water molecule attracts to the positive partial charge of the Hydrogen iii Hydrogen bonds are easily broken but easily formed iv Each water molecule can form up to four Hydrogen bonds will other water molecules meaning they can stick very tightly to each other v Water is also a very good solvent meaning things dissolve in water very well Again this is due to its partial charges Anything with a partial charge can dissolve in water hydrophilic 1 Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic I l 1 a i 39and39 l i i r 39 are a 39 meaning there are no strictly quothydrophobicquot or strictly hydrophilic molecules b Instead molecules are described as more or quotless hydrophilic vi Sometimes water can be so partially charged that it will lose a proton Hydrogen ion H and an extra Hydroxide ion OH will be floating about e pH Scale i 0 14 ii What is the pH of pure water Seven iii H20 69 H and OH iv If H gt OH then pH lt7 v If H lt OH then pH gt7 vi Organisms try to maintain a constant pH throughout their bodies vii The pH of rain near Charlotte is 443 and the pH near Fresno is 54 Which location is more acidic Which location has a higher concentration of H ions in the surface water and by how much 120 PH is based on a logarithmic scale So every 10 change in pH represents a 10 fold change in H The pH of human blood is 735 745 About a decade ago scientists discovered Helicobacter pylori a bacteria that lives within the highly acidic 20 region of a human stomach Bleach a strong base breaks down lipids Major building blocks of all organisms All organisms are made out of quotbuilding blocks Fundamental units can be hooked together in various different ways With the exception of nucleic acids all of these major building blocks are important nutrients Most of these are comprised of carbon a H20 b Carbohydrates c Lipids d Proteins e Nucleic Acids Why CarbonCarbon forms four verystrong covalent bonds with other atoms Also this means that carbon can form large chains with itself Most biological molecules are polymers a Repeating subunits A hydroxide OH groupfrom one monomer combines with the hydroxide from another in the presence of a polymerase The two hydroxide units combine to form a water H2 0 molecule a process called dehydration synthesis Hydrolysis is the opposite routine Your body will recycle pieces like Legos efficiently to enact the important tasks it needs to perform What is the food pyramidThe traditional food pyramid has been changed time and time again Carbohydrates a Describe how simple sugars mono and disaccharides differ from complex carbohydrates Polysaccharides Shit guick slide b Which of the following foods contain carbsAll of thesefoods contain significant amounts of carbs except tuna Plants have large amounts of carbs particularly Broccoli ii Lettuce iii Oatmeal iv Tuna v Bananas vi Apples c Subunit monosaccharide S3 CHZO All monosaccharaides are based on this basic formula 5 Hexose CSH 1205 Carbohydrates are hydrophilic meaning they dissolve readily through water VI VII f rqq Disaccharide These are two monosaccharaides combined Sucrose glucose fructose is a disaccharide Polysaccharide These are multiple monosaccharaides combined What percent of your diet should be carbohydrates USDAThe USDA recommends that 50 55 of your diet be carbs The majority should be fruits and vegetables Currently 40 50 are from sugarsstarch Your body treats starches differently than the more complex compounds in fruitsvegetables 8085 5055 3040 iv 1020 v Carbs should be avoided Which of the following food ingredients provides no calories because it is indigestible to humansCellulose we cannot digest because we have no enzyme for it Fiber is carbs a body can t break down 39 Nonfat dry milk Brown sugar iquot Fructose iv Cellulose gum v Modified corn starch The carbs in which of the following are mostly monosaccharaidesFructose Which of the following contains complex carbohydrates polysaccharides Cellulose gum and modified corn starch are complex carbohydrates Nonfat dry milk Table Sugar iquot Fructose iv Cellulose gum v Modified corn starch Why not just eat sugar a b Vitamins and minerals Sugar is nutrient deficient Complex Carbs are harder to digest Why would one want something that is harder to digest You re likely to feel full longer Whyis a high spike in sugar like the one someone might experience from binge sugar eating bad Sugar is actually a very reactive molecule It damages other molecules and tissues like blood vessels This damage is cumulative over time Metamucil includes fiber Fiber is synonymous with roughage i Recommended 20gday How do organisms use carbs a b c d Energy Structure Communication Lubricant slipped disc 125 VI VII e Mucus keeps the body most and clean Nucleic Acids a Learning Objectives 39 Distinguish between the three parts of a nucleotide Distinguish between RNA and DNA Describe the structure of a DNA molecule iv Describe the two major types of bonds found in the DNA double helix Monomer nucleotide DNA and RNA have a net negative charge resultingfrom their phosphate group a Three Constituent Parts 39 Phosphate group Pentose sugar iquot Nitrogenous base There are five different types of nitrogenous bases A T C G amp U Covalent Bonds Nucleic acids have a sugarphosphatesugarphosphate backbone Nucleic acids have two strands double helix that combine in an antiparallel shape in DNA Additionally the two strands are complementary meaning the parts A T C G and U have definite quotcombining partners The two strands end in either a five or three prong end which refers to its polarity and again is complementary 5 ATGCAACT 3 what is the complement DNAAnswer 3 TACGTTGA 5 In RNA Uracil replaces Thymine Nitrogenous Bases Uracil RNA only Thymine DNA 69 Uracil RNA Lipids a Learning Objectives i Identify lipids in foods ii Distinguish between the three classes of lipids a Thymine DNA only b Cytosine c Adenine d Guanine e f iii Describe the function of lipids in our bodies Lipids are important for us nutritionally both for the bad and good For instance they provide many of our calories How many calories do lipids provide in general Every gram of lipid yields 9 calories of energylf a food has ten grams of lipid or fat then the total amount of calories from lipids in this food would be ninety 9 10 How many calories per gram in curbs Four However Fiber doesn t count towards calories because we cannot V XI X X XIV digest them One gram of protein is four calories From this information we can gure out where calories come from on food labels Fatty Acids a Three Categories i Saturated Fats Saturated fats hold as many hydrogen atoms as possible These are solids at room temperature the long straight molecules form a pseudo crystal lattice 1 Source Peanut Butter Butter Unsaturated Fats Unsaturatedfats have less than the maximum number of hydrogen This results from one of the carbons having a double bond Because they are not straight molecules have kinks these are liquid at room temperature Some food manufacturers hydrogenate their unsaturated fats meaning they add hydrogen atoms to make them behave more like saturated fats 1 Source Vegetable oils nuts fish fruits veggies iii Polyunsaturated Fats These resultfrom multiple double bonds between carbon atoms What is Transfat Unsaturated fatty acid Chevron shape Cis natural Saturated fatty acid Straight shape Trans unsaturated Kinked shape These are partially hydrogenated unsaturated fatty 975 acids Fats amp Oils Triglycerides meaning3fatty acids are linked to a glycerol a Why are fats hydrophobic All the quottailsquot coming off of the glycerol are nonpolar Phospholipids These have 3 tails but one is a phosphate group head group The long hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic but the phosphate groups are hydrophilic So phospholipids can interact with both water and oils Because of this property cell membranes are made of phospholipids Sterols These are actually not polymers The book may refer to this as steroids Cholesterol is a sterol If your body doesn t get enough cholesterol your body will produce it Cholesterol is responsible for handling Vitamin D How does your body handle CholesteroICholesterol comes almost entirelyfrom meats Some foods that don t contain cholesterol French fries etc still have the ability to modify cholesterol levels Overall cholesterol lt200 LDL lt130 Brings cholesterol to the cells This is widely considered the bad cholesterol 7 even though we need it to live This is because high levels ofLDL promoteatherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries by thickening plagues c HDL gt50 Brings excess cholesterol to liver for recycling Why not go totally fatfree Nowadays it s possible to live virtuallyfat free which isn t always a good thing a Calories b Fat soluble Vitamins A D E amp K c Essential fatty acids These are fatty acids that your body can t produce by itself These are Omega 3 and Omega 6 d Tastes good People used to be calorie deficient wecame evolutionarily to like the taste of lipids XV Proteinsare constructed from amino acids a Constituent Parts i Amino RGroup iquot Carboxyl iv Hydrogen x S Protein Structure This makes more sense with diagrams a Primary is the order of the chain b Secondary is where the protein chain is folded but not all of it c Tertiary is the whole chain of amino acids folded upon itself completely d Quaternary is more than one protein chain Hemoglobin for example is constructed of four different protein chains XVII What controls Protein folding Lots of things control thefolds of the protein The shape of the protein is what allows it to interact with its surroundings Sickle cell anemia and mad cow disease are examples of protein fold related illnesses XVIII Proteins and Nutrition a How much person does the average person need The average person needs about 2 glasses of milk daily Olympic athletes need about 3 Bodies are extremely efficient in using protein Excess protein is converted to fat A complete protein is one that provides all essential amino acids 21 Happy February Take Two and Call Me in the Morning Cells I Spend a minute and make three suggestions about what is possibly affecting Ellie Ellie seems feverish dizzy etc a Rawundercooked meat b Bugsbites c Catcat feces d Hay ride e Pigeon feces f Other students g Horses feces II Pathogens a Viruses i Influenza virus spread primarily through respiratory droplets from sneezing or coughing The virus has a single strand of RNA surrounded by IE phospholipidprotein envelope 80120 nm Too small to be seen in a light microscope so an electron microscope is needed to see it Size 1 Smallest 50 nm 2 100 times smaller than bacteria Composition 1 Outer envelope repetitive protein often inserted into a lipid membrane responsible for recognition and infection of host cell 2 Protected capsid that contains genetic material DNA or RNA with important protein enzymes required for duplication Cannot reproduce by itself 1 Hijacks a host cell to replicate itself This is why most scientists don t consider a virus to be living Sometimes the virus s outer shell acts like a syringe shooting itself into the victim cell The virus in ltrates a cell via a vesicle which will in turn bond with a lysosome The virus interprets its meeting with a lysosome as a signal quotI m inside the cell Then it will manipulate the cell s DNA to replicate itself White bloods cells WBCs help to stop the spread of infection v Tamiflu Blocks the neuraminidase enzyme made by all influenza A strains which cause the quotfluquot and avian flu Viruses are unable to remove sticky sialic acid and can t escape the host cell Tamiqu doesn t remove the virus but instead prevents the virus s spread Unfortunately viruses change quickly and have become significantly immune to the medicine b Bacteria ii Coxiella Bacterium can only survive inside cells and causes 12 weeks fever called Q fever Infection occurs 23 weeks after inhalation of barnyard dust Gram negative Prokaryotes 1 Unicellular While many unicellular bacteria 2 Reproduce asexually Two daughter cells are genetically identical 3 Composition a Protected interior cytoplasm that contains genetic material one circle of DNA as well as protein enzymes to carry out necessary functions of gathering energy manufacturing proteins ribosomes etcThink of a studio apartment many rooms with each having a specific purpose but the whole unit are unified 9 A bacterial cell is typically surrounded by a plasma membrane amp cellwall quotU I quotu39 39 3939 amino acids c The amount of peptidoglycan determines differences in their staining properties Two major categories of bacteria Gram positive Have large amounts of peptidoglycan with a gram stain Can be either pathogenic or non pathogenic Gram negative Have small amounts of peptidoglycan with a Gram stain Soler pathogenic d Size i 0210 micrometer um c Ellie s Diagnosis Initial Identification The health center collected blood samples from Ellie and observed her cells under a light microscope They identified foreign structures with DNA and outer membranes The cells did not stain with the Gram procedure and were about 110 the size of Ellie s cells It can t be a virus because 1 Influenza A uses RNA and DNA False some viruses have DNA 2 The pathogen is too large 3 It doesn t stain with the Gram stain ii39 Which would be the most effective treatment 1 Amoxicillin Penicillin and other betalactams Blocks the enzyme that normally creates links in peptidoglycan molecules Kills Gram positive bacteria Not effective on Gram negative bacteria 2 Streptomycin Blocks prokaryotic ribosomes Effective on many Gram negative and some Grampositive bacteria 3 Cipro orry folks Armstrong s on a roll today DNA Linear 39 region bound nucleus Size 5100 Organization Bacteria cell walls cells walls 23 Because your immune system doesn t know what it ll run into it builds a wide variety tens of millions of different shapes of white bloods cells that fight off different types of pathogens Due to this wide variety your body can t produce sufficient amounts of all white blood cells to fight off every pathogen When you re sick the white blood cells that m fight off the infection divide to make large numbers to fight off specific pathogensome viruses like chicken pox stay in your body forever and have the potential to resurface shingles your body doesn t rout the virus because it s relatively inactive in the body Vaccinations are a small dose of pathogen that is intentionally put into a body so that the body will retain the WBCsantibodies to fight off viral infections Pregnant women should avoid eating deli meats or cleaning litter boxes to avoid exposure to Toxoplasma gondii a protozoan that can be passed in utero to child Vl d Protozoan Toxoplasma gondii i 46 pm singlecelled protozoan parasite of mammals and birds ii Most likely spread through ingesting undercooked meat iii Sexual life cycle occurs in cats so infection is typically spread through cat feces e AntiEukaryotic Medicines i Pyrimethamine Sulfonamides Interfere with enzymes used to make the folic acid needed to make thymine and uracil nucleotides Pyrimethamine Sulfonamides work on protists don t affect humans Folic acid is primarily used for the development of DNA That s why pregnant women need it so much they have a growing fetus within them that undergoes a huge amount of cell division ii Polyenes combine with a component of fungal and some bacterial membranes disrupt and break them Inhibits Betaglucan found in cell walls of fungi Question a There is a specific blood test that can be used to definitively decide if the pathogen is a protist or a fungus Which of the following things must this test look for The test must look for Beta glucan containing cell walls 9 Scientists have produced a new drug that can damage mitochondria in protozoan cells Be able to identify mitochondria and other types of cellular organelles Without mitochondria the cell would lose most of its ability to processconvert energy The Mitochondrion It converts raw fuel into a usable form ATP Chloroplasts do a similar process that converts sunlight as a raw fuel into glucose Chloroplasts and mitochondria have oxygen gas and carbon dioxide as a waste produce respectively Mitochondria have two membranes chloroplasts have three a quotPower House of the Cellquot b Has its own DNA Question a Through how many phospholipid membranes would a drug have to pass to get from the blood stream into the center of a protozoan s mitochondrion First the drug would have to pass through the cell s membrane Next it would have to pass through the outer and inner mitochondrial layers Eukaryotic Organelles amp r 39 I I39 r y 39 Theory A 39 39 39 39 and chloroplast less cell would survive simply by eating other cells Eventually the cell would quotswallowquot a prokaryote without being able to break it down The union benefitted both the prokaryote and the cell the prokaryote gets food and the cell gets a continuing supply of efficient ATP and energy production The prokaryotes became mitochondria and chloroplasts explaining why there are multiple membranes around the organelles binary fission and the uniqueness of their DNA a Strange similarities Vll 28 Chloroplasts and Mitochondria are the same size as prokaryotes Both have circular DNA without histones with similar sequence to photosynthetic bacteria cyanobacteria and intracellular rickettsia bacteria Both divide like proka ryotes Prokaryotes and mitochondria go through binary fission iv Mitochondria have their own protein synthesis machinery ribosomes more like bacteria than eukaryotes eg sensitive to Streptomycin Similarities Use to Group Organisms Categorized molecularly physically and anatomically a Bacteria gram negative gram positive cyanobacteria b Archaea c Eucarya animals fungi and plants Agony amp Ecstasy Ecstasy and pure MDMA Molly are two different things Mentions of MDMA in the ER have increased dramatically in the last few years httpwww lpnrn npntirc utnh 39contentaddicti I html MDMA may affect a Blood pressure b Pulse rate c Body temperature i Hyperthermia ii Hypothermia d Water Balance i Dehydration ii Excess water Concentration amount ofone substance solute dissolved in a given volume of another substance solvent Water solvent molecules are polar meaning they have partial charges that allow them to dissolve in water In cells the phospholipid membrane acts as a barrier keeping the inside and outside of the cell separate Because the phospholipid membrane is hydrophilic on the outside water molecules are kept out of the cell Glucose and other water soluble also stay out of the membrane because it has formed hydrogen bonds with the exterior water Non polar compounds cross the lipid bi layer with the least difficulty Hydrophobic molecules cross the phospholipid layer in a process called simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion a process in which a cell provides transport proteins that a molecule can pass through is the transport method for hydrophilic molecules Both of these processes are considered passive meaning they do not require energy These involve the flowing of molecules down a concentration grade Transport proteins are very selective and can open and close like doors Aguaporin a transport protein that only allows water to pass is a type of transport protein When the inner and outer concentrations of water outside a cell are uneven water will move both ways across an aguaporin but more water molecules will move toward the more diluted area Many times cells need to move materials up to a