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by: Mr. Ana Muller


Marketplace > University of Georgia > Biology > BIOL 1103 > CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY
Mr. Ana Muller
GPA 3.54
Concepts in Biology

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Concepts in Biology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Ana Muller on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1103 at University of Georgia taught by Barstow in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 715 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biology at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Study questions Lecture 24 110311 Chapter 15 Nonadaptive Evolution and Speciation 1 Look up the de nition of homology in the glossary Explain the difference between anatomical and molecular homology How do biologists explain why there is molecular and anatomical homology Homology common structures in different organisms that result from common ancestry Anatomical homology similarities in physical structures molecular homology similarities in genetic makeup chromosome numbers etc 2 How many species of mammals known as sirenians are alive today Why are manatees of cially listed as endangered What is the prognosis for longterm survival of the species There are 4 living species of sirenians alive today Manatees are officially quotendangeredquot because of their low population levels and because of how many die each year due to human activity With government and peoples39 participation their populations are expected to increase 3 Can you explain how and why it is the population not individuals that evolves Individuals cannot evolve they can only adapt Evolution takes place over a long period of time after changes in an allele frequency Since allele 1 39 apply to I not39 quot 39J 39 only populations can evolve 4 What is a gene pool How does genetic variation arise in a population What is meant by allele frequency gene pool the total collection of alleles in a population genetic variation arises via changes in allele frequencies allele frequency the relative proportion of an allele in a population 5 What is the HardyWeinberg law of genetic equilibrium What are the conditions necessary for the allele frequency in a population to remain constant generation after generation Why do we say evolution occurs because one or more conditions for genetic equilibrium are not operating HW equilibrium in a nonevolving population both allele and genotype frequencies remain constant from one generation to the next conditions large population no mutations random mating no gene flow emigration immigration if one or more conditions for genetic equilibrium are not operating then allele frequency changes which results in an evolving population 6 Given an allele frequency ofp 8 what is q What is the 39 and 39 t t 1 l 39 quot in the rst generation ie pquot 2pq qz How does HardyWeinberg have important implications in public health see page 309 If p 08 q 02 p2 064 frequency of AA qu 032 freq of Aa qz 004 freq of aa 7 What are the ve forces that can change allele frequency in a population Mutation gene flow genetic drift nonrandom mating natural selection 8 Why does the founder effect always decrease genetic diversity lfa few quotfoundersquot leave a large original population and they happen by chance to have a different and reduced allele frequency the new population produced by these quotfoundersquot will lack the genetic diversity of the original population since the quotfoundersquot lacked diversifying alleles 9 How does natural selection consistently produce adaptation Natural selection is not a form of nonadaptive evolution meaning that it can by itself lead to adaptation because it is not a random process 10 Can you give an example of genetic drift Can you de ne the bottleneck effect and give an example Genetic drift random decrease in a population and thus in its ratio of alleles as well loss of an allele in a small population Bottleneck effect occurs when large proportion ofa population is lost results in less diversity because there are fewer alleles present in the remaining population esp if the population is small 11 What is inbreeding depression How did Florida solve the problem of inbreeding depression of the Florida Panthers What is gene flow inbreeding depression the negative r having a high frequency of homozygous individuals possessing harmful recessive alleles gene ow the movement of alleles from one population to another which may increase the genetic diversity of a population 39 fora I 39 39 quotJwith 12 Can you explain the three modes of natural selection 7 stabilizing directional and disruptive stabilizing phenotypes in either extreme are undesirable middle is most favorable directional phenotypes at one end of the spectrum are favored by the environment disruptive diversifying phenotypes at either end of the spectrum are favored by environment 13 How would you de ne a species A population of organisms that preferentially interbreed amp don t breed with other species Chapter 15 Nonadaptive Evolution and Speciation Evolution in the Fast Lane Story Abstract amp Additional Information This chapter discusses the manatee and panther population in Florida genetic diversity gene ow and more Here are some of the key points in the story for this chapter Manatee Population I Manatees belong to a group of mammals known as sirenians a category that also includes the manatees closest living relative the dugong httpwww m mn berkelev J 39 39 39 39 html I There are four living species of sirenian A fth sirenian species Steller s sea cow was driven to extinction by hunting in the 1770s Manatees too were once routinely hunted for their meat and hide and were in danger of becoming extinct by the late 1800s To protect the creatures Florida passed legislation in 1893 prohibiting the hunting of manatees but enforcement was lax and their numbers continued to decline throughout the next century I A newer threat boatrelated deaths has affected the manatee Deaths reached an alltime high in 2009 when 97 animals were killed in 2006 92 manatees perished in collisions Other causes of death include being caught in shing lines and crushed in locks and ood dams Every year more than 100 manatees die from humanrelated causes I Today manatees are protected by both federal and state laws and they are now Florida s of cial state marine mammal Because of these efforts the Florida manatee population has increased to more than 5000 individuals up from only 1000 just 30 years ago While the manatee is no longer on the brink of extinction and its numbers are increasing biologists are still worried about the endangered species httpwwwfwsgov nort hflur39J F nfactshtm Genetic Diversity I The Florida panther is facing a different kind of struggle This species has suffered from inbreeding depression In the past Florida panthers mated with puma populations from neighboring states where their ranges overlapped This interbreeding fostered an exchange of alleles that continually enriched the local populations genetic diversity I By the mid20th century hunting and development had squeezed the Florida panther population into an isolated region at the state s southernmost tip By 1967 only 30 panthers remained and the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed them as endangered By 1980 the panthers showed unmistakable signs of inbreeding depression birth defects low sperm count missing testes and bent tails I In response the Fish and Wildlife Service took active measures In 1995 it brought in female pumas from Texas to mate with Florida s male panthers The program was successful the hybrid kittens showed none of the symptoms of inbreeding depression Today more than 100 healthy panthers roam the swamps and grasslands of Florida httpwwwnwforgWildlifeWildlifeLibrarv 39 FloridaPanther asnx Additional information about other topics from this story and chapter The Founder Effect httpwwwpbsorgwgbhevolutionlibrarv063l 063 03html Read and study pages 290 298 Adventures in Evolution Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace on the trail of natural selection A tirneline of Darwin s life follows the study questions Study Questions 1 What American President and famous English naturalist were born on February 12 1809 Abraham LincolnCharles Darwin 2 What do you know about Darwin before he graduated from Christ s College Cambridge Who was his mentor at Cambridge He attended Edinburgh University at 16 John Henslow was his mentor 3 Who was FitzRoy Who were the Fuegins Why did Charles get selected to travel on the Beagle He was the ship s captain The Fuegians were one of the tribal groups who inhabited the southernmost tip of South America They were brought on the ship He was a companion of the captain 4 What were some of the significant events in the ve year voyage of the Beagle brazil Tierra del Fuego Chile and the Galapagos Islands and then around the globe 5 Who was Emma Wedgewood Where did Darwin spend the last 40 years of his life Darwin s WifeThe Down House England 6 Who was Malthus What contribution did Malthus make to the idea of Natural Selection Malthus observed that only the fittest survive which gave Darwin the idea that via this selection process evolutionary change would occur 7 What is Natural Selection Can you explain Natural Selection to one of your classmates The reproductive success of some individuals over others Results in certain inheritable traits appearing more in each new generation 8 Who was Alfred Russel Wallace What was his contribution to evolutionary theory How did Wallace define species Naturalist who wrote about evolution he cofounded the idea of natural selection species group of individuals capable of interbreeding with like members 9 When did Darwin die How old was he at the time of his death Where is he buried He died April 191882 Age 73 Westminster Abbey THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF DARWIN S LIFE 1809 Darwin born at Shrewsbury February 12 1809 Exam 5 Allele frequency of p8 what is the frequency ofthe heterozygote population in the first generation 32 If within a large population no mutations occur no migration occurs all mating is random and each individual has an equal chance of reproducing which of the following will probably happen 0 No evolution will occur The only known population of a reptile species lives on an African mountain The population is relatively large but no close relatives of this species are known Suppose you could stop all the mutations within the population and all emigration out ofthis population Which statement best describes the probable future of this population 0 Although the population will cease to change it may survive for as long as the environment remains constant 0 Evolution will continue as natural selection acts on the genetic variability that exists in the population Evolution by genetic drift is most obvious in small populations Habitats set aside for endangered species are often sectioned into areas by roads producing separate small populations This causes problems in conservation because it reduces gene flow between populations Founder effect is NOT when only a small portion of an original population s gene pool are represented amp Bottleneck effect is NOT changes in allele frequencies due to change events The greater prairie chicken once flourished on the prairies of Illinois The conversion of prairie to farmland reduced their numbers from millions to only 50 birds by 1993 Poor genetic diversity resulted in only 50 birds by 1993 Poor genetic diversity resulted in only 50 percent of eggs hatching Bringing in birds from neighboring states increased their genetic diversity which improved the egghatching rate to 90 These changes in genetic diversity were the result of loss of genetic diversity through genetic drift and restoration of genetic diversity by gene flow Which of the following males in a given population would be considered the most fit in an evolutionary sense One that produced two offspring both of which survived and produced offspring of their own An example of hybrid infertility is when interbreeding two different species of lovebirds produces offspring unable to build a nest after they mature because they lack the innate knowledge needed to carry the nesting materials The hybrids do not reproduce and this limits genetic mixing of the two species Allopatric speciation a population of mountain dwelling salamanders migrate and split into two populations separated by a valley they cannot cross Mechanical Incompatibility Great Dane and a Chihuahua are the same species but mating is limited lf Species A is divided by a newly formed river to become two populations B and C and the isolating mechanism between B and C is eliminated species B amp C will remain genetically isolated Analogous Characteristics bat wings and dragonfly wings Most closely related pair of animals genus Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Derived Character 50k species are vertebrates yet only some vertebrates then went on to evolve four limbs Plants produce glucose and oxygen during photosynthesis which is used by humans and other animals Natural Selection organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding generations Gene Pool for a particular gene includes all the alleles for a particular gene in all the individuals in the population Evolution change in the frequency of alleles in a population


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