RESCH SEM MATH EDU
RESCH SEM MATH EDU EMAT 8990
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Apple M 1992 quotDo the Standards Go Far Enough Power Policy and Practice in Mathematics J quot quot Journal for Research in quot quot Fdnca nn 235 412431 Although NCTM39s Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics 1989 and Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics 1991 are generating considerable interest there has been little discussion of their ideological and social groundings and effects By placing the Standards within the growing conservative movement in education this paper raises a number of crucial issues about the documents including the depth of the nancial crisis in J quot and its 39 and 39J 39 39 genesis and results the nature of inequality in schools the role of mathematical knowledge in our economy in maintaining these inequalities the possibilities and limitations of a mathematical curriculum that is more grounded in students39 experiences and the complicated realities of teachers lives Without a deeper understanding of these issues the Standards will be used in ways that largely lend support only to the conservative agenda for educational reform Bartolome L I 1994 quotBeyond the Methods Fetish Toward a Humanizing Pedagogyquot Harvard Educational Review 642 17394 Bartolome critiques the prevalent attachment to methods and techniques in teacher education in quotservingquot subordinated students She argues that it is essential for teachers to develop political clarity in addition to content knowledge in order to use methods that allow students to move from object to subject and that allow teachers to know their students deeply She criticizes the common de cit model where subordinated students are viewed as de cient Finally she describes two approaches to potentially humanizing pedagogy culturally responsive instruction and strategic teaching Belenky M F B M Clinchy et al Women s Ways of Knowing D 39 of Self Voice and Mind 193198 Belenky et al posit that for women con rmation and community are prerequisites to achievement and development whereas for men they are considered nal rewards This difference has large implications in schooling and academia The authors make the point that trust is crucial in allowing women to feel that they can become more knowledgeable and that lack of trust is crippling Finally the authors discuss the frequency that women feel oppressed or patronized and note that women are often suspicious of their interactions with male professors and the games that can ensue Boaler J 1998 quotOpen and Closed Mathematics Student Experiences and Understandingsquot Journal for Research in quot quot Pdlwntinn 291 4162 Boaler describes her large and longitudinal study at two secondary schools in the UK Amber Hill and Phoenix Park Teachers at Amber Hill used traditional textbook approaches to teaching mathematics while teachers at Phoenix Park used openended questions in a problembased orientation Boaler found that students at Amber Hill had more difficulty using mathematics in a contextual situation than the Phoenix Park students that students at both schools did not differ significantly from each other on noncontextualized mathematics tests and that Amber Hill students sometimes had difficulty with noncontextualized tests because cues for which rules to follow were absent Boaler shows that exible thinking and a willingness and ability to try different approaches were central components of Phoenix Park students39 Views of the nature of mathematics whereas Amber Hill students saw mathematics as rulebound and based on memorization Amber Hill students also tended to think of mathematics class as boring and tedious while Phoenix Park students felt mathematics class was noisy and interesting Boaler J 2000 quotExploring Situated Insights into Research and Learningquot Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 311 113119 Boaler reexamines her data from the 1998 JRME article in which she focused on students learning mathematics in 2 schools In this article she considers a situated framework that allows the classroom community to affect understanding of how students produce and use mathematical knowledge The behaViors and practices of these communities she argues are significant in understanding the production of knowledge Ernest P 2000 Why Teach Mathematics Why Learn Maths J White and S Bramall London London University Institute of Education Ernest begins with 3 theses 1 school math is neither uniquely defined nor value or culturefree 2 academic math is greatly overestimated and 3 the aims of teaching math cannot be meaningfully considered in isolation from their social context He thoroughly debunks the utility justification and focuses on three theses mathematics as culturally produced the overvaluation of mathematics as necessary for economic survivalsuccess and the ways that mathematics is embedded in society Ernest then identifies the common aims of math education stating the progressiVist aim is disappearing and the critical theorists is unformed In conclusion he suggests four aims of school math beginning with skill creative capabilities social applications and inner appreciation GirouX H A and P McLaren 1995 Teacher Education and the Politics of Engagement The Case for Democratic Schooling Breaking Free The Transformative Power of Critical Pedagogy P Leistyna A Woodrum and S A Sherblom Cambridge MA Harvard Educational Review 30133 1 Authors argue that many recent reform efforts in education sidestep or backtrack from efforts to educate for a democratic citizenry Teachers as quottransformative intellectualsquot can reclaim space in schools for discussions investigating the relationships among authority teacher work schooling and the social order The authors outline a teacher education curriculum that links the critical studies of power language culture and history to the practice of a critical pedagogy one that values student experience and student voice and leads to the transformation of schools into democratic public spheres hooks b 1994 Eros Eroticism and the Pedagogical Process Teaching to Transgress Education as a Practice of Freedom New York Routledge l9ll99 hooks examines the split between body and mind inherent in academia and teaching and the absence of passion in higher education She makes the case that we cannot inhabit classrooms as disembodied spirits but must address passion in the classroom in order to be whole human beings She believes that the force of eros in the classroom provides an energy that can be healing and invigorating for all that can unite theory and practice and that can allow us to find our voices Rather than ignore the body eros and eroticism hooks claims that we must allow the mind and the body to feel desire in order for education to have its greatest impact Kellner D 2001 Critical Theory Poststructuralism and the Philosophy of Liberation 5 Kellner critiques Enrique Dussel s book on a philosophy of liberation by contrasting the Philosophy of Liberation with Western Philosophy and with Critical Theory He notes that the Philosophy of Liberation argues that Western Philosophy is limited in scope idealist and subjectivist On the other hand there are many parallels between the Philosophy of Liberation and Critical Theory since both are concerned with liberation from state economic and political structures both reject instrumental rationality and both focus on needs and suffering Kellner goes on to consider how universal a philosophy of liberation need be and wonders about the role of philosophy in the practice of liberation He concludes by noting that a new synthesis of the Philosophy of Liberation and Critical Theory may be fruitful Kincheloe J L and S R Steinberg 1986 A Tentative Description of PostFormal Thinking The Critical Confrontation with Cognitive Theory Breaking Free The Transformative Power of Critical Pedagogy P Leistyna A Woodrum and S A Sherblom Cambridge MA Harvard Educational Review 167195 The authors illustrate how for the most part educational research and pedagogical theories and practices are still overwhelmingly obsessed with quotinnatequot cognitive explorations Contesting such limited analysis of learning and teaching the authors critique and challenge prominent conceptions of intelligence that underlie cognitive developmental theory Working from the premise that traditional boundaries of thinking and creativity separate logic emotion and context these authors contend that educational institutions function to suppress diversity the development of critical consciousness and social agency They argue in fact that schools operate and evaluate on the lowest level of human thinking the mere ability to memorize without contextualization and understanding Recognizing the relationship among ideology power and knowledge the authors delineate features of a sociocognitive theory what they refer to as a postformal way of thinking and provide practitioners with a critical framework for reconsidering both curricular and pedagogical practices Kumashiro K K 2001 quotquotPostsquot Perspectives on AntiOppressive Education in Social Studies English Mathematics and Science Classroomsquot Educational Researcher 303 312 Kumashiro argues that to foster antioppressive education we cannot simply add perspectives and voices to the classroom we must change what is considered the normthe usual lens through which we view perspectives and voices He suggests that unknowability and crisis are two potent forms for conceptualizing antioppressive education Unknowability refers to the idea that all knowledge is partial and that a greater number of voices merely changes the story but cannot ever reveal Truth Crisis refers to the need to experience leaming as a form of crisisa need to desire the uncomfortableness that confronting issues of unknowability and our own oppressive practicesthinking provoke Kumashiro offers some concrete descriptions for social studies English and math and science classrooms that revolve around deeply questioning and learning to look critically at the production and valuation of knowledge and learning Lather P 1991 Staying Dumb Student Resistance to Liberatory Curriculum Getting Smart Feminist Research and Pedagogy with in the Postmodern New York Routledge Chapman and Hall Inc 123152 This chapter serves to quotdeconstruct empirical inquiry where the methodological issues laid out in the preceding parts of the book are brought to bear on my threeyear study of student resistance to liberatory curriculum in an introductory women s studies coursequot She writes in an extremely selfreflective manner one that acknowledges the extreme difficulty of saying what she means especially as her perspectives and interpretations change over time The result provides insight into the complexity of raising awareness of oppression in students She speaks of quotpedagogy as textquot meaning it is within the actions of the teacher and the classroom discourse that the learning on a variety of levels occurs Lather P 1998 quotCritical Pedagogy and Its Complicities A Praxis of Stuck Placesquot Educational Theory 484 487498 Lather critiques two calls for salvaging critical pedagogy one by Peter McLaren and one by Ilan GurZe39ev She faults both for being too abstract too sure of a single quotright answerquot and divorced from a grounding in work between teachers and students She feels that McLaren s work is a return to a Marxist framework and GurZe ev39s work posits a belief in a positive utopia In contrast Lather holds up the work of Alison Jones as a concrete example of liberatory pedagogy that yields the conclusion that members of the subordinated classes may not want to be known or gazed upon by members of the dominant classes Leistyna P and A Woodrum 1995 Teacher Education and the Politics of Engagement The Case for Democratic Schooling Breaking Free The Transformative Power of Critical Pedagogy P Leistyna A Woodrum and S A Sherblom Cambridge MA Harvard Educational Review 1 8 Works to define critical pedagogy quotchallenges us to recognize engage and critique so as to transform any existing undemocratic social practices and institutional structures that produce and sustain inequalities and oppressive social identities and relationsquot Rejects technocratic models of learning Emphasizes power culture and context Nunes T Ethnomathematics and Everyday Cognition Handbook of Research on quot quot Teaching and Learning D A Grouws New York Macmillan 557574 Differentiating among mathematical knowledge across and within cultures must evolve not only to find differences in the mathematical practices but also the structures embedded in those practices These structures are the logical invariants that underlie those differences and are present in school and outofschool mathematics With this perspective in mind and assuming that learning should be accomplished through mathematizing Terezinha Nunes describes the cultural and logical invariants of the ethnomathematics of counting measurement arithmetical
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