New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Mrs. Jamil Schuppe


Mrs. Jamil Schuppe
GPA 3.61


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Animal Science

This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Jamil Schuppe on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POUL 4010 at University of Georgia taught by Wilson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/202328/poul-4010-university-of-georgia in Animal Science at University of Georgia.


Reviews for ADV POUL PROD


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/15
Breeder Management Cody Gibbs Poultry companies buy broiler breeders male an female chicks at day of age based on Fate of gain meat disposition Feed conversion feed gain Best meets their product mix They manage this parent stock to maximize fertile egg production Broiler breeders are the parents of the meat birds we eat General Background These parent chicks are sold by specialized genetic companies or primary breeders The main breeders globally are CobbVantress AR Aviagen AL and Hubbard ME These companies hold the grandparent GP and greatgrandparent GGP lines that make up the parent chicks they sell Most have been selected for marketable traits gain FC for more than 50 years US chicken meat market stresses white meat yield nuggets tenders patties bonelessskinless pieces of breast and further processed products Breeder Goals 0 Basic 0 0 Each year it is a little more difficult bred for meat deposition not reproduction Grow and maintain breeders that will optimize reproduction through proper feed restriction Minimize growth potential in order to optimize reproduction Broiler Breeder Housing 40x300 to 500 ft Most common size is 40x425 ft 80009000 birds Feeding equipment works best if you don t exceed 450 ft feeder runs the length and loops back 800950 ft Rearing house light tight all litter feeders and drinkers cooling 1314 sq ftbird Laying house 23 slat 13 litter curtain sided male and female feeding systems drinkers nests cooling work room space and egg cooler Pullet House Specs Light tight dark curtains and inletfan covers Feeder chain or pan system o Waterer nipple or bell system c Ventilation tunnel ventilation heater evaporatively cooled o Shavings covering floors Laying House c 23 raised slat and 13 litter scratch area o 2 separate feed systems hens and roosters chain or pan o Waterer nipples or bell o Nests mechanical or hand gathered o Curtain sided using outside light o Ventilation tunnel vent and evap cooled What s Different About Birds o Males have internally located testes o Females have only the left ovary and oviduct functional o Both male and female have reproductive systems that empty into a common opening of the digestive urinary and reproductive system cloaca o Female does not need to be mated daily to stay fertile Females have sperm storage tubules located at the junction of the vagina and uterus Inseminate into the left opening when oviduct is everted right opening is the digestive tract Oviduct regions o Infundibulum catches the ovulated follicle o Magnum longest portion adds albumen o Isthmus clear demarcation shell membranes formed o Shell gland water is added to albumen shell is added 1215 hrs o Vagina coordinates with shell gland for expulsion of the egg Male reproductive tract o Paired testes located anterior to kidney along the back wall o Ductus deferens run along side of ureters move sperm to cloaca o Poorly developed epididymis storage of semen is in the distal ductus deferens just prior to entering the cloaca o Chicken has poorly developed or rudimentary penis phallus Feed and Body Weight Management 8152013 10400 PM Goals of breeder management o Broilers are bred for meat deposition not reproduction negative relationship between growth and reproduction o Feed restriction of breeders encourages healthy growth and maintenance to optimize reproduction through proper feed restriction o Minimize growth potential in order to optimize reproduction 0 Feeding Overview o Rearing full feed birds day one thru 23 weeks of age then restrict intake and start feeding program Usually house and feed sexes separate to match body size o Laying commingle birds for natural mating but feeding in separate systems sex separate feeders use exclusion methods to keep rooster out of hen trough and height to keep hens out of rooster feeder Feeding programs in rearing o With mechanized feeders most flocks are fed on a skipaday SAD or 43 feeding 43 is 4 days on and 3 days off within a 7 day period c Why use the off feed days 0 Increases feed volume per day over daily restricted 0 Improve flock uniformity 0 Will continue until move flock to laying house or about the time of first egg Other tips for feeding o Feed at the same time each day chickens are creatures of habit o Calibrate feed scales often to prevent the birds receiving the wrong amount of feed Weigh to monitor feeding program Weigh birds individually and sex separate every week after 2 weeks of age or until you stop changing feed amounts Adjust feed amounts to achieve primary breeder target weights for each week Give consistent feed increases for gradual gains and good flock uniformity o Weight on an off feed day during rearing SAD 43 and afternoons in lay Weighing Methods o Individual weights as soon as the scale can measure something that small 2 weeks o Batch weighing averaging averages o Weigh with little or no feed off feed day late in the afternoon on feed days in lay Moving to the laying house o Important to have the house ready when the birds arrive feeders drinkers ventilation and nests o Get the hens up on the slats to eat and drink the first day they arrive o Getting the roosters to eat from the rooster feeder can be difficult but once the hens go to their feeder get the roosters eating in the scratch area o Birds that do not eat shortly 1St couple of days after getting to the laying house will not live to be productive culls Feeding after move to hen house o Get on daily feeding as soon as possible after photo stimulation o Some companies will continue SAD or 43 program until first egg because feeding level is not enough to get feed around laying house until birds are approximately 2425 weeks of age o The danger of going to daily feeding at 21 weeks is that some hens will not get fed because of this low feed amount reduce body weight uniformity increase morbidity and cull bird number o Continue daily feeding through termination of flock usually 65 weeks of age 3065 weeks of age o Continue weighing birds to determine body weight gains weekly or every other week o Adjust feed to achieve a 0205 lbweek gain 923g o Reduce feed after peak egg production by 5 to 1 lb100 23459 o Decrease feed 25 to 5 lb100week until intake is about 31 lb100 o Do not allow hens to gain above target amounts o Goal body weight at 65 weeks of age is 8759 lb Feeding roosters in the laying house sex separate Observe whether the young roosters can eat from the make feeder height Is the floor even Is the feeder even Are the hens attempting to eat from the rooster feeder Small feed allotment for the roosters make sure the feeder is adjusted so they get the feed Feeding roosters for good fertility Adult rooster has low dietary requirements he is not producing a 4550g egg each day With today s meat yielding rooster giving them generous feed allotments will cause excessive breast meat deposition making it more difficult to complete matings After moving birds to the laying facility allow for a slight body weight gain of the rooster 1025 lbweek OR 05 to 11 kgweek Feeding the rooster during the lay cycle When hens become receptive the roosters will become very active trying to make make sure that they do not lose weight Once they start mating watch body weight closely during those weekly weighing generous feed increases may be necessary but monitoring body weight is essential Male exclusion from the hen feeder How well does the exclusion grill work Monitor by watching the birds feed in the morning Feed amounts for both hens and roosters are related to how good the exclusion system is working Excellent exclusion system is not working that well more observation and guess work will be needed Ways to make exclusion system function better Horizontal bar across the hen grill high profile grill 1 1116 inch PVC pipe in top of older grill Leave full comb on roosters NozBonz inserted in the roosters nares at 2021 weeks of age 2 12 inch Feeding equipment o Full feeding birds is straight forward with most of the equipment available o Restricted feeding for broiler breeders is more complex o General goal is to uniformly feed a large group of birds from one two in the case of hen houses feeding system Objective of feed restriction program o Produce a flock of breeders that have little variation in body weight while restricting them to 4060 of their free feeding consumption rate How do you determine uniformity o Weighing program 0 weigh 50100 birds per house individually on the best scale you can afford o Calculate flock uniformity Have to weigh individually no group weights can t average averages Feeding system requirements o Need fast even feed delivery to all parts of the houses o Reduce bird migration pickover spillagewaste expending excess amounts of energy to apprehend feed and starveouts due to dominance issues o Feeding space feeder capacity has to be matched so that all birds have an opportunity to feed each feed day Types of feeders o Rearing chain or pans o Laying chain drag auger or pans Rooster Feeders o Roosters eat feed in 30 minutes or less so feed to all pans within 5 minutes is a must o Working with small volume of feed will reduce feed for mortality may need to cut off pans to keep auger charged o Pans should not move or swing with rooster weight during feeding Broiler Breeder Diets o Starter 1819 crude protein 1350 kcalkg ME 125 calcium o Grower 15 crude protein 1300 kcalkg ME 15 calcium o LayerI 16 crude protein 13001325 kcalkg ME 30 calcium o Layer 2 155 crude protein 13001325 kcalkg ME 325 calcium Role of Light in Broiler Breeders 8152013 10400 PM Rearing houses o Open sided house o Black curtains to allow short day length o All litter floor o Feeding drinking and brooding equipment o Ventilation increased to 1012 cfmbird because of light restriction equipment o Cooling needed in southeast and southcentral US Lighting for growing breeders o Chickens are season breeders o Stimulated by long day length greater than 12 hours of light 0 In rearing you want to suppress reproduction so expose growing birds to 8 hours of light after the first 3 days or by 10 weeks of age earlier will save feed by reducing bird activity Darkout light program o Facility must be equipped with air inlet and fan covers that block light coming into the house during the daylight hours o Require more ventilation capacity 1012 cfm per bird because the light traps reduce ventilation efficiency Darkout lighting for rearing o Will improve the uniformity of the start of lay or synchronize the start of lay We can have more birds beginning lay at the same age and can better meet their nutritional needs o Need blackout dim light or light leaks in the rearing house will compromise the darkout program o Dust will build up on the inlet and fan covers and allow light to reflect into the house reduce horizontal surfaces o Check to make sure that birds are on short day length check clocks and drive by at night Sex separate or commingled in rearing o 7580 of broiler breeders are grown sex separate easier to stay on target body weights o Others will brood cockerels in separate pen and release with pullets at 34 weeks of age Purchase of chicks o Order chick delivery for a particular day o Often order a year or more in advance of the day you need them o Order a ratio of males to females o Need 24000 pullets at 21 weeks of age to produce the number of broiler chicks needed order 24960 pullet chicks o At 21 weeks need 910 cockerels to add to the pullets in the laying house order 16 cockerels or 3994 males at day old o extra are for mortality and to allow for extra roosters during reproduction Darkout programs o Must adhere to the short day length so you can t cheat o Scheduling problem on weigh days vaccination days growers off farm work schedule service visits etc Photostimulate birds o Birds must be near adult body weight and age at photostimulation o If underweight birds will ignore the long day length mature when they reach adult body weight expect low egg production o If flock is in good condition uniform in body weight first egg in 2 3 weeks after birds are given long day length Lighting for the Laying House o Many open sided houses in the US so using natural light with added artificial light to give the needed day length o At 2021 weeks of age go to 1416 hours of light per day to Photostimulate the birds and cause sexual maturity o Birds respond to long wave length or spectrum light red yellow orange color Photostimulation o Cause the birds to initiate hormone production 0 Ovary and oviduct development Liver increases lipid or fat production Testicular development External sex characteristics comb wattle growth and color change rooster crow o Hens begin to crouch or squat in a few weeks Light intensity o Birds respond to light intensity in an all or none matter 0 O O If the light intensity is high enough for the bird to recognize a difference from the dark period the light period is initiated Birds recognize approx 1 foot candle but to get a minimum of 1 fc to all corners of a large facility the light level usually has to be 25 fc Light distribution can be a problem If the light level is low in a particular area in the hen house add light fixtures 0 Work with reflective surfaces to increase light level in the house interior of house white paint end walls white light color ceiling material 0 0 Light measurement units Foot candles fc Lux 1 fc 10 lux Compact Fluorescent Lamps CFL Expensive Lumen output declines with age Many color choices maybe too many to assure that you have the best reproduction Disposal issues due to mercury Not as dimmable as an incandescent bulbs Similar number of fixtures as incandescent bulbs so labor similar High pressure sodium High output Use fewer bulbs per house low number of fixtures Expensive prices have declined Long life lose some output with age of bulb Reddish color 2700 K Some problems with consistent light throughout the house Light emitting Diode LED Expensive Long life Range of colors Need similar number of lamps and fixtures Bulb selection Color rendering index CRI quality of the light source important in offices and homes so interiors will appear true to color CRI is not a ig factor in poultry house lighting between 70 and 100 is good Color temperature or Kelvin K HP 21002700 K Incandescent 27003300 K Coolsoft white 3000 K CPF cool daylight 5000 K Daylight overcast 6500 K Color of the light Terminology on CFL confusing Look closely at the birds Breast fleshing roosters and hens Abdominal fat pad between vent and bottom of keel pelvic spread hens Feathering fowl mites Feetlegs toe trimming Combwattle beak trimming and dubbing on roosters Coloring Uniformity of the birds of culls Where are the birds at 45pm interaction Measurements of other pieces of information Weight Calculate flock uniformity Egg production Fertility Hatchability Feed clean up time how long does it take for the hens to eat their feed 25 hours normal Information Standard data breed age sex Body weight Performance records Comments from service personnel and grower Nesting and Mating Behavior in Broiler Breeders152013 10400 Pl Conventional nests 4 hensnest Labor intensive Quality Mechanical nests 56 hensnest parallel to the sidewall easy access Nest site selection It is critical that hens find the nests to lay their eggs If they lay in alternative sites eggs will be lost due to contamination or damage Encourage the birds to calm down after arriving in the laying house by spending time with them Encourage them to acclimate to new house and find a nest to lay their eggs Chickens are creatures of habit Critical for optimum hatching egg numbers that the hens find the nests Hen starts to look for nest site approx 1 week before they start of lay If they lay 36 eggs in a location they will attempt to return to that site or a similar site to lay their eggs Alternative sites result in egg production losses contaminated eggs and poor quality chicks Nesting behavior Hens are drawn to areas that are enclosed and give them some sense of security Prefer concave surface Loose nesting material Discourage laying in alternative sites by reducing areas that might interest them as a possible nest Factors that influence floorslat laying House layout cramped areas bird flow light distribution and hensnest holes o Equipment placement male feeder pans bell drinkers and hen feed line o Litter depth houseslat width and slat height o Age that the pullets are moved or how quickly the birds come into lay c Number one question is Why did this flock lay floor eggs and the last 5 flocks didn t Mechanical nest installation o For optimum utilization of the nest particularly during the early morning hours when competition is high the nests must be installed with hen access in mind o And all the nest need to be fully functional not blocked or missing a nest pad etc o Need 1215 inches from the edge of the slat to nest front o No more than 56 hens competing for each nest 7amnoon o Need 2024 inches between back side of nests and feed line o Need 2024 inches between the feed line and side wall o Need a minimum of 24 inches cross overs between scratch area and feedwater on the slats Jargon o Hatching egg o Scratch area o Conventional nest o Mechanical nest Factors affecting mating behavior 0 Age o Body weight and breast fleshing o Sex ratio o Physical condition feet and legs o Peck order or dominance set body size and head appendages Placement ratio o Depends on the breed o Depends on the placement weight of both pullet and cockerel o How fast will they mature o Normal for birds that are in good physical condition Too low of placement ratio o Low fertility because of low mating frequency o Lose early fertility Too high of placement ratio o Slating the hens learn to runavoid males o Poor fertility o High mortality and injury Monitoring the rooster condition o While weighing the roosters look at 0 Feet and legs 0 Vent area Hatchery Management Fertility Residue 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8152013 10400 PM Estimate Still extremely important information in managing a flock for maximum profitability Hand candling of 1012 day incubated eggs 46 trays of eggs yields the best estimate of fertility Candling every other week allows flock manager the opportunity to maintain flock fertility Analysis Complete picture Early mid and late embryonic mortality Pips and culls live and dead Cracks farm or transfer Contaminated Cull or abnormal shelled eggs 46 trays of residue unhatched of 400600 incubated eggs Match candled tray with residue tray and finish Embryonic Mortality Other lo Classic hen Yield hen Early 25 24 Middle 5 5 Late 275 35 sses Classic hen Yield hen Pips 11 152 Farm cracks 6 6 Transfer cracks 3 3 Contaminated 4 4 Errors involved in 21 day breakout After 21 days of incubation development is not as distinct in early dead embryos as seen in 10 day candle analysis preblood fertility can be called infertile Not all eggs with dark colored fluid are contaminated or middle dead must verify that embryo present in middeads blood in the embryonic vessels and at skin level turn dark red to brown Why don t they hatch o Contaminated dirty nest wet floors floor egg o Size and shape o Cracked collection schedule floor egg thin shells o Not fertile o Uneven hen size o Handling and storage conditions and length Jargon o Hatching egg o Cull egg o Fresh egg o Candling o Residue breakout Hatchability o Fertility o Hatch of fertile Incubation o People have been incubating bird eggs since the forth century Egyptians build clay ovens o For the same reasons we do today if you remove the egg form the hens nest she will continue to lay eggs Proper Egg Incubation Profile o Temperature 995999 F o Relative humidity 5575 RH o Turning once every hour o Fresh air or ventilation remove excess heat and C02 Broiler Industry o Typically hatch 4 days a week M T R F o Clean up after each hatch but extra sanitizing on Wed o Pick up eggs from the farms 23week Incubators o Provide heat RH turning and ventilation for the eggs o Multistage eggs are added over time and there are eggs at different or multiple stages of incubation The main advantage is that you have to add heat to eggs at the youngest stages of incubation and you have to remove heat at the older stages sharing heat between these stages more economical


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.