HERB&MEDICINAL PLTS ANTH 3440
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Date Created: 09/12/15
HORTPBIOANTH 3440 Herbs Spices and Medicinal Plants Fall 2009 REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SECOND EXAM 1 Describe the experiment clinical trial that was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of ginger and Dramamine in controlling motion sickness What is the basic design of a clinical trial What is a placebo What is its role in a clinical trial What is a washout period 0 Placebo controlled has no real physiological effect 0 Double blinded paitent and researcher don t know who is categorized with 0 Cross over expensive washout period 0 Valid statistical design clinical trial with ginger o N 36 I Time on chair to sit before they get nausea Ginger 55 min Dramamine 35 min Placebo 15 min Ginger acts directly on the GI tract 2 During the 18quoth and 19h centuries there was considerable competition between physicians practicing quotRegularquot medicine in the United States and herbal practitioners Briefly define each of the following people or concepts and explain whether they represented the quotRegularquot medicine or alternative herbal medicine of the time heroic medicine 0 Samuel Thompson 0 Was appalled by heroic medicine 0 quotall disease is caused by cold 0 Emphasized emetics purgativesstimulants and steam baths 0 Principal herbs were Lobeliaemetic relaxant panacea and cayenne pepper stimulant both increase body temperature and dilate blood vessels 0 65 herbs drew from Native American use of plants 0 Thomson was empirical Regulars emphasized theory 0 Dr Wooster Beach 0 was appalled by Heroic medicine 0 wanted to change the system quotfrom within 0 Sought to combine new scientific knowledge with best of herbal tradition Eclectic medicine 0 Became a quotfestering thorn in the side of regular American medicine 0 Shaker Herb Farms 0 Thriving wholesale herb business by mid1800s o Gathered grew and processed more than 400 species of medicinal plants 0 Sold directly to physicians and pharmacists o Emphasis on quality control known for consistent product 0 Relied on European introductions as well as native species 0 manufacturers of patent medicines 0 Usually 2550 alcohol 0 Often contained powerfuldrugs such as opiumsenna antimony and ipecac emetic o Advertised as quotblood purifiers 0 quotOne dose for a man two for a horse Lydia Pinkham 0 An herbal recipe for quotfemale complaints that became a profitable patent medicine business 0 Encouraged women to take control of their own health and offered tips for healthy living 0 Secret recipe included Black Cohosh the chemist that developed synthetic organic compounds such as aspirin O o What were the primary treatment techniques used by practitioners of heroic medicine during George Washington s era 0 Bleeding venesection opening up a vein and cupping o Dosing with mercury or antimony or other heavy metal poisons in the form of Calomel HgZCIZ this was a powerful purgative o Blistering applying hot plasters to the skin to promote blisters which were then drained 0 Emetics induced vomiting According to Samuel Thompson what was the primary cause of disease 0 cold Did Dr Wooster Beach share this belief o Considered Thomson s theories overly simplistic What segment of society did Lydia Pinkham target with her herbal products Why was she so successful 0 Women female complaints 0 Men cure for women s complaints 3 European countries and the United States have taken different approaches to regulating the manufacture and sale of herbal medicines o What is the role of the German Commission E 0 German government accepted standard of quotreasonable certainty 0 German equivalent of our FDA established a panel of experts to oversee use of herbal medicines in Germany 0 Panel produced monographs on efficacy side effects precautions medical interactions and dose 0 What are the basic regulations concerning the sale of herbal medicines in the United States as defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 o Defines herbs as quotdietary supplementsquot not drugs 0 Prior approval by FDA not required unlike drugs 0 Products are taken off market only after they have been proven toxic burden of proof on FDA 0 General structure and function claims OK specific reference to medical benefits not allowed manufacturer does not have to prove efficacy Explain what you consider to be the strengths and weaknesses of the German vs United States approaches to regulating herbal medicines O If you were a manufacturer of herbal medicines in the United States today why might you pay for the services of Consumerlabcom or the US Pharmacopeia 0 Because they both verify the quality of herbal products 0 Consumer lab has product reviews for consumers Explain why the Flexner Report resulted in the closing of so many medical colleges in the early 20 h century 0 Provided lurid details concerning low standards poor equipment nonexistent clinical facilities 0 He said that for 25 years there had been an enormous overproduction of uneducated and ill trained medical practitioners o All irregular schools were strongly criticized Did the Flexner Report strengthen or weaken the American Medical Association o It said that no US medical school can operate without AMA approval How did Flexner s principles for medical education depart from the beliefs of quotirregularquot practitioners like the Eclectics 0 He put emphasis on pharmacology o Botany no longer necessary modern medicine 0 Focus was placed on disease rather than health on cure rather than prevention Which piece of federal legislation put restrictions on patent medicines 0 Food and Drug Act of 1906 Which piece of legislation was the first to require that drugs be proven safe before they were put on the market 0 1938 Food Drug and Cosmetic Act 5 Field cultivation hydroponics artificial shade cultivation in a woodland setting and green house productionof herbs and medicinal plants each have particular advantages and disadvantages from the commercial standpoint Describe each method and give an example of a situation where it would be appropriate to use it Field cultivation Supply and availability Quality control identification adulteration harvest conditions sanitation Genetic manipulation Agronomic manipulation o Postharvest handling Hydroponics 0 Growing plants in a nutrient solution without soil 0 Allows precise control over nutrients eliminates soil borne weeds and diseases minimizes herbicide and pesticide use 0 Requires less fertilizer and water than field production 0 Extended growing season 0 Allows intensive production in small space Artifical shade OOOO Herbs Spices and Medicinal Plants Study Guide for Exam 1 1 Herb a nonwoody plant Medicinal Plant valued fortheir physiological therapeutic and psychoactive effects Herbs leafy part is used temperate regions Spices other parts stems roots fruits and owers are used tropical regions 2 Five tropical spices Black Pepper berries Cinnamon inner bark Nutmeg dried seed kernel Clove dried flower buds Ginger root Black pepper is obtained by harvesting the immature berry of the plant Green pepper is obtained by placing the berry in salt water or brine White pepper is obtained by allowing the berries to mature red pepper then treating them to remove the skin white pepper 3 Anticancer drugs taxol vincristine and vinblastine Taxol is produced by the Pacific Yew native to Pacific Northwest USA shared habitat with Spotted Owl Vincristine and Vinblastine are produced by the Madagascar Periwinkle native to Madagascar 4 Plant name active compound or drug therapeutic effect pat that yields drug Opium poppy opium morphine and codeine pain reliever immature fruit capsule Coca cocaine relieves fatigue thirst and hunger leaves Willow salicin salicylic acid pain reliever aspirin bark Foxglove digitoxindigoxin help for heart disease leaves 5 Tropane Alkaloids 1 atropine 2 hyosciamine 3 scopolamine hallucinogenic 1 Datura inoxia 2 Datura stramonium 3 Datura metel Tropane alkaloids are fat soluble so they can be applied directly to the skin Tropane alkaloids are found in members of the Potato family soanac 6 Ebers Papyrus George Eber 1550 BC 65 feet long 700 different recipes for medications as many as 30 different elements in each like aloe cannabis castor bean laxative mandrake Spice Islands the Moluccas located in Indonesia archipelago of little islands that were prized as centers of spice trade in late 1800s and early 1900s Herbs Spices and Medicinal Plants Study Guide for Exam 1 Aril any specialized outgrowth from the attachment point of the seed that covers or is attached to the seed Panacea a remedy for all disease and ills a cureall William Withering was an English botanist geologist chemist physician and the discoverer ofthe Common Foxglove Doctrine of Signatures Godhigher being left clues in plants revealed by shape taste color aroma etc zoopharmacognosy what we can learn from animals especially primates concerning new medical compounds from plants Opium annual native to Mediterranean ingredient in morphine codeine and heroin Officinale this means that the herb is considered to be medicinal Queen Hatshepsut sent workers to other lands to find new products they brought back new herbs and spices and monkeys evidence of trade found in the plants Rhizome a characteristically horizontal stem of a plant that is usually found underground often sending out roots and shoots from its nodes Peyote small bulb cactus on top with large taproot has showy flowers native to Rio Grande Valley contains the alkaloid mescaline hallucinogenic today used as a sacrament by the Native American Church the spirit of god is actually in the peyote Taxol found in bark ofthe Pacific Yew used in cancer treatment particularly breast lung testicular and ovarian cancers HeXing Herbs ie Henbane and Belladonna Belladonna contains atropine which creates an eye drop that dilates the pupils these herbs played heavily into witchcraft and they are fatbased witches applied these herbs to their broomstick and rubbed it between their legs scopolamine created sensation of flight Glucosinolates when a mustard seed is crushed it interacts with enzymes yielding isothiocyanates which give mustard its heat Malabar Coast Carminative yea Capsaicin the compound in chile peppers that creates the burning sensation Culinary Scovile scale Bioassay Hemiparasite eg mistletoe Voucher specimen Myrrh good for canker soressore throat usually comes in powdercapsule form Tussiemussie Dioecious Evil eye Mescaline Microtubules Dropsy Brugmans a Organoleptic Essential oils Herbs Spices and Medicinal Plants Study Guide for Exam 1 7 Cumin anise and marjoram were all used in embalming mummies Frankincense is harvested by scraping off bark from the tree and allowing the sap to slowly drain out in little drops Arab spice traders rub noses to make sure their business partners smell wholesome It is done before a trade meeting or agreement to insure the other person was fit to do business with Following the Crusades the flow of spices to Europe increased due to travel 8 3 main areas of origin of herbs and spices EuropeMediterranean area parsley mint opium poppy Old World Tropics India and Far East black pepper cinnamon nutmeg New World Tropics allspice vanilla capsicum peppers 9 Old World spices are wellsuited for travel because lightweight nonperishable dried easily very potent big market but little supply Spices are relatively less expensive because improved transportation large scale agricultural production new centers of production synthetic oils and fragrances like vanillin 10 More Old World Spice info Cinnamon is coppiced to produce numerous long straight shoots Nutmeg produces two different spices from the same fruit Cloves are important ingredients in cigarettes marketed in Indonesia Turmeric ofthe Ginger family is responsible for the yellow color of curry The difference between true Cinnamon and Cassia is that the whole bark of Cassia is used Cinnamon is only the inner bark Cardamom seeds are used as a spice 11 Ginger Family tropical perennial herbs simple alternate leaves Mint Family bilaterally symmetrical opposite leaves mint ower4 nutlets Parsley Family Mediterranean Region alternate leaves leaves are often highly divided characteristic featurehas umbels flower stalks from a single point Mustard Family alternate leaves sulfur compounds Herbs Spices and Medicinal Plants Study Guide for Exam 1 cruciferae old name flower always has 4 petals 12 Two members of the Parsley family whose leaves and fruits are used CilantroCoriander leafyfruit amp Dill 13 Culinary herbs in the Mint family 5 Basil OreganoMarjoram Sage Thyme Peppermint 14 The Aztecs used vanilla to flavor chocolate A spice that combines the avors of cinnamon cloves and nutmeg in one fruit is allspice The compound in chile peppers that creates the burning sensation is capscaxin Ofthe three New World spices the one that made the greatest contribution to regional cuisines in Europe and Asia is capsicum peppers Peyote is the source ofthe hallucinogenic drug mescaline 15 Avg cost of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to market 800 million 17 billion Patents on pharmaceutical drugs last for 20 years Herbal OTC vs Pharmaceutical Drugs more potent more easily administered less toxic 120 prescription drugs are derived from plants 95 species 16 Horseradish is obtained from the root ofthe plant Wasabi belongs to the mustard family Chervil ofthe Parsley family has leaves that smell of licorice Basil is an important ingredient in pesto 17 The compounds responsible for the heat in mustard seeds glucosinolates when a mustard seed is crushed it interacts with enzymes yielding isothiocyanates which give mustard its heat chili peppers capscaxin no not all capsicum peppers are hot Many capsicum peppers are red the birds are drawn to them but the heat doesn t bother them 18 Mistletoe is being tested as a potential treatment for cancer Druids considered mistletoe sacred because it grew on trees Rosemary is associated culturallysymbolically with remembrance 19 The names of alkaloids usually end in ine The class of plant secondary compounds that consist of a sugar bonded to a nonsugar compound is called
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