INTRO ANTHROPOLOGY ANTH 1102
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Key Terms Anthropology Study of the human species and ancestors as well as nature society and past Culture Societies shared and socially transmitted ideas values and perceptions Evolution Belief that species arise from others through a long process of transformation Holistic Facets of shared behavior trying to understand without being culture bound with the intent of comparison Biological Evolution adaption genetics Archaeology Cultural past Linguistics Language in culture Cultural Modern population whys and how s American Anthropological Association AAA Two divisions Academic grantuniversity research and Applied practical application solving problems Mainly private industries Contrasting moral judgment based on cultural background Professional code of ethics Do not exploit seek permission tell the purpose inform costs and benefits respect colleagues in host countries Academic Grew after WWII Applied Fix problems help people aimed at in uencing human behavior and social conditions Uses Education urbanrural areas medical fields business and politics developmental fields On location research Extended period primary source close personal involvement Problem oriented Longitudinal Longterm based on extended or repeated excursions Tran research Multiple researches similar goals and questions Survey Regional perspective where to dig Excavation Everything measuredrecorded systematic removal of material Distribution settlement socialpolitical organization environmental interaction natural resources Ethnography Fieldwork in and about a living culture participantobservation Interviews genealogical methods social organization Key consultants specialized members of daily life life histories individuals that re ect whole of culture Emicetic comparisons Emic Inside perspective how they think values focused on understanding Etic Observational general understanding ofa community Ethics Obligation is to the people species and materials Do not hurt or exploit informed consent open with what the anthropologist is doing Culture Set of learned behavior and ideas abstract values beliefs perceptions ect all learned behavior included Some instinctivebiologically based behaviors Use culture to adapt to and transform the world we live in Traits of culture Learned shared symbolic nature behavior based on biological need all encompassing integrated not random interrelated adaptivemaladaptive Individuals Humans avoid manipulate subvert and change Do not all share the same beliefsmoralsvalues Culture changes due to individuals Levels of Culture International national subcultures Complexities of Cultures Boundaries unclear beliefs contradictory Aspects of Culture All people have equal biological and physiological capabilities Everyone can learn different cultures humans share characteristics biological and cultural that can be universal general or particular Universal live in social groups have families share food have taboos General shared through some groups but not all Particular unique to each society Generalities behavior in most cultures lifecycle events concepts of family Enculturation The process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations Ethnocentrism Belief that one s own way oflife is nature or correct Their way of life is the 39right way of life use own values to judge one another inherently human Cultural Relativism World means different things to different cultures understanding in its own terms Comprehend why behavior is meaningful different perceptions of reality Understand cultures independently Do not make justifications attempt to understand why Human rights V Cultural rights Inalienable individual rights to believe and speak free ofpersecution murder torture ect Vs The rights for groups to believe and act according to their customs free from persecution restrictions torture ect Relativism V Ethnocentrism Explaining other cultures by their own context of understanding V Iudging cultures using one s own cultural background Crosscultural understanding Our way to comprehend the incomprehensible mundane or horrific Cultural Change Via diffusion spread acculturation exchange when groups are in continuous contact independent invention innovation of solutions to problems globalization promote change across the world links modern nations together New ways to solve old problems new problems solved in old ways Means the loss of cultural traditions customs cultures ect BUT the development ofnew ones as well Language Humans primary means of communication Sounds and gestures put together in meaningful ways by a set of rules Productivity new expressions displacement lying Enabled humans to adapt more rapidly Call Systems Instinctive soundsgestures selfevident meaning Sign Language ASL to nonhuman primates capacity for humanlike language Body language Kinesicsgesture facialbody expressions and motions Proxemics study ofpersonal space Odor holds cultural meanings Descriptive Linguistics Recording describing analyzing all language features Phonology Study of soundsphonemes Morphology Study of how sounds combine to form wordsmorphemes Lexicon Morphemes and their meanings Syntax Rules for the formation ofphrases and sentences Grammar Entire formal structure of a language CultureLanguage Relationship Environments in uence language choices meaning and classification Or Language in uences how people understand the environment SapirWhorf Hypothesis Language shapes how people see the world Sapir weak language possibilism Whorf extreme language determinism forced view of the world Sociolinguistics Cultural diversity mirrors linguistic diversity Different rules of conversation and cultural conteth All effective Social Status and Language Marking differences in economic social and ethnic classes honorifics Black English Vernacular BEV as pseudolanguage Style switching Darwins Missing Keys Inheritance Mendelian Genetics Variation Biochemical Genetics Population Change Population Genetics Mendelian Genetics Heredity based on genes Principle ofSegregation Principle ofIndependent Assortment Principle ofDominance and Recessive Alleles homozygousheterozygous chromosome genotype and phenotypes Neither Darwin nor Mendel Knew origin ofnew traits Recombination Mendel Cell division Mitosis Meiosis Crossing over and mutations Population Genetics Natural selection forms most successful at reproducing are selected for directional sexual and stabilizing Random genetic driftgene frequency changes through chance Gene ow exchange material through interbreeding decrease speciation Phyletic Gradualism Species gradually change over time Punctuated Equilibrium Stable for long periods of time punctuated with bursts of speciation mass extinctions Human Variation Biological diversity different appearances evolutionary adaption phenotypes Blood types and resistance to diseases Facial features Altitudes Allen and Bergman s Rules Climate temperatures hotmore body surface coldless body surface Skin color darker skinmore protection from sun lightmore vitamin D Racial Categories Blumenbach 1795 Cultural construction NOT biological categories US Race Hypodescent rule mixed couple s child minority racial group Different in different cultures Race Race is a classification ofpeoples based on presumed biological similarities Not a scientific way to understand human variation False biological basis defined in a real cultural conteXt Ascribed social status given at birth Ethnicity Identification with an ethnic group people who collectively and publicly ID themselves Is ascribed but can be achieved Changed throughout ones life Multiethnicshift ethnic identities Based on cultural historical and genealogical factors Ethnicities and Racial groups interact Culturally nationally internationally Nationstate Independent centrally organized unit Multiethnic ID with a nation autonomous political status cross national boundaries Multiethnic Interactions Assimilation adopt dominant culture Plural societies combination of groups multiculturalism ethnic diversity no ethnic hierarchies Ethnic Con ict Stereotyping prejudice discrimination Primate Evolution 65 million years agoCenozoic Era Grasping smell to sight nose to hand brain complexity parental investment sociality Eocene 5438 million years ago Prosimians lemurs and lorises Anthropoids began Oligocene 3823 million years ago Arthropods Miocene 2325 million years ago Hominoids era of the Apes Oreopithecus 79 million years ago Gigantopithecus Largest primate extinct 300000 years ago Humans and Apes Share common ancestors Have different ancestors Missing links PierolaithecusCatalunicus Spain 13 million years ago potential common ancestor of hominids Primatology Study of nonhuman primates Share arboreal traits Grasping stereoscopic sight tactile senses brainbody size ratio parental investment sociability Prosimians Lemurs nocturnal creatures Anthropoids Monkey and Apes New World Brachiate prehensile tail lack color vision Old World Monkeys and Apes Catarrhines full color vision Catarrhines Old World Monkeys HominoideaApes Hylobatids gibbons Poingids orangutans hominids gorillas chimp s humans Gorillas Terrestrial 3 subspecies large social organization Chimpanzees Two subspecies social organizationlittle con ict Humans One living subspecies Anatomically Modern Humans terrestrial social organization Humans and nonhuman primates Similarities in learning predationhunting tool usage aggression Differences in sharing and cooperation Missing Links quotToumaiquot 67 million year old skull when humans and chimps diverged OrrorinTugenesis 6 million year old fossils Common ancestor Bipedal Relative Dating Stratigraphy earth sediment deposition Absolute Dating Radiometric techniques carbon 14 potassium argon uranium Dendrochronology tree rings Molecular MtDNA dating counting mutations Paleoanthropology ANTII 1102 Test 3 Notes Chapter 10 221223 11 12 Do reading assignment 4 Bonnichsen and Schneider 2001 Due march 29quot ARCHAEOLOGY It is the study of the human past through material remains using anayzingetc o Origins of o domestication when and where did people rst start to domesticate animals food production sedentism when and where did people rst start living in permanent location agriculture civilization major shifts from simple organization to complex organization 0 it is about cultural past heritage and process understanding human behavior using the path of a model 0 OO 3 major goals in interpreting the archaeological record 1 Reveal form of past 2 Discover the function of past diff kinds of behavior that we can look at and understand by remains left behind what they were eating saving making etc 3 Understand the cultural process MATERIAL REMAINS Three classes of evidence that are used 1 artifacts material items that humans have manufactured or modified 2 cultural features no portable remnants from the past such as house walls or ditches things that you cant pick up you just record them 3 cultural landscapes human made or modified environments landscape modifications like terracing looking at the specials of a building or area to tell more about what people are doing CULTURAL ORIGINS Early sapiens sapiens 0 people of the world reached Australia 40000 to 50000 years ago reached the Americas 30000 to 15000 years ago The new world Q waves of immigration came from north Iambridge theory people were probably moving along pacific coast through water people came over form Europe another theory that that came from south paci c end Oldest evidence Monte Verde Chile 14000 ya 0 good evidence of people living there temporary housing exploiting marine resources primarily some evidence for people even older than this Clovis tradition 1312000 ya 0 de ned by a single point tool Which seems to specialized for big game hunting Early living 30000015000 ya 0 Simple foraging hunting 0 relied on collecting of plants and hunting animals started with homo rectus big game hunting individual hunting shing gathering o nomadic to semi nomadic moving around big game hunters followed big game herds so they were nomadic people who sh tend to be semi nomadic Early living 15000 ya Broad spectrum foraging instead of relying on small sections of things like big game they start exploiting the rest of the world around them like plants and stuff 0 de nes beginning of more important changes Neolithic changes 1500010000 ya 0 major cultural changes 0 starting to domesticate plants and animals controlling their production 0 less nomadic and lived in more permanent home Earliest major human cultural achievements o 1 creative use of interpreting expressing and enjoying life de nition of what it means to be anatomically human 0 2 Domestication human interface with reproduction of another species both plans and animals in terms of their own usesources of food production 0 3 Sedentism settles lifestyle living in permanent structures for protection 0 4 Civilization A society with and extensive social hierarchy 39 large complex settlements cities social classes 0 government How did things change 0 First artistic endaveours anatomically modern humans did it rst earliest 164000 ya in Africa 0 second rise of sedentism and domestication old worldNatu ns o sedentism rst tend to be associated with climate and environment 0 people shifting into more permanent homes new world archaic cultures 0 domestication first start to select for certain plants corn squashes potatoes get selected for on a seasonal basis they move around THE FIRST FARMERS Neolithic change 0 food production 0 domestication of plants and animals 1 Middle east earliest 10000 ya wheat barley alcoholic beverages sheep goats cattle pig 2 SubSaharan Africa 4000 years ago domestication of other grains rice 3 China rice water buffalo domesticated pigs millet chickens possibly dogs 4 Central Mexico 10000 years ago domestication of plants 40000 ya of corn squash grains fruits beans 5 South central Andes demonetization of potatoes independent domestication of beans and squash domesticating animals cmalids llamas alpacas 6 Eastern United states variety of grain sump weed sunflower chenopod chia pet PLANTS GENETIC CHANGES Process of domestication Wild Small Grains fall Brittle rachis 0 weak joint In natural range Normal pollen Domesticated Large Grains stay on ear when ripe o tougher joint Outside normal environment Changes in pollen ANIMALS GENETIC CHANGES Process of domestication Wild Changes in size In natural environment 0 Normal exage ratio 0 If you move you want animals that are large and can carry your stuff and you can eat them 0 Domesticated 0 Changes in ize Outside natural range 0 Morphological changes 0 Increased population 0 Abnormal sexage ratio cows most people have one bull and a lot of cows When cows are born though do you get occasionally a male and usually a female No they are equally born like humans 5050 chance of either GENETIC CHANGES AND DOMESTICATION Plant domestication 0 Accidental most productive plants get selected for they didn t mean to nd most of the plants but they found them by accident when looking for other things garbage heaps o intentional purposefully plant wild varieties select for wanted traits there are particular traits that they are selecting and they continue to do this so the process just sort of builds on itself Animal domestication 0 Accidental earliestdogs herd animal good for hunting humans bene ted from some kind of relationship with the dogs cats were probably accidental as well by having grains it attracts mice and small rodents which cats then can exploit 0 intentional mobile food sources cattle sheep pigs and goats Middle east 10000 bp 9 Wheat barley sheep goats cattle pigs Food production spread out 9 Egypt s Nile Valley 8000 bp before present 9 Europe 7000 bp 9 India 8000 bp 9 Pakistan 8000 bp The new world First settled from Asia Domestication 9 100006000 ya few domesticated animals in highland regions turkeys were domesticated generally very few animals were domesticated Earliest crops were Squash Maize around 8000 ya in central Mexico from taconite Potatoes south central Andes Manioc root crop one of the few domesticated in North East South America river basin if you eat it raw you will get sick high energy content from carbs FROM EARLY FARMING TO THE STATE Food production led to 9 early farming communities maize was being domesticated by people who moved according to season but would go back to certain locations In middle east 9 Jericho In Mesoamerica 9 Oaxaca as people started to use and exploit more and more food production they started to settle down and not move as much Higher food yields 9 climate change with warmer more humid climate 9 populations are growing 9 more food this meant the ability to support larger populations 9 needed greater management needs due to all of this changes in social organization started to develop more advanced social organizations Explaining Early Cultural Development Why did humans shift from foraging to sedentary lifestyles o sedentism attractive somewhat attractive for human behavior today plants and animals available locally allows people to remain huntergathers and still be domesticated Middle east had large area with o stable advantageous climate 0 high diversity of species 0 allowed them to stop moving around Except this scenario did NOT happen in the Americas 0 got these changes around the same time but not for same reasons 39 paci c northwest 4000 years ago 0 good climate never adapted domestication no reason to o didn t have reason to adopt food production 32211 Weeks readings Chapter 10 221223 11 12 Reading 4 Bonnichsen and Schneider 2001 Due March 29th Individual Paper Projects due April 21st Explaining Early Cultural Development 0 Where the textbook is potentially wrong 0 PresenceAbsence of domesticable plants and animals I Animals in the Americas 0 Geography and spread offood production I EastWest vs NorthSouth I EXCEPT 0 NA is oriented in EW Able to move their quicker Fewer changes Can be moved farther away Harder for plants in particular for plants to move NS except they did I Environmental barriers o Exist everywhere 0 Climate barriers 0 Couldn39t shift in some directions because of this Domestication and Sedentism Costs does nothing to explain why this is in book 1 Population Change a Large population increase b All ofa sudden you have thousands ofpeople 2 Shift in diet a Nutritional cost b Crazy diets c Farmers rely on a small number offood types d Wider variety offood more vitamins minerals etc 3 Insecure food supply a Greater susceptibility to disasters i Drought ood etc 0000 b Impacts ability to support a nation 4 Increase in disease a Greater concentration ofpeople invite more diseases b Sickness on Campus i Everyone living really close to each other 5 Environmental degradation a Agricultural changes the environment i Intentional change to increase production ii Impacts the environment on what it cancant do ii Increasing erosion rates v Making certain species extinct 6 Increase in Labor a Longer work day for farmers H H Domestication and Sedentism Bene ts 1 Farmers need less land than huntergathers a Allows people to expand resources 2 Farmers have a more predictable food source a People are controlling that production b Can predict what you will find and get 3 Farming is less damaging to the body a Less violent deaths b Longer lifespans 4 Sedentism means for new opportunities for social complexity a More chances to socialize b Bigger and greater social organizations Explaining Early Cultural Development 0 Two important factors 0 Population pressure I Supporting large numbers 0 Human Sociability I Greater social organizations I Increasing complexity ofit Cultural Origins o How did things change 0 Second I Rise ofSedentism and Domestication 0 Old World Natufians o Sedentism 1st 0 New World Archaic cultures o Domestication 1st 0 Third I Rise ofcivilization and agriculture The First Cities and States bpbefore president 0 The origins ofcivilization o Shift from small communities to large socieities o Chiefdoms I Single leaderchief I 7000bp Middle East I 3200bp Mesoamerica 0 STATE I A form ofsocial and political organization 0 Bureaucracies 0 Social divisions I 5500bp Middle East I 2100bp Mesoamerica 0 Rise ofCivilization o 6 major places I Mesopotamia I Nile Valley Egypt 5000 years ago I Indus Valley near Pakistan I China 4000 years ago I South America I Mesoamerica Central America 3200 years ago Rise of Civilization Social and Cultural Change 0 Changing from primarily Egalitarian societies 0 No large social differences 0 To Ranked Societies I Inherited social differences acquired I Ascribed statuseswhen you are bornwho you are related to 0 State Societies 0 Development of I Social classessocial differences based on economics and power politics often inherited Social stratificationUnequal acces to power wealth andor prestige class division king merchant middle etc Specialistsmaking a living doing something other than producing food exchanging services for food instead Why the rise of complex socities 0 Prime movers or motors ofcivilization o Theories 01d world I Hydraulic systems greater populations need more food development ofirrigation canal to manage resources I Long distance trade noted very early on exchange of goods and items creating their own power grew as a result ofthis Middle East New world I Circumscription population war Middle east population increases more con ict barriers physical cultural environmentalmade them more complex I Religion early civilization in New World south central Americacreated social classes increases complexity I Charismatic leadersMesoamerica egalitarians part Individuals acquire powerwealth 32411 ARCHAEOLOGY Attributes of Early States 1 Regional territory a Existence ofa government and social class b Government has control of certain regions and over the people in those regions c Early Egyptian state i All the way up to the Nile Valley 2 Farming economies a The basis for all early states is farmingagriculture b Specialists economic base 3 Tribute and Taxation a Have early governments that must be assisted in some ways b And they do other things that need supporting i Military ii Construction of buildings iii Collect goods to support people 1 Labor work for the government in construction projects 4 Stratified a Different social classes i Elite ii People in control iii Upper classes formed government 1 Power and wealth iv Middle class 1 Bureacrats 2 Merchants v Lower class 1 Farmers vi Slaves 5 Building programs a Get defined by large architecture b Need large pools of labor to get this done i Pyramids 6 Record keeping systems a Economic exchanges b Political events c Report what they collect in tribute Archaeological evidence for social complexity o MonumentalArchitecture 0 Architectural constructions ofa greater than human scale I Meant to be used by multiple individuals I Not a household 0 Artifacts 0 Sets of artifacts indicating particular social activities 0 Burials o The goods in peoples burials definitely tell us about the people there 0 What the burial looks like I Says something about them as well I Specifically rulers o Settlement Patterns 0 The distribution of sites and people across the landscape Earliest Development of Civilization 0 Middle East 0 Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia 0 First complex societies I 7000 bp 0 Mesoamerica 0 New World central Mexico 0 First complex societies I 3200 bp 0 Indus Valley 0 Large river valley I Highlands desert and ocean 0 Millions of people living there today 0 EnvironmentallyCircumscribed I Mountains on one side I Deserts on the other I Sea to the south 0 Domestication I 9000 bp I plant domestication I occurring indigenously o Sedentism I 5500 bp I farming wheat I herding I foraging 0 Starting around 4500 bp I The settling of Mohenjo Daro began 0 Large public structures 0 Organized neighborhoods I Planned city 0 Very large public bathing facility 0 Public toilets sewers and house bathrooms I Plumbing systems 0 Invented a wheel I Toys 0 Invented a writing system I Indus script I Undeciphered 0 Clay stamps 0 Images Why Early States Collapsed 0 Various factors rarely is it just one factor 0 Warfare people coming into conflict Middle East Ur Prolonged drought Indus Valley couldn t grow food anymore Disease 0 o o Famine 0 Environmental change 0 Social transitions Archaeology and other questions 0 Consider it a reconstruction of history 0 The different kinds of questions Archaelologists are asking o Archaeology is I Understanding human cultural past I Understanding cultural processes Other Archaeological Endeavors 0 Technology and Environments o How human societies interact most directly with the natural environment I Raised crops I Tool production 0 Where they are getting their resources 0 What they are made of copper metal shale etc 0 Where are they manufacturing them I Where people put their housesbuildings o On top ofhills not good for growing food so put houses there 0 What they made houses out of Limestone I Transportation 0 Wheeled carts o Roads limestone 0 People traffic if not wheels 0 Social Systems 0 Studying the construction origins and traits ofpast organization I For the elite o Socially gendered roles learned from artifacts plates drawing etc I Sacrifices I Role in society 0 Political organization I How power in particular was channeled and who controlled production and distribution ofwealth 0 Economic organizations I How resources were allocated or distributed within a society trade money exchange exchange of nonwealth items ceramics writing recording economic exchange 0 Cosmological and Symbolic Systems 0 Studying how past cultures and societies constructed their world views I Understanding ofthe natural and supernatural what they believe social systems etc I We tend to see these symbolisms in elite figures pottery Read Ch 16 Individual paper projects due April 2 lst Challenges to archaeology o Pseudoarchaeology o a body ofpopularized accounts that use real or archeological evidence pyramids Mesoamerican head sculptures sarcophagus o Destruction to archaeological remains o Looting illegal vandalism and plundering ofsites 0 Collecting a challenge Acts regulating collection to protect cultural historic resources 0 Capital Resource Management 0 Recovering information and protecting sites from development I Publicprivate 0 Responsibility ofarchaeologists 0 Modern issues ofskeleteal and burial analysis and different ethnic groups NAGPRA Kennewick Man 0 Have laws cause we didn39t treat Native American bodies the same 0 Cemetery laws every country has these some are lax some art 0 Burials are completely different Read Chapter 16 Cultural Anthropology 0 Study ofmodern human society and culture 0 Patterns in behavior thought understanding perceptions 0 They understand through active participation collecting data 0 Patterns ofSubsistence 0 Economic systems 0 Social and political organization how people organize themselves their roles o Kinship and marriage how people understand familiar relationships 0 Myth ritual religion and art religious behavior cosmoslogical views how art and culture relate to themselves 0 Globalism Patterns of Subsistence 0 Doing what is necessary to sustain human life 0 Food culture shelter 0 Adaptive strategies I A groups system ofeconomic activity I Economic activity 0 The extraction production exchange storage and consumption who gets what when where of material things oflife I Foraging o huntergatherers O O O O O O I Horticulture mobile rely on natural resources band societies I 100 ind 0r less I kinship social organization 0 exible switch around kinship line Egalitarian social systems I Not based on power and wealth but on age and gender Kung Bushmen S Africa Inuit Arctic Circle NW Coast Indians 0 Subsistence Farmers O O O I Agriculture Simple tools Fields not permanent move around I Slash and burn I Shifting Shifting cultivation I Plots lie fallow I Slash and burn way offertilizing tropical soil I Can use plots up to 3 years 0 Intensive farming O O O O O GO More complex tools Addition ofdomesticated animals Mechanized Irrigating Terracing increasing the amount ofland you can use Eliminating pests insects and weeds Cost and Benefits I Greater yield I Dependable I lIigher population Intensification I Sedentary I Specialized I The Cultivation Continuum o llorticulturalists o 9 Industrial Agriculturist I Pastoralism I Subsistence herders o Breeding and managing herds of domesticated grazing animals Use animals directly Mobile 0 Pastoral nomadism o Transhumance I Industrialism 0 Industrial production 0 Factoryproduction 0 Capitalism 0 Socialistproduction Modes of Production 0 Economies 0 Systems ofproducing distributing and consuming goods 0 Balancing demands supply and needs I Each society defines demands and needs as culturally specific I Mode of Production 0 Way of organizing production 0 Nonindustrial 0 Vs 0 Industrial 0 Division ofeconomic labor 0 Age and gender 0 Betsileo and Madagascar I 2 stages ofrice cultivation Means of Production 0 Means ofproduction 0 Major productive resources 0 Land labor technology 0 Nonindustrialsocieties I Mire closely connected I Linked through social and kin organization O I Less specialized Industrial societies I Production is not owned by the laborer I Less connected I What they produce is not their own Economic Principles 0 2 economic anthropology questions O Q what motivates people in different cultures How are economies organized in different societies I Using crosscultural perspectives Maximizing I Trying to gain the largest margin of individual profit that they can Economizing I Rational allocation of scarce resources to particular uses Alternative Ends I Subsistence funds I Replacement funds I Social funds I Ceremonial funds I Rent funds Economic Behavior 0 Distribution and exchange 0 Organization ofeconomies I How economic systems work 0 Three Economic Systems 0 O 0 Exchange ofgoods and services within a standardized value 0 Dominant in north America Redistribution I Centrally redistributed goods throughout a community I Potlatching I cultivation o Plots lie fallow o Slash and burn Reciprocity I The exchange ofgoods and services ofequal value I Three types 0 Generalizedunequal o Balanced equal barter farmers market 0 Negativeone sided one person believes they have the upper hand 0 Coexistence of exchange principles Potlatching o Festive event 0 Among tribes 0fthe Northwest Coast ofNorth America 0 Big community celebration o Conspicuous consumption 0 What motivates exchange 0 Profit 0 Individual vs group 0 Adaptive mechanism 0 Redistributed wealth I When certain areas suffered 0 Created alliances 4511 Kinship and Decent o Kinship marriage decent and family are the basic building blocks of society 0 Kinship o Organizing human relationships ofinterdependence 0 Basic human social organization39 o How individuals relate to each other 0 Who do you refer yourselfas Family name 0 The beginning ofkinship starts with 0 Family I Two or more people related by blood marriage or adoption 0 Family functions 0 Nurturing children 0 Economic cooperation Different kind offamilies Nuclear families mom dad kid 0 not the same as a decent groups lineage I impermanent I product ofindividual life cycles 0 family of orientation 0 in which one was born into 0 family of procreation 0 created through marriage I extended families 0 Extended families grandparents aunt uncle cousins 0 can be families ofprocreation and orientation I lower economic classes Nuclear Families 0 The nuclear family is not a universal human trait o Other patterns serve the same functions 0 NayarIndia o Tarawad household I llusbands do not live in the household children take care ofthe farms and are not raised by their father 0 Industrialism and family 0 Ideals I US family is quotnuclearquot I Brazilian family is quotextendedquot 0 Extended families live together 0 US families I Only 23 are now quotnuclearquot I More women in the labor force 0 Delaying marriage not till 2728 I Increase in divorce rate I Single parent families I Economic shifts I Land ties have less ties to land people move around a lot more I Communication advances Descent Groups 0 Descent group 0 A permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry o 3 ways to define o unilineal I relationships are recognized through one line ofdescent whether mothers 0R fathers kin lines divorce choose mom or dad o matrilineal o kinship through mother39s family 0 patrilineal o kinship through fathers family 0 ambilineal I people can choose to recognize relationships through either the mothers OR the fathers house I ex some tribes when newlyweds will live with mother when they have child they live with their father 0 bilateral I relationships are recognized through both lines ofdescent Forms of Descent Groups 0 Three different forms 1 Lineage a A descent group with a common known ancestor b Patrilineages i The male line ii Daughters leave iii Patrilocal c Matrilineages i The female line ii Sons leave iii Matrilocal 2 Clan a Member believe they have a common ancestor i May not specify the genealogical links b Made up ofseveral lineages c Long historical background d Ancestor is often a mythical figure i Nonhuman ancestors are called totems 3 Bilateral Kindred a Membership is based on recognizing close relatives on the mothers and fathers side Kinship Review 0 Kinship o Organizing human relationships ofinterdependence 0 Family 0 Nuclear 0 Extended 0 Family of orientation 0 Family ofprocreation o 3 principles ofdescent o 3 kinds ofdescent groups Kinship Calculation 0 Classification systems based on how different cultures perceive their social worlds 0 Provides information on 0 Social organization 0 Political organization who has power 0 Economic organization Kinship Calculation and Terminology o No two individuals will have the same kinship system 0 However general patterns do exist 0 kin terms vs biological types 0 parallel cousins I the children ofa person39s parents39 same sex siblings children ofaunts and uncles ofmotherbrothers sibling 0 cross cousins I the children ofa person39s parents39 oppositesex siblings children ofyour fathers sister children ofyour mothers brother 0 four ways to classify kinship 1 lineal terminology I parental generation 0 mother father uncle aunt I distinguishes relatives in a direct line from all other relatives collateral and affinal o collateral relative offto one side 0 affinalrelative by marriage I Eskimo pattern 0 Lineal I Nuclear family is distinguished from collateral relatives I All other in are quotcousinsquot affinals are not relations 2 bifurcate merging terminology I splits mother39s relatives from father39s relatives I but for both sides 0 combines the samesex siblings ofthe parent with one term I parental generation has four terms 4711 0 mother father mother39s brother father39s sister 3 generational terminology I distinguishes only between generations and sex I parental generation has two terms 0 mother father 4 bifurcate collateral terminology I distinguish relatives by mother39s or father39s side by generation and sex I parental generation has six terms 0 mother father father39s brother father39s sister mother39s brother mother39s sister Writing assignment due April 12th Paper project due April 21St Kinship patterns wont need to know the specific patterns do need to know what birfurcate merging is o bifurcate merging 0 use same term for parents and their samesex siblings 0 use same term for parallel cousins as ones own siblings o crow pattern 0 bifurcate merging use same term for parents and same sex siblings 0 use same term for parallel cousins as one s own siblings o ignores distinction between generations for fathers opposite sex sibling and male crosscousins on fathers side I same term for father s sister s sons as father I same term for father s sister s daughter as fathers sister 0 Omaha pattern 0 Bifurcate merging I use same term for parents and their samesex siblings I use same term for parallel cousins as ones own siblings I ignores distinction between generations for mother s siblings and crosscousins on mother s side 0 same term for mother s brother as mother s brother s son 0 same term for mother and mother s sister as mother s brother s daughter Hawaiian pattern 0 Generational I Based on generation and sex I Only kinship terms are for each sex within each generation Sudanese pattern 0 Bifurcate collateral I Each kin relation is given a different term Marriage A culturally approved relationship Transforms the individual s status Implies certain permitted sexual access children virgin Establishes legal parenthood for children Creates joint property Connects two descent groups Creates a new kinship line Is always symbolically marked Is NOT always synonymous with mating 0 Marriage is a culturally sanctioned relationship 0 Examples I Igbo female and femalehusband marriage economic I Nuer ghost marriage if dead man dies without a wife another man stands in for him brother brothers sons and gets married and the children that he has become the dead man s children H 9 gt1991wzv Marriage Systems 0 Monogamy 0 Most common throughout the world 0 Single spouse marriage 0 Polygamy 0 Multiple spouse marriage 0 Polygyny 0 Multiple wives marriage 0 Polyandry 0 Multiple husbands marriage Plural Marriages 0 Why 0 Not common even in accepting societies 1 Equalize seX ratios 2 Marrying late in life a More widows 3 Economics a Increases production and cooperation b Maintains land ownership 4 Political reasons a Larger social networks 0 No single reason for polygamous marriages o Often coherent for each group I EXplainable within the specific cultural patterns 0 Not always about gendered domination I Negotiated arrangements often no choice they need to 0 Can be abusive Why marriage 0 Incest taboo 0 Cultural sanctions against sexual relations with a close relative I A cultural universal I Varies widely from culture to culture I Parallel cousins vs cross cousins 0 Cross cousin marriage in Unilineal societies I Strict patrilineal groups 0 Lakher 0 Allow maternal halfsibling marriage Incest and Exogamy o Incest taboos promote exogamy o Exogamy I Practice of seeking a spouse outside one s own group I Maintain wide social networks I Maintains cultural traditions and ties Incest and Marriage 0 Incest o Refers to a prohibition of sexual relations I But cultural definitions differ o ie parallel and crosscousin marriages o Instinctive horror I Humans genetically programmed I Largely refuted Biological degeneration I Incest causes mutations I Largely refuted o Attempt and contempt I Familiarity diminished sexual attraction I Good evidence 0 Marry out or die out I Ensures exogamy I Good evidence 0 Marriage and Endogamy 0 Patterns of marriage 0 Exogamy I Marriage outside ofa defined socialkin group 0 Endogamy I Marriage inside a defined a defined socialkin group o 1 Homogamy o 2 Caste marriage 0 3 Royal marriage Marriage as Group Alliance 0 Marriage is often more than a relationship between two individuals 0 Wealth exchange between patrilineal groups I Bridewealth 0 Payment to a wife s family 0 Pays for loss ofa daughter 0 Pays for future children 0 Decreases instances of divorce notjust about the two individuals but about the entire kinsman group 0 If divorce you have to return the gifts cattle etc o Creates alliances I Dowry 0 Payment to a husbands family 0 Often correlated to low women gender status 0 Pays for adding women to descent group 0 Gives daughters property Durable Alliances o Sororate and levirate marriages 0 Continuing marriage after spouse dies I Maintains marriage as group alliance I Sororate marriages o Widower marries deceased wife s sister I Levirate marriages o Widow marries deceased husbands brother Divorce 0 Marriages ally groups 0 Harder to break up 0 Bridewealth discourages divorce 0 More common in matrilineal societies 0 Have greater support 0 Difficult for patrilineal societies 0 For women 0 Children belong to patrilineal groups 0 Little support often divorcing their own families and joining another one Gender 0 A cultural construction of sexual differences 0 About the culture roles and expectations towards males and females 0 Cultural understanding of genetic biological and cultural difference 0 Difference in physical traits 0 Differences in abilities 0 Differences in behavior 0 Biological determinants 0 Biological differences underlie the socials and cultural differences 0 Sexual dimorphism I Differences in male and female body 0 Cultural determinants 0 Cultural differences define I Gender roles o Tasks and activities that a culture assigns to the sexes I Gender stereotypes 0 Over simplified ideas about male and female characteristics I Gender stratification o Unequal distribution of rewards between men and women Recurrant Gender Patterns 0 Subsistence contributions ofmen and women are roughly equal cross culturally o In domestic activities female labor dominates o In eXtradomestic activities outside the household male labor dominates 0 Women are primary caregivers but men play a role 0 Difference in male and female reproductive strategies 0 Men mate more than women do 0 Double standards that restrict women more I Illustrates gender stratification I Gender stratification lower when domestic and public spheres not clearly distinguished Gender Among Foragers 0 Men 0 Larger stronger more mobile 0 Roles of hunters and warriors 0 Women 0 Pregnancy and nursing I Prevents from being primary hunters 0 Primary roles in gathering and infant care 0 The Public Domestic Dichotomoy 0 Strong differentiation between the home and the outside world I The privatepublic contrast I Domestic activities dominated by women I Public activities restricted to men Gender among Horticulturalists 0 Gender Roles 0 Women I More likely to be main producers and cultivators 0 Men I Wage labor public roles hunting warfare etc 0 Reduced Gender Stratification 0 Among matrifocal societies I Family groups where women are dominant figure 0 Male travel combined with a prominent female economic role 0 Increases Gender Stratification 0 Among patrilineal societies I Family groups where men are dominant figure 0 Increased local warfare 0 Economic resource pressures 41411 Gender among Agriculturalists 0 When economy based on agriculture women typically lose role as primary cultivator 0 Men are primary contributors to subsistence 0 Gender stratification both increases and decreases I Depending on society Gender and Industrialism 0 Gender roles changing rapidly in North America 0 quota woman s place is in the home I 1900 s middleupper class I spread ofindustrialism 0 Gender roles change in response to economic need I Pre 1900 s need both men and women contributing to the household I Later on it changed Recently there have been more women in the working place than ever before and more women in colleges Cultural ideas have changed Gender and Sexualities 0 Sexual orientation 0 A persons habitual sexual attractions and activities 0 Heterosexuality I Persons of opposite seX o Homosexuality I Persons of same sex I Different in societies I Dependent on age 0 Bisexuality I Persons from both sexes o Asexuality I Lack of attraction to either sex 0 Sexual norms vary crossculturally and through time 0 US trends see sexual orientation as biologically fixed 0 Transvestites I A third gender Political Systems 0 Patterns of community management and relations 0 Social organization within any complex society so that people get along with each other 0 How communities I Direct and manage public affairs I Organize community protection I Manage community survival keep things going protecting ceremoniesrituals I Structure extra community relations meeting with groups other communities I Manage economic concerns community survival structure Types of SocioPolitical Systems 0 Band 0 Small kin based group 0 Among foragers o 100 people 0 egalitarian not a whole lot of status differences between people I age gender 0 Inuit I Egalitarian foragers I Men s hunting and fishing 0 Primary subsistence activities 0 Female infanticide 0 Multiple wives higher status can provide arrogant I Lacked formal law 0 Different methods of social control kill the guy then hisyour kinsman could kill you Song battles come up with insulting songs as insulting as possible in front of bands and audience votes who wins o Tribe 0 Larger group I Horticulturepastoralism I Somewhat egalitarian generally people are not born with more status than another though there are individuals who can gain status 0 Organized by kin groups 0 Village headman o Kapauku I Egalitarian horticulturalists agriculturalists I Soil tilling irrigation systems pig breeding I Large population I Big Man societies 0 They achieve their position spend most of their lifetime gaining wealth grow as many potatoes as they possibly can so they can give it all away the more they give away the more prestige they getpower to start making decisions Meeting with other communities helping with plans protection through forced personality 0 Sodalities I Nonkin based organizations I Age gender 0 Organized con icts o Organized hunting 0 Nomadic Politics I Organize grazing schedules I Multiple ethnic groups I Small groups 0 Weak political offices 0 Dependent on the individual 0 Basseri I Big groups 0 Strong political offices 0 Qashqai o Chiefdom o A centralized polity with two or more groups I A single chief I Ranked society I Horticulturalists I Redistribution economy I Similar to Big Men in terms of accumulating wealth through kinship lines o Polynesian Chiefdoms I Controlled multiple communities I Chiefwas a fulltime residential office
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