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by: Vivienne Schimmel


Vivienne Schimmel
GPA 3.65


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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vivienne Schimmel on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Dujovny in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/202339/anth-1102-university-of-georgia in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
ANTHROPOLOGY THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION WHEN AND WHERE DID THEAGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION OCCUR WHY DID PEOPLE DOMESTICATE PLANTS AND ANIMALS WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OE THIS REVOLUTION N EXT WEEK Agricultural Transition women played an important role I 10000712000 years ago I End of Wier Glacial period world became dryer9selected for annual plantsmore tropical I Begin actively manipulating environment I Find our Niche as humans Neolithic Revolution I Paleolithic9Neolithic 0 Hunting amp Gathering Agricultural w some hunting I Changes in subsistence strategies 0 Gradual shift 0 Different times in different locations 0 Happened independently around the world Middle Eastern Transition I Semiinomadic hunting and gathering 10000712000 years ago 0 First evidence of small communities Jericho I Early Dry Farming 1000077500 years ago 0 Tigris River Turkey I Increasing specialization 750075500 years ago 0 Plants barley and animals dog I Origins of States 5500 BCE o Economies growing cities getting bigger large walled cities earliest irrigation systems 0 SumeriaPlet century BCE Ziggarat at Ur o Babyloniai 6th century BCE Ishtar Gate Babylon South Asian Tradition I Mehrgarhi 7000 BCE modern day Pakistan 0 Wheat and Barley o Herding cattle sheep and goats Wild and Domesticated I Methods Archaeology Pollen analysis I Domesticationi genetic change that manipulates genes to select for specific traits that increase usability for us I What humans are looking for 0 Plants larger seeds more seedskernels reduced toxins stronger axes wheat stem so seeds won t fall off 0 Animals smaller size better behavior 113 ANTH1102 ntroduction to Anthropology Dr Eia Dujovny You have to study and learn so that you can make up your own mind about history and everything else but you can t make up an empty mind Stock your mind stock your mind It is your house of treasure and no one in the world can interfere with it You might be poor your shoes might be broken but your mind is a palace Frank McCourt Office hours Tuesday and Thursday by appointment Email at edu39ovnyugaedu Visual Arts 115 What are our Goals for this Course a Satisfy UGA requirements b Become familiar with fourfield anthropology c Become familiar with the anthropological perspective d Learn to think critically about what you see and read in the media e Prepare you for future anthropology courses Core Concepts a Nature of scientific inquiry b Basics of evolutionary theory i Human and nonhuman primate evolution c Human and cultural variation i What is the role of culture in cultivating human interaction Anthropology is the most humanistic of the sciences and the most scientific of the humanities Alfred Kroeber Assigned Texts a Lavenda amp Schultz 2008 textbook b Assigned readings See schedule i On eLC c Weekend Reading i Chapter 1 including module pg 123 ii quotEating Christmasquot by Richard LeeExternal readings will be on exams IV Grading a Exams 3 including final 25 each Exams are not cumulative b Activities 20 2 Activities worth 10 each Activity 1 Due March 1 iquot Activity 2 Due April 19 iv Available of eLC c Attendance 5 V Blog httpwwwdu39ovnyanthblogspotcom 118 quotIf there is a piety in cultural r D it is the 39 t39 that deserves to be a universal emotion Astonishment and the assortment of feelings that it brings with it surprise curiosity excitement enthusiasm and sympathy are probably the effects most distinctive of the anthropological response to the difference and strangeness of quotothersquot Anthropologists encounter witchcraft trials suttee ancestral sprit attack fire walking body mutilation the dream time and how do they react With astonishment While others respond with horror outrage condescension or lack of interest the anthropologists flip into their worldrevising moodquot The Anthropological Approach a What is anthropology Ruth Benedict quotThe purpose of anthropology is to make the world safe for human differences Why do those differences exist Archaeology is one of the four main branches Textbook the study of human nature human societies and the past of humanity Dujovny Study of human diversity across space and time b What sorts of perspectives do anthropologists bring to the study of humanity c What do anthropologists do II An 39 r39g39 39quot r 39 This but it also helps one to see his own environment isn t solely about viewing other cultures a Holism i The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Aristotle Metaphysics ii Reductionism taking a complex system and reducing it to its component parts The antithesis ofholism iii Multiple scales We aren t looking atjust a leg orafoot butfor the whole human altogether iv Relationships between humans and their activities v Integration Things are connected even looking at separate parts b Relativism i Attempting to understand beforewithout placing value judgments 1 What is the context 2 What is the purpose ii Ethnocentrism perception that one s culture is best amp always right The antithesis of relativism iii Cultural Lens looking out at the world through the glasses through which you were raised iv Mutilation v Adornment What is the distinction between these Is there one c Concept of Culture i Set of learned ideas and behaviors that humans acquire as members of society ii Examples 1 Food preferences Dujovny eats horse 2 Ideas of beauty 3 Kinship rules In many societies cousins are more akin to American siblings 4 Religion 5 La n gua ge iii There are advantagesdisadvantages learned through culture iv Tiger Mom v Western Mom d The Science of Anthropology Limits explanations for human and cultural behavior to relationships within other aspects of the material world Kelso Empiricalfacts Anthropologists use the Scientific Method 1 Hypothesis a best estimation describing the anticipated relationship between variables in an experiment based on scientific knowledge observations and assumptions 2 Theory organized series of testable hypotheses used to explain a body of evidence A theory is continually modified as new evidence is gathered and analyzed 3 EX 9 The Theory of Evolution iv Evidence 1 Material objects measurements information about objects 2 Inferred interpretation of objects e Fieldwork The vast majority of anthropologists go out into the worldforlong term fieldwork This is how anthropologists collect data i Longterm ii Interact with people or other primates iii Diggingprocessing material III Anthropological Disciples a CulturalAnthropology i Living People ii How people participate in their own culture iii Similarities amp Differences between cultures b Linguistic Anthropology i Historic relationships that exist among languages ii Identity iii Navigating social amp natural environment c BiologicalAnthropology i Includes 120 Primatology Paleoanthropology Forensics Human biology ampvariation tribpr Transformations of body amp mind over time d Archaeology i Study of material culture of past ii Interpreting Evidence 1 Current human behavior 2 How behavior is reflected in material remains e Applied Anthropology i Applying anthropological theory and methods to solve problems ii Garbage Project 1 1971 class project UAZ 2 Nature and changing patterns of consumption 3 Ongoing research What is CultureWe don t have an easy simple answer a 9957 s culture unique to humansAre there other creatures out there that might have something equivalent to culture How is culture definedThere is something like 600 definitions Can culture explain the human condition What are some characteristics of culture Sociality Among NonHumans a Is culture unique to humans Forty five percent ofspecies live in social groups whether they are birds of a feather a pack of wolves or a beehive What distinguishes humans Chimps create tools Many animals have distinct calls that are understood as communication Do chimpanzees have culture a Social groups b Complex tools c Hunt d Hunting with tools e Behavioral traditions i KEY Need for Complex Whole that includes rules for behavior art knowledge etc We humans have many more layers when it comes to culture The Complex Whole is useful for us as humans but it is difficult to test and isn t always terribly clear Defining Culture All these definitions are problematicfor ourpurposes a The acquired knowledge that people use to interpret their world and generate social behavior b quotCulture is that complex whole which includes knowledge belief arts morals law custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of societyquot Sir Edward Taylor 1871 c The extrasomatic means of adaption for the human organism Leslie White 1964 d Characterized as sets of quotcontrol mechanisms plans recipes rules instruction what computer engineers ca programs for the governing of behaviorquot Geertz 1973 Are we computers Explaining the human condition a Dualism reality composed of two equal and opposite forces Existed since the beginning of time Zoroastrianism was an early religion still in existence founded on the notion of dualism i Examples 1 Mind v Matter 2 Nature v Culture 3 Heaven v Hell 4 Male v Female b Determinism one simple force causes complex events Idealism Ideas or the mind constitute the essence of human nature Everything goes back to the mind Materialism Everything falls back on real physical things Bodily desires determine behavior etc c Holism perspective on human condition that assumes mind amp body individuals amp society and individuals amp the environment interpenetrate and even define each other Culture is an emergent quotbyproductquot projected by humans other species and 39 g with 39 Culture is a Learned Certain instinctual abilities you are born with but these are not culture i Enculturation especially in the critical period of infancy vertical transmission The parent vertically transmits culture to his offspring b Relearned i Acculturation horizontal transmission This is relearnedfrom peers and others in one s social environment ii Biased transmission These are less straightforward than peersparents 1 Conformity bias Essentially this is peer pressure 2 Prestige bias People relearn their culture by copying the quotcoolquot person In today s world people want to be like celebrities 3 Success bias Think about people copying Oprah VI VII VIII A biological capacity for culture a 57 Squot 53 Cult 1 57 Squot 53 5 r CerebellumReptilian Complex i Selfpreservation amp reproduction Limbic System i Controls emotions Neocortex i Regulates perception deliberation spatial reasoning amp sensory processing This part is signi cantly larger and more convoluted in humans than in other animals Neurobiology EX 9 Asperger s Mirror Neurons People with Asperger s can t assimilate either vertically or horizontally Mirror Neurons are neurons firing in a person as if they were performing an action that they are only simply watching being performed ure is Shared Culture is a product of group experiences Think football games pizza Facebook Darth Vader etc Symbolic Think about a red octagonal street sign that says ARRE T A non French speaker could probably immediately know that it is a stop sign Integrated amp Encompassing i Cultures behave like Superorganisms 1 Individual Agency agency meansfree will versus StructureConformity ii Defines normality and morality 1 Insight into normal versus offensive behavior 2 Exclusionversus inclusion Adaptive or Maladaptive i Culture should increase survivorship rightOn a large scale it looks like we re killing ourselves Think Wall E ii Environmental Sustainability Versus Consumption Dynamic amp Flexible i Cultures change with new ideas information amp technology ii Globalization amp Cell Phones Nine years ago Dujovny beganfield work in India in a place that had no internet or cell phone towers Now his former field assistant wants to riend him from the village Helpful to organize the world i Provides schemata amp categories 1 Matter 2 Sensory input 3 Social phenomena What isfair or unfair 4 Symbols 5 Causation 6 Stories Culture patterns give insight into cultural characteristics a Universal All humans learn a culture 125 57 Generality Widespread patters Spanish a single language is spoken onfour different continents c Particularity unique to a specific culture i GA linguistics food amp clothes 1 KEY Cultures are integrated amp patterned differently Ethnographic Fieldwork a What is ethnography b How do anthropologists work with living people c What are the ethical I quot quot39 39 of 39 I 39 U39 quot anthropologist is centered on people as opposed to objects ethics must be observed the job of an Learning About People a Observe Behavior Thefirst role of an anthropologist b Talk with people Why do they do what they do c Participant Observation Known as quotPOquot this is what differentiates anthropologists from other related sciences such as sociology For example Dujovny s time and experiences in the Indian fishing community is a form of participant observation The question arises however about how to avoid bias in P0 Ethnography a Provides descriptive depth about people This is the quotfinal product of the anthropologist s work b Goal to combine Emic local explanation amp understanding Insider s perspective Tends to avoid giving an in depth logical reason to their culture s traits Etic outsider explanation amp understanding Tends to be slanted towards the anthropologist s specific background i i KEY Anthropologists basic tool Ethnography is the anthropologists basic tool Ethnography as a tool a Live work and speak with many people in a community over a long time period b Records dialogue between researcher amp research participants c Explores and explains complexity of connections holistically d Technique is a complex adaptive system i Finished product emerges from array of methods used to collect amp analyze information Interview Methods Groups a Use Focus Groups Dujovny s focus groups over concerning the fishing community may have been biased it was filled with public officials who did not necessarily represent the whole of the actual fishing community i General quick answers ii Develop questions for further exploration VI Interview Methods Individuals a Unstructured May be a group of friends hanging out drinking etc i Openended questions ii Answers vary widely b Semistructured You want to ask the same questions to triangulate the actual truth Semi structured means you re open to following leads or anything that might come up within the interview IE Dujovny had trouble finding out how long the non fisherman in the community had been fishing and selling their catches in the market i Fixed questions ii Answers vary widely c Questionnaire People may not always tell the truth even ifthey don t know they re being deceitful Anthropologists limit their use of questionnaires i Fixed questions ii Limited answer choices VII Freelisting a Order The order of a freelist is usually indicative of the most important things b Length The length of afreelist shows how much the individual knows about a subject c Types of words phrases Shows the depth of knowledgeconceptualization VIII Social Network Analysis This is a graphical representation of who knows whom This showed definite separate groups between the castes IX Anthropometrics This is not a definitive property of all anthropologists it s largely related to medical anthropology however a Interaction between social amp biological change i Height ii Weight iii Growth rate iv BMI v Disease X Interpretation amp Translation There are no final results rather resultsfrom a particular time and place a Ethnographic writing i Places observations amp information into context ii Experience humanity of people and culture iii Ongoing conversation dialectic so results are openended 1 KEY No single anthropological truth exists However results can tell us something about culture and the human experience XI Evolution of Anthropological Approaches a Positivism objective scientific i Goal explain material world with 5 senses i Use scientific methods to collect facts iii Produce a llTheory of Everything The end goal was to create a theory that would explain everything Xll Xlll XIV XV 1 What sorts of problems might this create in AnthropologyPositivism is an E tic perspective Also it doesn t recognize any ethical aspects that should be considered Some Problems with Positivism The root problem is that the act itselfofdeciding to measure something creates a bias a Treating people that are studied like rocks bacteria etc b No acknowledgement that anthropologist is human c No acknowledgement that humans have ethical obligations to each other s Anthropology a glorified travel writing a NO b Why Ethnographic fieldwork is a dialogue Sharing of culture goes both ways iquot Produces intersubjective meanings Shared meaning Not a meaning that belongs only to the way either you or alone see things What really matters is reflexivity wh y am I thinking the way I am Evolution of Anthropological Approaches cont a Reflexivity i Be aware of how one thinks and perceives others 1 Cultural lens Your background might depreciate your ability to perceive other cultures 2 KEY Good ethnography combines reflexive awareness with scientific approach to examining relationships between people Effects of Fieldwork a Informants i Increases awareness of self and position in culture or world 1 May be surprising amp uncomfortable 2 Can give pride amp purpose ii Learn about culture of the anthropologist People always ask about the culture of the anthropologist and this will change the way they see themselves inevitably b Anthropologist i Increases awareness of self and position in culture or world 1 May be surprising amp uncomfortable 2 Can give pride amp purpose ii Culture shock Culture shock goes both ways 1 New culture 2 Return home Ethical Responsibilities a Research Participants Pseudonyms are frequently used both for people and places b AcademicScholarly Community The data retrieved by the anthropologist must be legitimate c d Environmental Wider societyculture i Tensions may develop between stakeholders Examples of Ethical ProblemsPotatoesfrom the Andes The US military uses anthropologists in their teams known as the Human Terrain Assistants 127 What is YogaHow does the yoga system think about the body in a cultural perspective Namaste the light in me recognizes the light in you an 052957 ranh Yoga is not a religion This is a widely spread misconception that spreads fear amongst those who could possibly benefit from yoga Not opposed to any religion or sacred belief An aid to all religions and spiritual truths Can enhance any religion Union with all Yoga means to create union Yoga is not just exercise People are often afraid to embrace yoga because of what their bodies cannot do Healthy bodyhealth mind Foundation selfcontrol Essence Discipline Yoga is an exact Science It is becoming more and more recognized as an applied science applicable to both mind and body a b c d Observable evidence Observable in scientific results Experimental Measurable Both by the individual and by scientific studies lowering cholesterol blood pressure Applied science of the mind and body Yoga for Healthy Body and Mind a DU 51 s Spinal Health Yoga focuses on spinal health i Our spine is the backbone and foundation of our bodies both structurally and energetically Flexibility Yoga Your youth is measured by theflexibility of your spine Strength Placing yourself in specific bodily postures or ossenas will help to strengthen specific glands Bala nce Exercise of Internal Organs The bodily postures are designed to introduce fresh blood and oxygen into these organs i Brain heart liver lungs ii Endocrine System The spine is the major channel of energy that runs throughout the body 1 Influences cells organs and functions of body 2 Regulates mood growth metabolism sexual function IV What is Yoga cont a Yoga is not magic b Siddhis supernatural powers 39 Levitation Astral Travel Reading Auras iv Cessation of breath V Yoga and Your Energetic Body The spinal column is part ofour physical body while the sushumna is the energetic equivalent a Seven Chakras Chakras energy centers VI Philosophy of Yoga a Yoga Sutras of Patanjali i The Cessation of the modifications of the Mind Our mind seeks a quiet blissful state Thoughts are considered disturbances of mind Imagine seeing yourself as a reflection in a tranquil lake with thoughts being ripples b Bhagavad Gita Studied by Emerson Thorough Einstein MLK etc i There is only One Universal Truth that everything is One Separation of self is illusion Mayaquot ii Three paths to Universal Truth 1 Karma Yoga Giving selflessly a Action with expectation 2 Bhakti Yoga Recognizing something bigger than yourself a Devotional practices 3 Jnana Yoga This could simply be an inquiry into Who am I a Intellectual Study of spiritual texts iii Ashtanga Yoga The scientific path Ash eight Anga limbs 1 Yamas Restraints Do Good Could be compared to the Ten Commandments The first two yamas and niyamas have to do with how you live in your world 2 Niyamas Observances Be good 3 Asana Postures 4 Pranayama Control of BreathMind 5 Pratyahara ControlWithdrawal of Senses 6 Dharana Concentration 7 Dhyana Meditation 8 Samadhi Liberation VII Benefits of Yoga a Physical Benefits i Strength flexibility ii Lower blood pressure cholesterol iii Better circulation iv Balanced Metabolism v Pain Control vi Weight control vii Balance bodily awareness b Mental Benefits i Cures depression ii Reduces Anxiety and fear and stress iii Selfcontrol selfacceptance iv Increases concentration and memory v Positive outlook vi Decreased hostility or anger vii Calm and Peace Vastuyogacom Language amp Symbolism a What is language b What makes human language unique c What is the difference between language and communication d What is the relationship between language and cultureWhy are anthropologists doing anything related to language linguisticcognitive anthropology The Story of India a Mantras possibly the oldest known language Some of these utterances or incantations were in no known language possibly passed down from since before human speech This is an example of an oral tradition b Sanskrit connecting Indian and European languages India s ancient classical language This is the root of the languages spoken by almost one billion people Where did Sanskrit come from Like Latin Sanskrit is no longer spoken quotNo philosopher could examine all three ancient languages without thinking them sprung from the same common source Languages are communication systems The purpose of language is to communicate something something more than a cry a Call systems sounds that relate to environmental stimuli i Humans Laughing screaming in fear ii Vervet monkeys Have a call system that can stimulate a reaction from other monkeys b Symbolic learned meanings of words unique in their own respects i Spoken amp written ii Did not evolve out of call systems iii Coevolved Multiple parts of the brain were used in its development What makes human language unique a Openness describe new experiences amp phenomena i Puppy Cow Calf Productivityis the human ability to create new words to describe new phenomena 57 Displacement talk about things that aren t present or doesn t physically exists i Emotion future or historic activity Squot Arbitrariness no link between particular linguistic sounds and their meanings Sounds don t have true meanings i boi ii English young male human iii Fulfulde more or many iv Portuguese bull S3 Duality of Patterning sound and meaning i Sound 1 Phoneme smallest unit of sound that changes meaning a It pit bit sit 2 Morpheme smallest collection of sounds that have meaning a Cow cows ii Meaning 1 Syntax rules of word arrangement This makes human language very different that animal communication a The boy bit the dog The dog bit the boy 2 Grammar rules of syntactical order for correct interpretation e Semanticity association of linguistic signals with speech community context This is more like connotation and opposed to denotation Another way to look at this is quotsocial context of a wordmeaning f Prevarication ability to displace symbolic i Deception persuasion humor Animals don t really have the ability to lie or mislead Language v Communication a Linguistic Competence i Mastery of adult grammar ii Noam Chomsky proposed language innate There exists something in the brain that can produce language 1 Universal human grammar Important to artificial intelligence Whatis universal human grammar 2 Genetically programmed biologically based iii Children acquire during critical learning period Use it or lose it kind of thing if children don t learn during this period they won t b Communicative Competence 39 Mastery of adult rules for sociallyculturally appropriate speech When the base was only men people swore more often When woman arrived that didn t change When several women arrived the swearing and violence went down Dell Hymes observed adults do more than just follow grammatical rules 1 Context highly important 2 Code switching Southern dialects being misunderstood etc 21 Happy February VI VII Black English Vernacular a Dialect of American English used in urban areas amp among black youth b Roots of this dialect are in West Africa in terms of linguistic structures EX removal of helping verbs quotHe is funny v quothe funny c Major outcomes in education and at work d Stigmatized in US education systemNot better or worse just different No substantive difference but it does have real effects in the world e Code Switching Specifically Black English Vernacular is not considered quotprestigiousquot and those who speak it often will only do so in certain contexts Sociolinguistics Looking at the social side of languages How do people actually speak languages in the world a Speech is evaluated in the context of social economic and political cues b Prestige diaIect form of language that gives biggest access to political and economic power Standard American English will often produce more societal quotgoodsquot than Black English Vernacular or other quotless prestigious dialects Southern etc c Symbolic domination acceptance of the authority amp correctness of a prestige diaIect Capable of changing overt time IE English in the 19405 was different in American than today http 39 Am EngIargemab Language amp the Natural World a What is the relationship between language and culture b Do different languages produce different ways of organizing the world IE do people with languages with masculinity or femininity differ in though from those who speak asexual languages Relationship Between Language amp CuIture a Two Hypothesis i Cultural ability is linked to Iinguistic abiIity ii Linguistic categories are related to cultural categories Saudade Portuguese E vokes intense feelings among Portuguese speakers Feeling of nostaIgic longing for something or someone that has been lost b FataIist tone c Unlike nostaIgia includes the hope of return d EG Lost lover or family member e quotThe love that remains SapirWhorf Hypothesiswwwengrishcom VI VII VIII gtlt a Grammatical categories of particular languages lead speakers to think in different ways This reflects the ability of the people to speak and think about different concepts i Native v nonnative speakers Do they understand things differently ii See Deutscher article Ratha Yatra quotChariot festival Pulling a chariot for several kilometers to the other side of town quotJuggernautquot comes from this quotunstoppable force In the media this is referred to as a quotsecularquot holiday despite the religious contexts It s called a secular holiday because all of the religions participate in it In these terms quotsecularquot doesn t mean quotnon religious but instead quotmany cultures Also there is no gender distinction in this language no heshe Linguistic Determinism Critique a Reduces patterns of thought 84 culture to grammatical pattern of the group s language Why would you think that only language would be the quotprime move of cultural development Some people say that you can never truly understand another culture b Universal I the 30 words for snow of the Eskimo 39 U allows for we can 39 one another Imagine c Innovation exists Languages are changes all the time English has literally hundreds of words from Hindi languages The notion of quotIf the word doesn t exist than neither can the idea is false 53 Don t become schizophrenic if you grow up bilingual e KEY Language shapes but doesn t restrict thought Creates quothabits of mind eg Guugu Yimithirr non egocentric language implying intimate knowledge of cardinal directions How does this quothabit of mind affect the way people interact with each other Focal Vocabularies The thirty plus words for snow imply a great need for specificity imply furthermore that the quotfocal point is an important key for that society a Groups have a large lexicon for a particular area i EX Potato farmers in BoliviaPeru Hundreds of different varieties with a word for each b Splits and divides groups of things that have meaning to the group c Gives insight into group experience and expertise d Does it make it hard for outsiders to understand It does atfirst obviously it s a type of jargon It s exclusionary language Color perception Does language affect our perception of color a Berlin amp Kay 1969 Do al languages define the same basic color terms They asked people what the names of the colors were in their languagesPeople do not define the same basic color terms 39 Differences in number of terms 2 to 11 Order to addition of new terms Cultures with only two quotCoor words define dark and light Red is always the third color iquot Do all cultures have the same color categories iv Do all cultures recognize the same basic rules Color perception conclusions Xl Xll Xlll a Perception of color is universal biological People can learn to see red ifthey don t have a word for it but in their cultures color is often unimportant i Visual and neurological basis b Category distinctions are variable cultural i Focal vocabulary Gender profession Women often describe colors with more detail along with painters artists etc Ethnobiology and Categorization a Quahog Gould s questions 57 Do all languages recognize the same basic division of the natural world into categories Squot s scientific classification taxonomy and species universalBinomial nomenclature is a focal vocabulary Linnaean classification real or arbitrary Originally based on sight Being refined based on genetics That lives in water that isn t etc A lot of times when distinctions were based on sight the genetics could usually prove it untrue 1 Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus NP P PF E J Species Ethnobiology a Ethnoscience nonWestern scientific knowledge Shaman example people in the Amazon were aware of diabetes because ants would prefer the urine of a diabetic over a non diabetic i Not necessarily written down ii Stored in songs rituals values stories etc Ethnobiology amp Categorization a Do all languages name the same number of species present in environment YES i Fore of New Guinea Cultural cannibals named 91 types of birds Western scientists found 103 In Fore culture cassowaries are considered close to humans because they have bones no wings and are bipedal They are not considered a bird but a quotbrothef You wouldn t kill a cassowary ii Kalam of New Guinea around 70 types Summary a Categorization of world is both universal and variable i Perception is universal species classification ii Categorization is variable cultural 1 Experience history beliefs 23 Humans have universal complex capacity for language biological 500 years ago Europeans were sure that there existed a culture that a lacked the capacity for language iv Information can be conveyed through verbal and nonverbal cues Culture amp Identity a How and why do people classify themselves and others What are the consequences of this classification Why do people do this What s the reason behind these divisions between people b Identity i How do we define ourselves Species Gender Kinship etc Occupation or Role in society Economic class Social status Religion Ethnicity Tribe quotRacequot Caste DWNP P PSNE JE O Nationality Subculture interest groups Identity is fluid a Multiple Identities People have multiple identities We do code switching in terms of identities as well b Ascribed Identity Something you re born into c Achieved Identity Think about military ranks or other things you can work hard to get Degrees for example are another type of achieved identity quotI m a doctor d Identity Construction Notion that you re identity isn tfixed it is fluid and is being shaped by global forces whether they be social political economic religious and other types of global affairs e Style Shifting make context specific Context choices to presenting identities Maintaining Identities a How do people maintain their identities b Boundary marking Abstracting a self image c Examples of Markers 39 La n gua ge Dress iquot Behavior iv Choice of Space Recognized by others Inclusive vs Exclusive a Exclusive places boundary on others Dujovny and the life guards not everyone can be a life guard they wear a special hat that denotes theirstatus Legitimate life guards will try to run illegitimate life guards out of the area b Inclusive accessible to others Dujovny and the village people they gave him lei Explaining Identity a Essentialist emic i Inherited static amp biological quotYou are that way It s in your blood Russians If you re a Biuret you can drink this vodka b Instrumentalist etic Ethnic identities are just holdovers from geographical limitations Power holders try to manipulate this to resolve political struggle Think about ArabsPersians IraqiIranians Some people argue that this is a danger in instituting democracy where it wasn t present before politicians have to create group identities i Holdover from preindustrial times ii Power holders invest in identities to manipulate groups c Constructivist etic Identity is inevitable because they will always see themselves in opposition to something else think about duality i Segmentary opposition ii Identity is fluid and exists only in opposition to another group You can choose which part of your identity you d want to manifest iii Political in nature iv Identity as a process v Historically contingent vi Socially constructed Gender a What is the difference between sex and gender b What patterns exist in gender roles across culture c How does gender relate to social and environmental conditions Sex amp Gender a Sexgender roles amp sexuality influenced by i Biological predispositions nature Essentialist In the 19605 doctors and parents would decide the gender of children born with ambiguous genitalia This kids usually males raised as females often found it uncomfortable to carry themselves as women even though they had no idea that they weren t female ii Environment nurture Sex is Biological a Morphological sex Does it look male orfemale b Gonadal sex What type ofgenitalia does it have c Chromosomal sex 1 XX Female 2 XY Male VI VII 3 Other variations Some argue that as many as 17people have a chromosomal quotdeficiencyquot a X Turner s Syndrome b XY androgen insensitivity Male manifests female because of an insensitivity to testosterone c XXY Klinefelter s Syndrome d XW Gender is Culturally Constructed a Sexual dimorphism body size amp hormonal production differs between sexes In humans males tend to be larger than females This is an anomaly common to most primates i Differences incorporated into cultural systems produces gender roles and stratification b Sexual orientation habitual attractions amp activities i Cultures mold towards norms All cultures mold people there is no culture where quotanything goes ii Norms vary crossculturally amp through time Acceptable things now many not areso tomorrow Again this is another fluid concept Cultural Constructions a Gender categories are emic b Gender roes Men working women cooking You re more likely to find that child care workers are female These roles aren t common across all cultures Polygamist and polyandrous cultures redefine culture roles c Gender stereotypes quotWomen are better cooks unless there s a chef around d Gender identity These things aren t universal again 39 Sexuality Division of labor Who does what work Ritual roes Can women be priests etc In some societies only women can reach the upper echelons of religion iv Stratificationsegregation Women eat after men in some cultures etc v Age How Many Genders a KEY Anatomy is not destiny Just because you have a certain morphologicalgonadal sex anatomy is not the only definer of sex India Hijras They are believed to have amazing powers because they don t conform to natural quotlawsquot of male or female a Born with male genitalia Become eunuchs They go through a ritual to become eunuchs Eunuchs have been around for many years In Mosem culture E unuchs became trusted advisors and protector of harems Dedicated to mother goddess b Use female pronouns Vlll Xl Xll c Third gender Samoa Fa afafines a Male chosen to take on female labor roles within family b May choose later to switch back or notwhen they become 18 years of age c Third gender It is acceptable for Fa afafines to marry males or females Native American TwoSpirits a quotBerdachequot b Practiced crossdressing c Not institutionalized homosexuality d Had supernatural sanction Like the Hijras they are seen as people who unified male and female and are holier for that reason e Usually productive specialization f Variant number of genders Berdaches could be males who dress as females and vice versa Albania Sworn Virgins They were never allowed to have a sexual relationship with others Young women take on male roles This helped the family oblige to inheritance rules Helps family survive Variant gender Neither male norfemale Crossdressing Behavioral changes Occupation changes anhrbgzpwm Important 4050 years ago i High gender stratification amp violence At that era there was a huge amount of mistreatment towards women in Albania CrossCultural Gender Patterns a Household level in general i Male amp female contributions roughly equal ii Female labor domestic activity amp childcare iii Male labor public activity Males were involved with politics or connections with the outside world Division of Labor a Foragers Kalahari San men hunt women gather b Foragers Agta Mikea women hunt men gather i Farming especially horticulture 1 Linked to how wealth amp power were inherited 2 Old World a Men farm women trade amp process b Mainly patrilineal 3 New World a Women farm men hunt b Mainly matrilineal ii Agriculture


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