INTRO ANTHROPOLOGY ANTH 1102
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Date Created: 09/12/15
ANTH 1102 Exam I Review guide Geoff Kelley Spring 2011 Test format includes mostly multiple choice with some TF and is worth 31 of your total course grade 62 questions 5 pts each If you can ID each of these terms concepts etc you ll do well Remember the text and videos may be tested as well NOTE Not all of this will be tested but you don t know what willwon t If you know all of this you ll do very well It s possible that items on the exam are not included here this is not my intention just a disclaimer Good luck gk Anthropology de ned 4 sub elds of ANTH and what they each do Applied ANTH CRM cultural resource management Biocultural Holistic and comparative ANTH Malinowski Trobriand Islands Etic vs Emic Ethnographic eldwork and methods Participant observation Interviews structured semistructured Field Notes Census taking Genealogies Key informants Life histories Going to the eld Ethics of conducting eld work informed consent Sampling Archaeology de ned Archaeological methods 39 Survey 39 Excavation 39 Analysis Artifact Ecofact Feature NAGPRA Kennewick Man Dating techniques Relative vs absolute dating know examples Culture de ned Characteristics of Culture ie its primary attributes Genie Enculturation Acculturation Cultural relativism Ethnocentrism Ethnography Ethnology Cultural universal Linguistics Communication Italian hand gestures What makes human language unique Phoneme Morpheme Grammar Syntax Lexicon SapirWhorf hypothesis Critiques of SapirWhorf Hopi concept of time Language acquisition Ethnography of language Language acquisition device Koko Lucy Washoe Language as symbol Linguistic relativity Displacement Productivity Cultural transmission Pidgin and Creole languages Religion Relig defined Characteristics and functions of religion Neanderthal as earliest evidence Animism Mana Magic Sympathetic imitative magic Contagious magic Ritual Rite of passage Black Elk Geoff Kelley Spring 2011 ANTH 1102 Exam 2 review DISCLAIMER exam may not cover everything herein and that said exam may cover material not included herein This is an overview of important topics discussed in class and your text Good luck GK Evolution and Genetics Four forces of micro evolution and be able to use each in hypothetical example situation Speciation macro evolution Allele Mendel law of independent assortment law of segregation Darwin Fitness Uniformitarianism Catastrophism Creationism Gene Genetics Sexual selection Phenotype genotype Adaptation adaptive Sicklecell malaria case hetero vs homozygous traits Primates you re on your own here but this can all be found win your text chS and pages 31 32 and chapter 5 Suborders 4 categories Platyrrhines Catarrhines New world vs old world characteristics Primary primate characteristics behavioral and anatomical Forms of locomotion including brachiation knucklewalking Similarities AND differences between human and non human primates behavioral and anatomical including levels of cooperation matingestrus Hominin Evolution Know where when tool traditions anatomical features including evolutionary trends through time etc of each mentioned in class Regarding the when as stated in class the exact dates of each are not important but know each relative to each other That said it may help you if you knowremember the dates for each as I might say something like this hominin lived approximately 25 million years ago in east Africa had a very large sagital crest w large dentition and cheek bones and no known established tool making tradition Know theories about the diaspora when did we leave Africa where did we go and from whom and where did Homo s evolve Dr J quot 39 39 of 39 39 evidence of Savannah hypothesis Beginnings of social living theories of think cooperation Ardi Ardz39pz39thecus ramidus ANTH Section I Anthropology the study oF humanity through all times and space 0000 O O Ant7 human poiogy the study oF study oF human diversity and what we have in common It is not paieontoiogy Holistic biocuiturai nature vs nurture what Foods we eat study oF the whole human condition past present and Future biologically sociaiiy linguistically and culturally Comparative must compare dilof erent cultures Two research strategies I m emphasis on iocai39s perspective categories explanation I emphasis on ethnographer39s perspective categories explanations Cuiture that complex whole which includes knowledge belief art morais iaws custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member oF society Tyior I87 Primitive Culture I Keyword quotacquiredquot culture is not inherited Ethnocentric I The tendency to judge the customs oF other societies by the standards oF one39s own I Tends to lead to the belieC that one39s own culture is superior and all others are interior or that a cultural practice is wrong or immorai Cuiturai Reiativism I The ability to view the beliefs and customs oF others within the context oF their culture rather than one39s own I Seeking an emic rather than etic perspective Four Subfieids I Biological Physical 39 The systematic study oF humans past and present as biological organisms Haviiand 2005 Primatoiogy the biology evolution behavior and social life oF monkeys apes and other primates Paieoanthropoiogy growth and development Human biology plasticity the body39s ability to change as it copes with stresses such as heat cold and altitude Forensics human genetics Can39t divorce culture From their study 39 Page 16 I Archaeology 39 The study oFmostiy eariier cultures and life ways through the scientific recovery analysis and interpretation oFquotartiFactsquot the material remains oF past societies garboiogy I Linguistic cognitive 39 The study oF language in its social and cultural context across space and over time 39 How people understand and organize the material objects events and experiences that make up their world as they perceive it 39 Language is how people learn From each other I Cultural 39 The study oF customary patterns in human behavior thought and Feeling 39 Ethnology examines interprets analyzes and compares the results oF ethnography 39 Ethnography provides an account oFa particular community society or culture 39 Not static Specializations I Urban I Traditionally a sociological Field but recently has expanded to anthropology I Medical I Overlaps with biological anthropology I studies relationship between culture and disease I Economic I Global economics I Subsistence distribution oF goods and services risk assessment I Environmentalecological I More popular than urban I Study oFinteraction between people and their environment I Climate change studying community resiliency against quotclimate changequot I Conservation I Applied Anthropology 39 The application oF anthropological data perspectives theory and methods to identiFy assess and solve contemporary social and environmental problems 39 3 gorges dam Chinese government tries to quotmodernizequot its people and build a dam and moved Farmers up to preFab housing and tensions broke Ethnography and Ethnology 0 Ethnography the technique oF learning about culture through direct participation in everyday liFe For an extended period oF time I Participant observation one observes and participates in the goings on oF the culture around them I Always observing quoteverything is dataquot I Fieldwork 39 A strategy and set oF methods For the depth long term investigation oFa particular culture or community Small sample size quotdepth over breadthquot I InFormants 39 Branislaw Malinowski 1884 1942 I The Father oF ethnography I Went to the Trobriand Islands I Pioneer oF participant observation I The Argonauts oF the West Pacific reinvented Anthropology I Polish citizen in Papua New Guinea during WWII and allies allowed him to stay there I DiiTerence between sociology and anthropology sociology has a lot more people to study 0 Ethnology the study oF general patterns and rules oF social behavior through the comparison oF ethnographic data I Methods 39 Field notes 39 Census taking 39 Genealogical data 39 Interviews I Informal to Formal unstructured semi structured and structured I Key informants or quotkey cultural consultantsquot I Life histories I Focal Follows Follow someone and watch what they do I Going to the field 39 Prior to departure I Research proposal I Language training I Get Funding I Social networking I IRB I Permissionsvisas I Buy stuiT Travel Freakout Establish rapport Obtain informed consent Collect data Return home Analyze data Write uppublish I Methodological Issues 39 Sampling 39 Qualitative vs quantitative data and data analysis 39 Ethics informed consent I Ethnography Then and Now 39 Holistic salvage ethnography vs directed problem oriented ethnography 39 The ethnographic present vs the world system 39 Multi sited ethnography Archaeological Methods 0 Material remains From older civilizations 0 Artifacts portable objects rthat have been made or modified by humans 0 EcoFacts plant and animal remains that were used by humans but not modified I Learn From the surroundings oF the community as too how they lived 0 Features non portable evidence oF human activity 0 NAGPRA native American graves protection and repatriation act 1990 I Native Americans have rights to the remains oF ancestors and sacred objects I Repatriation oF human remains and sacred objects I Kennewick Man somebody in 1997 Found a body near a river I Indian groups 5 tribes claimed they were descended From him I Some scientists wanted to keep the dude I Went to the court oF appeals as oF 2004 none oF the five tribes could prove that they had direct descendency From him 0 Archaeologists I Study people by looking at what they leFt behind I They look at artifacts ecoFacts Features I Not dinosaurs unmodified rocks or treasure I Archaeological investigation 39 Research design 39 Survey I Shovel testing is what it sounds like there39s a grid that you map out and dig I Dig and screen Dahlonega I Map out and dig I Can find physical evidence 39 Excavation I Systematic meticulous I Dig down siFt through it repeat 39 Analysis I Figure out whowhere it came From what it was used For etc documentation I Cleaning I Sort into categories I General types I Use types I Dating I Stratigraphv and the law oF superposition relative I Four strata layers I Top strata layer is younger I Seriation relative I People in same region did stu similarly so iFyou find two arrowheads in di erent places that look similar they39re probably From the same era I Dendrochronology absolute see page 57 I Tree ring dating I Up to 11000 years I Oldest known specimen is 4800 years old I Can learn about climate I C I carbon datin absolute Organic materials We know the radioactive decay oF C l4 Decay starts at death so by seeing how much has decayed we can relate it to halFliFe oF C l4 Up to 40000 years Culture 0 Learned and shared experiences I We are not born with culture learned through 39 Enculturation through processes oF learning From birth has to do mostly with Family subconscious 39 Acculturation cognitively learning later stages oFliFe I Shared through language media Inherited information Shared quotsuper organicquot I Culture is shared its more than any one person group oF people are a body 0 Symbolic I Through the use oFlanguage culture uses symbols to give meaning to O O cultural attributes I Some symbols look similar but mean totally difl erent things ex Swastika I Can be arbitrary O Signifies normal behavior I Since society does it its normal 0 Dynamic constantly remade I Social process doesn39t exist in a vacuum I Constantly remade within or sometimes outside oFa culture 0 Adaptive or maladaptive I Inuit in north pole 39 Their culture adapts to how they must survive I Something culture has pushed on us that we are not adapted to 39 toilets 0 Perception classification I How di erent cultures perceive things 39 Eating dogs 0 What happens iFyou39re not enculturated I The unenculturated girl 39 Genie abusive Family overly protective Father blind mother 39 Only contact was with parents when they put Food in her cage 39 Could not speak 39 Her mother was also abused 39 Her and mom escaped 39 Couldn39t di erentiate between colors 39 Couldn39t process what she saw 39 Saw others as objects 39 Could only say one word quotstoppitquot 39 Could never learn grammar 39 No such thing as personal boundaries 39 Cannot interact like a normal human 39 Southern California Language and Communication Language system oF communication in symbols oFinFormation We are biocultural beings we are created with the specific ability to speak Language is both verbal and nonverbal Linguistics I Structural linguistics 39 Mechanics oFlanguage 39 Relationship between language and cognition 39 Study oF structure and use oF language I Phoneme smallest unit oF sound that conveys meaning I Ie cat vs bat the letter c is what makes cat mean a cat 000 I Morpheme smallest unit oF sound that contains meaning I Lexicon meta vocabulary oFa language constantly growing I Syntax arrangement or order onords I Grammar body oF rules a language is subject to 39 What makes human language unique I Productivity the ability to produce or create new words in a way that oF speakers immediately understand I Displacement the ability For humans to talk about things not present I Syntax I Grammar Language and culture Sapir WhorF Hypothesis I Languageexpression oF cultural categories I Language constrains thought and culture I Language produces dilof erent ways oF thinking I Backlash I What about science fiction I Culture and thought also influence language I ie Hopi have no word For time I Our idea oF time is linear I Hopi time is cyclical no di erentiation between past present or Future 39 Language acquisition I EnvironmentistsEthnography oF language I Language as a complex social process I Grammar and syntax are arbitrary culturally specifically I Innatists grammar is genetically programmed biological process Chomsky I Universal grammar grammar and syntax are geneticcognitive I Critical period Language Acquisition Device I Sociolinguistics 39 Connections between language social behavior and social relationships I Historical linguistics 39 Comparison oF di erent language and their historical roots Religion 0 What is it I The quest to find control over the uncontrollable I Beliefs and rituals concerned with supernatural beings powers and Forces I Religion is a cultural universal something all cultural groups have in common 0 Origins I 230000 100000 years ago I Neanderthals bury their dead I Emergence oF art 0 Functions I Explain the mysterious I Cope with anxietyuncertainty I Social cohesionrevitalization I Sociai control Animism O I Belief that nature is enlivened or energized by distinct personalized spirit beings I Spirits can be beneficial malevolent or mischievous I Foraging societies and horticulturaiists I Tyior believed that animism was the first step in religion and Christianity was the endpoint 0 Mana I Belief in imminent supernatural domain or life Force potentially subject to human manipulation Magic 0 I Supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims I Sympathetic imitative ex basketball players39 rituals at Free throw line voo doo doiis I Contagious using hair fingernails whatever to help with magic 0 Rituai I Formai sociai acts performed in a sacred context 39 Convey information about cuiture oF participants and hence participants themselves commitment I Rites oF Passage Inherentiy social and participation in them necessarily implies sociai Rituals that mark and Facilitate a person39s movement From one sociai state oF being to another Vision quest I Black Elk O Totemism I In totemic societies each descent group or cian has an animal plant or geographical Feature From which they claim decent O Linkages religion and economy I An39msa non violence to all beings especially animals Hindu 39 Marvin Harris said that one oFthe reasons that Hindus don39t eat cows is because they39re poor and they need the cows to work I Protestantism and rise oF capitalism 39 Max Faber socioiogist linked the two Said protestants viewed Catholics as lazy Beginnings oF Catholicism are similar to beginnings oF capitalism Work hard be independent Social Control I The power oFreiigion afFects action 0 I Religion can be used to mobilize large segments oF society through systems oF real and perceived rewards and punishments I Ex Taliban39s control over large portions oF the Middle East 0 Religion types I Shamanic Foraging societies Part time specialists Accumulation oF powers through ritual events and experiences Seek to compel spirits to act on one39s belieF Foragers I Communal agricultural societies Have shamans community rituals multiple natural gods more characteristic oFFood producers I Olympianpolytheism states Appeared with states have Full time religious specialists and have potent anthropomorphic gods who may exist as a pantheon I Monotheistic states Have attributes oF Olympian religions except pantheon oF gods subsumed under a single eternal omniscient omnipotent and omnipresent being Race Identity Ethnicity 0 Identity I Or how people classify themselves and others I Forms Ethnicity nationality religion class social status Kinship occupation gender I Identity is uid I Ascribed and achieved identities I Male 0 Azande oF Sudan shifting gender identity pg 330 331 Baby less than human Boy Boy bride warrior o ers compensation For taking the boy to apprentice and have sex with the warrior and do quotwoman39s workquot Warrior most prestigious role Adult man Elder man Race and Ethnicity I On what basis do we tend to classify people into races I Is this an appropriate way For understanding human variation I Ethnic group a group distinguished by cultural similarities and di erences ethnic group members share beliefs customs and norms and often language religion history geography and kinship I Ethnicity Identification with and Feeling part oF an ethnic group and exclusion From certain groups because oF that amliation I Race an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis I Racism discrimination against an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis I Understanding human biological diversityvariation ANTH 1102 Exam I Review guide Geoff Kelley Spring 2011 Test format includes mostly multiple choice with some TF and is worth 31 of your total course grade 62 questions 5 pts each If you can ID each of these terms concepts etc you ll do well Remember the text and videos may be tested as well NOTE Not all of this will be tested but you don t know what willwon t Ifyou know all of this you ll do very well It s possible that items on the exam are not included here this is not my intention just a disclaimer Good luck gk Anthropology De nedgstudy of all things human the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors 4 sub elds of ANTH and what they each do 1 39 quot 39 quot l 39 39 39 r quot l the study of human society and culture describes analyzes interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and differences 2 Archaeological anthropologyicultural resource management CRM reconstructs describes and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains 3 Biological or physical anthropologyiForensic anthropology human biological diversity in time and space ie human genetics growth and development evolution and behav1or 4 Linguistic anthropologyistudy of linguistic diversity in classrooms studies language in its social and cultural context across space and over time Applied Anthropologyithe application of anthropological data perspectives theory and methods to identify assess and solve contemporary social and environmental problems CRM cultural resource managementideciding what needs saving and to preserve signi cant information about the past when sites cannot be save Bioculturalithe inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural perspectives and approaches to comment on or solve a particular issue of pro em Holistic Anthropologyi studies the whole human condition past present and future biology society language and culture Comparative Anthropologyiexamines all societies ancient and modern simple and complex I Marriage in Tibet vs marriage in parts of sub Saharan Africa Malinowski Trobriand Islands 7 18841942 the father of ethnography Etic vs Emic I Emiciapproach that investigates how local people think I Eticiapproach that shifts focus from local observations categories explanations and interpretations to those of the anthropologist Ethnographic eldwork and methods De nedia strategy and set of methods for the in depth longterm investigation of a particular culture or community depth over breadth 7 small sample size Participant observation Ethnographic methods I Interviews structured semistructured Field Notes Census taking Genealogies Key informants Life histories I Going to the eld I Ethics of conducting eld work informed consent I Sampling Ar ch aeol o gy de ned Archaeological methods 0 Survey 0 Excavation 0 Analysis Artifact Ecofact Feature NAGPRA Kennewick Man Dating techniques Relative vs absolute dating know examples Culture De neditraditions and customs transmitted through learning that form and guide the beliefs and behaviors of the people exposed to Characteristics of Culture ie its primary attributes I Leame I Symbolic I Shared I AllEncompassing I Integrated Adaptive and maladaptive Genie Enculturationithe process by which a child learns his or her culture Acculturationia second mechanism of cultural change the exchange of cultural features that results when groups have continuous rsthand contact Cultural relativismithe viewpoint that behavior in one culture should no be judged by the standards of another culture I Human rights I Cultural rights Ethnocentrismithe tendency to view one s own culture as superior and to apply one s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other cultures Ethnographyi the technique of learning about a culture through direct participation in everyday life for an extended period of time the data gathered in different societies Ethnologyithe study of general patterns and rules of social behavior through the comparison of ethnographic data examines interprets analyzes and compares the results of ethnography Cultural universalifeatures found in every cultural I Biologically based long period of infant dependency yearround rather than seasonal sexuality and a complex brain that enables us to use languages symbols and tools Linguistics Communication Italian hand gestures ilanguage spoken and written primary forms of communication nonverbal communication What makes human language unique I Productivity I Displacement I Syntax I Grammar Structuralimechanics relationship between language communication cognition Phonemeithe smallest unit of sound that make a difference in meanin I For example 39b39 at or 39c at where b and c are the respective phonemes as they when combined w at make different meanings One is a small ying mammal or wooden club used in our national sport the other a small terrestrial animal So b is a phoneme in the word quotbatquot above Morphemeithe smallest unit of sound that itself has meaning I 39Boy is a morpheme containing the phoneme of 39b39 b on its own has no meaning so alone it s not a morpheme Grammarientire formal structure of a language Syntaxithe arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences Lexiconia dictionary containing all its morphemes and their meanings SapirWhorf hypothesisidifferent languages produce different ways of thinking language is the expression of cultural categories without a word we cannot conceive a concept I English vs Hopi I Critiques of SapirWhorf I Hopi concept of timeidistinguishes between events that exist or don t yet and those that don t or don t yet Language acquisition Ethnography of language I Language as a complex social process I Grammar and sytax are arbitrary culturally speci c Language acquisition deviceicritical perio I Innatistsigrammar is genetically programmed biological process Chomsky I Universal grammar grammar and syntax are geneticcognitivegdoes not exist Koko Lucy Washoei I Washoeifirst chimpanzee to learn SAL Lucyisecond chimp to learn ASL 0 Both exhibited several human traits swearing joking telling lies and trying to teach language to others I Kokoigorilla with the capacity for displacement and productivity learned ASL Language as symbol Linguistic relativity Displacementiabsent in call systems the ability to communicate about things that are not present Productivityiusing the rules of respective languages to create new expressions that are comprehensible to other native speakers I Apesmonkeys Ring nger bracelet Cultural transmission40f a communication system through learning is a fundamental attribute of Ian Pidgin and Creole languages Religion Religion de nedibelief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings powers and forces a cultural universal Characteristics and functions of religioni I Explain the mysterious I Cope with anxiety and uncertainty I Social cohesionrevitalization I Social control Neanderthal as earliest evidenceiburied their dead emergence of art Animismibelief that nature is enlivened or energized by distinct personalized spirit beings foraging societies and horticulturalists Manaibelief in immanent supernatural domain or lifeforce potentially subject to human manipulation Magici I Sympathetic imitative magicimagicians voodoo I Contagious magiciwhatever is done to an object is believed to affect a person who once had contact with it Ritualsiforma behavior stylized repetitive and stereotyped performed in special sacred places and at set times include liturgical orders sequences of words and actions invented prior to the current performance of the ritual in which they occur Rite of passagegcustoms associated with the transition from one place or stage in life to another Black ElkVision quest Totemismiuses nature as a model for society totems could be animals plants or geographical features are sacred emblems symbolizing common identity Uga religion Totem Ahimsa Religion as adaptive think religion and economy ie sacred cow Shamaniparttime practitionersreligious gures who mediate between people and supernatural beings and forces general term encompassing curers with doctors mediums spiritualists astrologers palm readers and other diviners Four general types of religion including what type of society you d nd each Type of Religion Type of Practitioner Conception of Supernatural Type of Society Monotheistic Priests ministers etc Supreme Being States Olympian Priesthood Hierarchical Chiefdoms and Pantheon with archaic states powerful deities Communal Parttime specialists Several deities with some Foodproducing Occasional control over nature tribes communitysponsored events including collective rites Shamanic Shaman parttime Zoomorphic plants and Foraging bands practitioner animals Race ID Ethnicity Shifting gender Azande Gender vs Sex I Sexibiological I Genderi uid cultural social Ethnicityiidenti cation with and feeling part of an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation Ethnic groupithe collective of members who share certain beliefs values habits customs and norms because of their common backgroun Raceiwhen an ethnic group is assumed to have a biological basis distinctively shared blood or genes Racismidiscrimination against a race Approaches to the study of human diversity AAA statement on Race ANTH Section 2 Genetics and Evolution 0 Phenotype physiological expression oF genetic makeup 0 Diversity comes From I Genes I Culture I Environment 0 Genetics I M a unit oFinheritance I Genetics the science of heredity and variation I Genotype an organism39s hereditary makeup M a particular biochemical Form oFa gene Genes have multiple alleles 39 Can be either dominant or recessive Gregor Mendel monk in Austria 39 Conducted genetic experiments on pea plants I Most peas spherical but some were dented I To explain this occurrence he took the seeds oFa rounded pea plant and a dented pea plant and put bred them I All peas in F generation were rounded peas I He then took the original dented pea plant and the plant and made the F2 generation I 3 oF the o spring were spherical one was dented 39 Mid 1800s contemporary oF Charles Darwin Law oF Segregation alternative versions oF genes account For variations in inherited characteristics For each characteristic an organism inherits Z alleles one From each parent One oF the two alleles may be dominant over the other with it alone being expressed The two alleles For each characteristic segregate during gamete production Law oFIndependent Assortment the inheritance pattern oF one trait will not afiect the inheritance pattern oF another trait Phenotype the observed characteristic oF an organism 39 Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive capacity I Phenotypic plasticity there39s a gradient within a gene that one can change within the limits of depending on culture and environment Theog oF Evolution set oFideas and Facts put together in order to explain something namely evolution 39 Separate than the Fact oF evolution 39 Not a Force unto itself just a statistical reality 39 Origin oF the Theog I Creationism James Usher all biological diversity and variation originated during a single creation event I Catastrophism William Buckland Sudden short and violent events throughout the earth39s history caused mass extinctions and changes to earth39s ecosystems I Creationism that happens in cycles I TransFormationism Lyell aka gradualism or transmutation species change over time the processes we observe now are the same that occurred in the past law of UniFonnita anism I Robert Chambers evolutionary tree I Charles Darwin 1809 1882 naturalist I On the Origin of Species I Went on the voyage oF the SS Beagle For 5 years and observed animals the whole time I Galapagos Islands I Found Four birds he thought were unique species I He captured them and brought them back to England to and ornithologist I Ornithologist told him they were oF the same genus I Darwinism I Artificial Selection dog breeds corn breeds selected and gene pool is narrowed to create a consistent end result I Natural Selection whatever is strongest lives adaptive requires variation I What his theory says I Species have more olTspring that can grow to adulthood I Populations remain roughly the same size over time I Food resources are limited but stable over time I There is a struggle For existence I No two sexually reproducing individuals are identical I Variation can directly impact the ability oFa species to survive I Variation is inheritable I Death to the maladaptive Survival oF the adaptive I Individuals who survive long enough to reproduce will spread their traits to the Future generations I Biological change is a slow process that leads to new varieties and ultimately to new species I The Modern Synthesis and the Four Forces oF micro evolution I Mutation I The only source oF new genetic material I Completely random I Gene Flow I Genetic material moves From one population to a diPFerent population I Genetic Drift I Drift oF genetic material out oF the population I Material is lost I Natural Selection I Charles Darwin I Not random adaptive I Operates at the population level because populations exits over huge areas with diiTerent environments I Sexual Selection I Works at population level I Microevolution versus Macroevolution I Microevolution evolution within a species I Macroevolution evolution oF all animalsliving organisms I Genetic flowmutation I Sickle cell anemia and malaria I People living in high malaria areas have heterozygous sickled cells one sickle cell gene one non sickle cell geneto combat malaria I Population part oFa subspecies that is isolated From other sections oF the species Primates 0 Two suborders in Primate Order Anthropoids and Prosimians 0 Prosimians old world I Lemurs only in Madagascar nocturnal Tarsiers SE Asia nocturna Bushbabies Tanzania Loris tropical Asia nocturnal I Aye Aye Madagascar Anthropoids apes humans etc All mammals All have stereoscopic vision depth perception Many have color vision Place greater emphasis on eyesight than scent Opposable thumbs Prehensile tails new world monkeys Nails instead oF claws OOOOOOOOO Require a long period oF social development highly cooperative long period oF childhood development Typically one child Very large brains DiiTerence between humans and the rest 0 O I Longer period oF childhood development I Females have concealed estrus I Women ovulate year round I Generally monogamous I Maintain life long bonds with o spring I Sophisticated tool use math physics etc Early Hominins 0 Human characteristics compared to primates I Bipedalism I Brains skulls childhood dependency I Change in dentition and palate shape I General reduction in sexual dimorphism I Rise in took use and importance I slide 5 I MORE 0 Genus Austraopithecus I All in Africa I Gracile 39 No sagittal crest 39 A anamensis 42 39 mya I East Africa Lake Turkana Kenya I Few Fossils recovered Fewer intact I Bipedal I Relatively large canines but much smaller than quotapesquot molars w thick enamel I Still no Fully parabolic dental arch 39 A aFarensis 37 3 mya I Lucy I East Africa Hadar Ethiopia Laetoli Tanzania Bipedal AND arboreal Large pointed canines similar to apes w large molars For chewing Extreme sexual dimorphism Earliest tool use From UGA professor 34 mya I Laetoli Footprints prooF oF bipedality as Far back as aFarensis 39 A africanus 3 2 mya I South perhaps E Africa I Less quotapequot like I More quothumanquot like dentition I Meat scavengers and veggies I A garhi variant or new spelling primitive tools I Robust 39 Sagittal crest 39 Evolutionary dead end 39 A aethiopicus 25 mya 39 A robustus 2 14 mya I Face is becoming atter I Massive teeth thick enamei I Large sagittai crest I Larger brain 540 CC 39 A Boisei 2 14 mya I Tanzania I quothyper robustquot I Large grinding teeth with thick enamei 0 Savanna hypothesis I Selective pressures 39 Easier to see long distances 39 More emcient at thermal reguiation 39 More emcient to cover ionger distances 39 Frees the hands to carry Foodmake tools 0 Rethinking the Savanna hypothesis I Bipedaiism evolved in Forested environments Ardi andor mixed Forest savanna matrix Lucy I Bipedaiism predates increased brain 0 Brains Skulls and Childhood development Skills 0 Paiate Shape Comparison I Loss oF canine between us and gorillas Later Hominins 0 Bipedaiism reviewed I Anatomy last time Foramen magnum pelvis Femur I Feet strong heel arched I Spine curved I Birth canai gtbeginnings oF social life 0 Genus homo I Homo habiis 2 17 mya 39 Still in Africa 39 Larger brain 39 Relatively graciie prominent brow ridge 39 Generalized teeth 39 Oidowan tool tradition stone tools are being made regularly quotmonumental in our cognitive evolutionquot 39 Scavenging I More meat may explain increased brain size I Homo erectus 18 mya 40 kya 39 Africa Asia South Eastern Europe 39 Large brain lower end oF modern normal 39 Thick sku prominent brow ridge very muscular relatively at chiniess Face Very adaptive generalist I Not a specialist Acheulian tool tradition hand axe Fire 700 kya Beginnings of spoken language potentially Increased social cooperation large game hunting 39 Meat is more important to diet 39 More abstract thought I Homo sapiens neanderthais 130 28 kya 39 Europe Middle East North Africa 39 Very large brains same size if not larger than ours 39 Robust skeleton jaw and teeth 39 Cold adapted I Homo sapiens sapiens x kya now Tools 0 Concoidal Fracture fractures on rocks that when broken are really sharp 0 Soft hammer percussion brittle materials will often yield to something that is softer yet sturdier 0 Projectile point arrow tip not yet on an arrow lnupiat Eskimos of Barrow Alaska Modern hunter gatherers O Subsistence food economy underpins their society Whaling acting as a socially binding force Subsistence as vital to the emotional well being of the communi OOOO Subsistence economy embodies traditional values and beliefs substantiating lnupiat identity I 30 year old male whaler 39 quotOur identity is usually brought on by what we do and what we hunt and it is part of our identity to go hunt caribou walrus seal whales go pick our berries It tells the world who we are and that we like to live here and this is what we live onquot 0 Even so they still have grocery stores Origins of Agriculture and the Neolithic Revolution 0 The first farmers I quotAgriculture was not simply a way of getting food satisfying on basic human need it shaped and regulated every element of culture affecting plant and animal ecosystems settlement patterns family relations mating choices systems of governance and much else agriculture was a superb demonstration that humans could control nature or believe they couldquot 0 Domestication I The process by which humans gain control over the reproduction oF certain plants and animals Domestication involves modifying the genetic makeup oF those species through selective breeding and ordering environment in such a way as to Favor those species Dogs were the first domesticated animals When and where did Food production emerge and begin to take the place oF hunting and gathering I How and why did the change occur I What were the consequences oF domesticating plants and animals 0 l0000 IZ000 years ago occurring in di erent locations around the world 0 quotNew stone agequot 0 Independent Invention 7 global regions pg 175 I When and where table in book I Middle East I South China I North China I Sub Saharan AFrica I Centrai Mexico I South Central Andes Beginnings oF Sedentism How and Why I Environmentai change I Rich local environment I Sedentary Foragers Natufians O I Population growth and environmental change Domestication in the Fertile Crescent 0 Continued climate change becomes drier I People living in less abundant iocai environments I Experiments with adaptive strategies I Attempt to copy natural abundance I Selection For adaptive properties I Availability oF domesticabie species 0 Domestication in the Fertile Crescent consequences I Genetic modification I Population growth I Spreading oFFamiiies to new zones I Development of irrigation I Economic specialization and social stratification I Development of chieFdoms and states 0 Domestication in the New World I Animals ama dogs turkeys aipacas guinea pigs I Caioric stapie crop corn potatoes manioc I Other crops beans squash gooseFoot I Mexico 39 Transition From nomadic Foraging to the beginnings oF sedentism Anthropology 1102 Test 1 ANTHROPOLOGY Defined o The study of everything human through space and time o Digging up dinosaurs is not anthropology 4 subfields of ANTH and what they each do 0 CulturalThe study of customary patterns in human behavior thought and feelings I Not static it is constantly changing o Archaeology The study of mostly earlier cultures and lifeways through the scientific recovery analysis and interpretations of quotartifactsquot the material remains of past societies 0 They studytrash what others have left behind o quotgarbologyquot the study of trash 0 Linguistics The study of language in its social and cultural context across space and over time o How people understand and organize the material objects events and experiences that make up their world as they perceive it 0 Biological Evolution I They study chimps because we have a common ancestor quotThe systematic study of humans past and present as biological organismsquot including primatology Four subdisciplines Primatology biology evolution and social behavior of primates o Apes are our closest living link Paleonanthropology study human evolution study remains and fossils Human biology study genetic structure 0 For n i 39 39 39 quot 39 39 39 and analysis of human skeletal remains Applied ANTH The application of anthropology data perspectives theory and methods to identify assess and solve contemporary social and environmental problems 0 Becoming more common some think it should be a 5m subdiscipline 0 Any of the 4 subfields can be applied CRM cultural resource management Organization that decides what needs saving and to preserve significant information about the past when sites cannot be saved I Allow destruction if they are not significant Biocultural Referring to the inclusion and combination to solve a common problem of both biological and cultural approaches one of anthropology39s hallmarks Holistic and comparative ANTH 0 Holistic biocultural Interested in the whole of the human condition past present and future biology society language and culture 0 Example need to eat food etc 0 We choose different types of food based on our culture upbringing McDonalds versus EarthFare Must study environment beliefs etc to understand 0 Comparative I Examines all societies ancient and modern simple and complex 0 Example Is marriage universal MalinowskiTrobriand Islands Etic vs Emic o Emic insider39s prospective Emphasis on ethnographer39s perspective categories explanation outsidersscientists perspective 0 Etic outsider39s prospective Emphasis on local39s perspective categories explanation insiderslocal persons perspective I Anthropologists seekthe etic perspective but no matter what are biased ETHNOGRAPHIC FIELDWORK AND METHODS Participant observation 0 A characteristic ethnographic technique taking part in the events one is observing describing and analyzing Interviews structuralsemistructured o Informal to formal unstructured semistructure structured I Informal small talktalking to man at the bus stop I Formal setting up an interview for a specific time and place I When constructing an interview Think about the wording and how it sounds in the local language You don39t want certain questions to biasthe answers Field Notes 0 Take multiple note books of different colors Use each colored notebook for different groups of people Census taking 0 Beneficial to get an understanding of what the population looks like I Male to female ratio I Population distribution age of population I Typical standard of living I How many people have been to school and how far Genealogies 0 Procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship descent and marriage using diagrams and symbols 0 Who is related to whom and what is their kinship 0 Does relation pass through mother39s line or father39s line I Everything is data Gossip in the town square can be data See who get along with whom Key informants 0 quotKey cultural consultantsquot informants are people you talk to I People that you gain a relationship with that know the local population and can help you get introduced to other informants They can showthe local population that you are of no threat and can be trusted Life histories of informants research question dictates whether you need it quotGoing to the fieldquot prior to departure 0 Research proposalpreliminary research I What is it that you want to research and set up a research proposal draft I Refine research question prior 0 Language training I May be different dialects and language may need to hire a translator 0 Get funding 0 Social networking onsite contacts I Starts networking with local people before you even get there Inform them what you want to study and how it can benefit their community I Email someone or do pilot project go for a short amount of time and introduce yourself Actually quotgoing to the fieldquot 0 Travel 0 Freak out 0 Establish report I It takesa longtime to establishtrust 0 Obtain informed consent to be interviewed I You must tell each person who you are why you are there what you expect from them they have the right to refuse to answer questions and terminate the interview at any time I Let them know your intent and their rights 0 Collect data I Do they do as they saythey do 0 Return home 0 Analyze data 0 Write uppublish and deliverfindings to informants meaningless if you don39t deliverfindings to informants Ethnographic Fieldwork o A strategy and set of methodsforthe indepth longterm investigation of a particular culture or community 0 Small sample size 39depth over breadth39 want to get as much info from people as possible from a small populationsample Get very intimate I Breadth is a sociologist tool difference between sociology and anthropology is methodology I It is hard to get the trust and see if they do what they say they do 0 Ethics of conducting field work informed consent 0 Sampling a manageable study group can make inferences about a larger group 0 Random sample all members of the population have an equal statistical chance of being chosen for inclusion Branislaw Malinowski 18841942Polish the father of ethnography 0 Participant observation participating in the daily activities of a group of people cooking celebrating etc gained an emic perspective I Observe and participate o Wrote the quotArgonauts of the Western Pacificquot I Stayed 3 years stranded I Disagreed with traditional racist beliefs 0 Born in Trobriand Island during WWI 0 First to write about the methods merits not really first to do it ARCHAEOLOGY Definition the branch of anthropology that reconstructs describes and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains best known forthe study of prehistory Also known as quotarchaeologyquot Archaeological methods 0 Su rvey o Excavation 0 Analysis Artifact Portable objects that have been made or modified by humans small tools I Example Pottery finishing tools artwork spears stones Ecofacts Plant and animal remainsthat were used by humans but not modified 0 Examples pollen learn about environmentclimate bones Features Nonportable evidence of human activities 0 Examples walls hearths trenches post holes etc NAGPRA Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act 1990 0 Native Americans have rights to the remains of ancestors and sacred objects 0 Repatriation returnto give back of human remains and sacred objects to the ethnic group to which they belong 0 Law unique to the US 0 The Native Americans need to prove they lived where person was found at time they were alive 0 Kennewick Man found in 1996 soon after law was enacted on the banks ofthe Columbia River Five tribes claimed to inhabit an area at the same time as the Kinnewick man None were able to prove this The case is still unsettled Datingtechniques Relative vs absolute dating know examples 0 Relative Dating I Strategically all from the same root and the law of super positioning artifact closest to surface is the youngest Deepestoldest I Seriation Documents fadspatterns fads change through time 0 Absolute Dating I Dendrochronology Tree ring dating 0 Date up to 11000 years 0 Most trees grow a ring every year can count determine its age before death 0 Line up rings to other rings of that species to go back up to 11000 years 0 You can also use tree rings to determine climate changes morethicker rings more water present during time of formation 0 Was there a drought 0 Can use to help understand the collapse ofthe MAYANS I C14 dating Radio Carbon Dating Organiclivingmaterials Radioactive decay to C14 0 We all store the same portion of C14 0 At death C14 decays at a known rate emits nitrogen Decays starts at death 0 Date up to 40 000 years 0 Half life of carbon 5 7000 years so when half of carbon is present a halflife has gone by CULTURE Defined traditions and customsthat govern behavior and beliefs distinctly human transmitted through learning 0 Characteristics of Culture ie its primary attributes o Inherited information Share Superorganic TV parents Symbolic linguistic flags holy water Signifies what is normal behavior how we perceive things Dynamic constantly remade Adaptive or maladaptive may benefit some people while depletes resources needed for society at large 0 Perception classification core values distinguish it from others OOOOO Genie A scientifictragedy 70s 0 Lived in complete isolation for the first 1314 years of her life 0 Raised in a suburb of Los Angeles Herfather Clark was an unsuitable father and her mother Irene was 95 blind o Genie was strapped to a toilet by day straightjacketed by night minimal human contact only to be fed fed rapidly mostly baby food and boiled eggs She was beaten if she attempted to speak She had no human interaction or noise I Mother was beaten if she tried to speakto her 0 Genie and her mother left herfather Genie had never been outside before Social services discovered them and thought that she was 6 years old and autistic she was 14 years old and weighed 56 pounds 0 She lacked self control and had two complete sets of teeth because she ate all soft foods She lacked culture She had no stimulation of any kind She was afraid of dogs She had no concept of hotcold color no integration of senses She could not quotseequot things without touchingthem She had no personal boundaries She saw people as objects and never earned to communicate never learned rules of syntax 0 She missed a crucial developmental processing period in her life Enculturation o The social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations Page 23 AcculturationThe exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered but the groups remain distinct Page 39 Cultural relativismThe position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect Anthropology is characterized by methodological ratherthan moral relativism n orderto understand another culture fully anthropologists try to understand its members39 beliefs and motivations Methodological relativism does not preclude making moraljudgments ortaking action Page 37 Ethnocentrism The tendency to view one39s own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one39s own standards Page 37 Ethnography The technique of learning about a culture through direct participation in everyday life for an extended period of time Ethnology The study of general patterns and rules of social behavior through the comparison of ethnographic data 0 Do not even need to go to the field Cultural universal Somethingthat all cultural groups have in common 0 Example religion and language Adaptive or maladaptive 0 Adaptive do certain things for a reason LINGUISTICS Communication quotItalian hand gesturesquot o It isthrough language that we humans teach and learn from one another I Any cultural phenomenon is learned through language LanguageA system for the communication in symbols of any kind of information What make human language unique 0 Productivity ability to create and use new words I Exemplified by podcast 0 Example native women gesturing quotfinger braceletquot for a ring I Context is important for understanding new language can the person understand you 0 Displacement ability to talk about past or present or even future I Have abstract thoughts and put them into words 0 Grammar The entire formalized structure of language 0 Syntax Rules in which we use to orderarrange words to construct phrases or sentences MorphemeThe smallest unit of sound that carry meaning 0 C or B on its own carries no meaning phoneme o Bat or cat as a free morpheme carries meaning Phoneme Smallest unit of sound that can change the meaning of a word Lexicon Vocabulary in its whole ie words SapirWhorf hypothesis 0 Language expression of cultural categories I Language constrains thought and therefore culture o If you don39t have a word for something it doesn39t exist o If you can39t express it you can39t even think about it 0 He wanted to test his hypothesis so he went to the Hopi I He discovered that they do not distinguish between past and present in their language Whorf decided that they do not understand time and ofthe past I Others decided that they did understand time but they don39t look at it in a linear sense like we do past present future They have cyclical sense of language Their existence is dependent on the environment quotHopi concept oftimequot Language acquisition Environmentists vs nnatists o EnvironmentistsEthnographyoflanguage I cultural camp 0 Language as a complex social process 0 Grammar and syntax are arbitrary culturally specific 0 Limitation purely cultural and social Ethnography of language 0 Particular communities language and how they relate to it 0 Language as a complex social process 0 Grammar and syntax are arbitrary culturally specific 0 Vs o natist grammar is genetically programmed biological process Chomsky I Universal grammar grammar and syntax are geneticcognitive Language acquisition device 0 Critical period true Genie exemplified this I Need social interactions Koko Lucy Washoe o Koko I Understands 2000 words of spoken language I Born in captivity I Evidence of productivity in nonhuman primates chimps and gorillas gave words to ordinary things I Evidence of displacement in nonhuman primates Koko felt remorse for biting a cat I Examples of displacement argument and lies thought only humans can do it 0 But evidence that a chimp lied about defecating in his cage 0 Language as symbol 0 Different pronunciations symbolize where you are form 0 BEV Black English Vemacular a rule governed dialet of American English with roots in southern English BEV is spoken by African American youth and by many adults in their casual intimate speech sometimes called Ebonics Linguistic relativity o Daughter languages 0 Subgroups W RELIGION Definition belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings powers and forces 0 A 39cultural universal39 I Wetryto interpretthe universe 0 An organized system of ideas about spiritual reality orthe supernatural along with associated beliefs and ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and influence aspects ofthe universe otherwise beyond their control I Example superstitious habits give you a sense of control over the unknown like twirlingthe ball before shooting a free throw 0 Characteristics and functions of religion 0 Functions I Explain the mysterious I Cope with anxietyuncertainty I Social Cohesionrevitalization I Social control Neanderthal as earliest evidence 0 50000100000 years 0 Bury their dead 0 Emergence of art Animism belief that nature is enlivened or energized by distinct personalized spirit beings 0 Spirit can be beneficial malevolent or mischievous o Foraging societies and horticulturalists They are dependent on the environment Mana belief in immanent supernatural domain or lifeforce potentially subject to human manipulation 0 Can be inanimate object I Talisman cross rosary o Melanesian idea of Mana luck Magic supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims 0 Two types of magic I quotSympatheticquot imitative quotvoodoo dollsquot Used to influence the person the doll represents which represents the person you want to do good or harm to I quotContagiousquot Leave some physical aspect of the person or entity to which you want to do good or ill hair nails coin that was once possessed by the person Ritual formal social acts performed in sacred contexts 0 Sacred may not mean in a church 0 Convey information about culture or participants and hence participantsthemselves Inherently social and participation in them necessarily implies social commitment O 0 Example communion prayer baptism superstitious sports habits Rite of passage 0 Rituals that mark and facilitate person39s movement from one social state of being to another I Example hazing in fraternities for men to become brothers I Example Vision Quest 0 A right of passage Ceremony performed by young American Indian men Must go through a sweat lodge cleanse and other ritualistic acts maybe no water or food may have psychoactive drugs holy man off to holy mountain Understand your greater cosmos Seeking a vision idea that everything is connected 0 Black Elk o Described his visionexperience o Learned everything is connected Totemism In totemic societies each descent group clan has an animal plant or geographical feature from which 0 they claim descent 0 Example totem of sea eagle UGA UGA statuetotem Ahimsa Hindu belief in nonviolence to all living things Forbids the killing of animals the cow is sacred 0 Example India has a vegetarian McDonald39s 0 Some anthropologists argue that they do not kill cows because they need them fortheir economy milk use as a tractor Religion as adaptivethink religion and economy it 39sacred cow39 0 Four general 39types39 of religion including what type of society you39d find each 0 Shamanicforagingsocieties I Shaman Part time specialists female and male 0 Learn their craft Accumulation of powers through ritual events and experiences vision quests Seek to compel spirits to act on one39s behalf to cure an illness for example 0 Some people hire shamans to do ill on someone Foragers o Huntergatherers 0 Live in jungle forest surrounded by nature I For example live in Amazon 0 Communalagriculturalsocieties I Have shamans community rituals multiple nature gods polytheistic more characteristic of food producers farmers I They have communal activities praying for the harvest 0 OlympianPolytheismstates I Appeared with the states have fulltime religious specialists and have potent anthropomorphic gods who may exist as a pantheon hierarchy of gods exists ancient Greece Rome I Anthropomorphic personifying something human like 0 Monotheistic states I Have attributes of Olympian religions except pantheon of gods subsumed under a single eternal omniscient omnipotent and omnipresent being Christianity RACE ID ETHNICITY Azande ethnic group in the Sudan shifting gender identity 0 Example of how identity is dynamic o Identities I Baby lthuman Not born a warrior I Boy 0 Lives with warrior I Boy bride Learnsthe way ofthe warriors Warrior39s sex toy I Warrior 0 After some time takes on his own boy bride I Adult man 0 Take on female wife I Elder man 0 Identity is flexible and dynamic quotGenderquot vs quotSexquot 0 Sex Biologically determinedascribed anatomical you have a penis or vagina 0 Gender Culturally determine way you dress etc Marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals and temperament Ethnicity identification with and feeling part of an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other ethnic groups because of that affiliation 0 Or simply referto different cultural or ethnic groups bythe name they use forthemselves o On what basis do we tend to classify people into races I Skin colorphenotype I White or black o Is this an appropriate way for understanding human diversity I Racism What brought people into thinkingthat if you are not white you are inferior Ethnicity as an alternative to race 0 Simply refer to individuals of different cultural or ethnic groups by the names they use for themselves Ethnic group a group of distinguished by cultural similarities shared among members of that group and differences between that group and others ethnic group members share beliefs customs and norms and often a common language religion history geography and kinship o More appropriate than quotracequot 0 No ethnic group is alike they may share similarities but they are not clones of one another Race an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis 0 True to some degree but it is mainly a cultural construct that gives way to racism Racism discrimination against an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis 0 Example Hitler slave owners 0 Colonists declare the Natives innately genetically inferior I Not true 0 Every culture finds other cultures inferior to some degree 0 We are making strides today but racism still exists Ethnocentrism fear of anyone different from you cultural universal Approaches to the study of human diversity 0 Racism classification now largely abandoned o Explaining the adaptive significance of individual traits that exist across ethnic groups I Having suntanned skin is adaptive to a sunny environment AAA American Anthropological Association statement on race 0 94 of human genetic variation lies within socalled quotracialquot groups Only 6 of human genetic variation exists between so called quotracesquot 0 There is no biological basis for basis for classifying people according to race 0 Race is a powerful sociocultural construct that influences people39s identities and the way they interact with each other despite the fact that there is no biological basis for race Races are cultural not biological Cultural construct generally accepted and often unquestioned assumption ideas and mental frameworks that form the basis of thought belief and behavior in a particular culture or society Often arbitrary not empirically founded 0 Social manipulation used tojustify bad acts like slavery Deconstructionist arguments to explain race 0 HistoricalDeconstruction I Colonial agenda quotConstructivistquotformation of race Serves only to empower a group of people ANTH 7 Section 3 Video Disappearing WorId 0 Papa New Guinea I KaweIka tribe 39 OnIlta tribaI Ieader For 5 years I Trying to gather a giFt For a neighboring tribe moka the giFt Possiny the biggest moIlta ever given I OnIy by giving can he earn Fame For his tribe and himseIF I He must out do everyone else I Chastises his people For being lazy I Pongamist 4 wives 9 chiIdren I Pigs are most important I CasaIery coIorFuI bird used as a giFt in moIlta I RumbukuI Onka39s wife I quotLet39s Do it on the roadquot 39 Pigs represent wealth and social status not just For Food 39 Autonomous society I Perowa Papa New Guinea house oFassemny member and leader of the other tribe Pre capitaIist Political Systems 0 Evolution is muIti Iinear 0 Some dude thought Bands become tribes which become chieFdoms which become nation states I But this is uniIinear 0 There are still hunter gatherers and horticuIturaIists I In the Indian Ocean Amazon I Only because the government allows them to do what they want to do 0 Status I Achieved OnIlta must do something in order to get status I Ascribed born with the ability to control others 0 Three types oF Power I Economic 39 Control oF resource base I CapitaI I Spigot on irrigation canal I Ideological 39 Adena society I Priests have sociaI importance 39 Priests medicine men I MiIitary 39 Power to amass an army 0 Four IeveIs oFsociaI organization 39 Increased Sedentism 39 Increased population 39 Increase in 39 Increase in 39 Increase in 39 Increase in 39 Increase in sociaI stratification and compIexity intensity oFIand use sociaI coniIict environmentaI degradation chronic iIIness 39 San bushmen in Botswana I Band I The cIicIlty Ianguage tribe s Lowest Form oF hunter gatherer society No powers No sociaI stratification No racism No achieved status There are gender roIes menhunters EgaIitarian No cIasses Low popuIationpopuIation density Not sedentary LeveIing mechanism they want to keep the peace I InsuIting the meat 4 men go hunting one person IltiIIs something the IltiIIer acts extremer humbIe and modest so as not to draw attention to himseIF and put himseIF above the rest The originaI amuence exceptionaIIy rich because they39re heaIthier than we are they are egaIitarian not sick MarshaII SoIIins Tri bes Powers start to arise Basic means oF subsistence is horticuIture and pastoraIism Adena tribe I Ohio River vaIIey I HoticuIturaIists I Grew Amarin grain suniIower aIso hunter gatherers I Leaders were cIan priests ideoIogicaI power GeneraIIy no sociaI stratification Beginnings oF achieved status Onka Big Man man oF status in a tribe There39s usuaIIy one big man that is the generaI Ieader Semi sedentary to sedentary Natufians had a broad spectrum economy that aIIowed them to be sedentary Ano Mamo horticuIturaIists and hunter gatherers I ViIIage head organized raids and Feasts I LittIe economic power no ideoIogicaI power and IittIe miIitary power ChieFdoms 39 Ranked society in which relations among viIIagers and viIIages are unequaI Satellite chiefs that pay homage to centraI chieF StiII some IiorticuIture MostIy agriculture and pastoraIism Inherited titIe ascribed status Beginnings oF taxation tributes Natchez Louisiana and Mississippi I Three sociaI strata I The stinIlters commoners I The suns eIite I The Miko chief The Nation State 39 Socio poIiticaI organization based on a centraI government Division oF society into sociaI cIasses Gender raciaI economic stratification Aztecs I Intensified agriculture I Thousands oneopIe Iived in capitaI city I Aztec ruIers had high economic power I Power over resource base I Irrigation comes From agricuIture which is created From a Iarge population I High ideoIogicaI power Ascribed status MuItipIe cIans MuItipIe ethnicities Kinship and Marriage 0 Kinship How humans cIassiFy themselves and others An emic cIassification oFreIatedness May diiTer From genetic reIatedness IncIudes some bioIogicaI reIatives and fictive Idn non bioIogicaI reIations Determines membership in descent groups Kinship reckoning GeneangicaI Iltin types 39 M mother 39 F Father 39 Z sister I3 brother 39 S son D daughter H husband W wife look at power point For kinship diagram Lineal kinship same term For MB and PB uncle MZ and FZ aunt Nuclear Family most important Bif urcate Merging Kinship same term For M and MZ F and PB Cherokee Generational Kinship same terms For M MZ FZ F FB MB Kalahari San 0 Descent Groups I Membership has its privileges I Kin based corporate group that organizes people and resources I Descent From a common ancestor apical ancestor 39 Demonstrated descent lineage 39 Stipulated descent clan 39 Apical ancestor human animal supernatural creature totem I How is descent reckoned 39 Unilinear I Matrilinear I Patrilinear 39 Ambilinear 39 Look at the quotKNOW THISquot power point slide and memorize it 39 Food labor consumption distribution 39 Power deference allegiance strata 39 Ritual involvement roles rites oF passage 39 Laws rules punishment 39 Marriage partners residents 39 Inheritance wealt 0 Marriage I An agreement between two Families 39 Bridewealth progeny price compensates Bride39s descent group For loss oF progeny 39 Dowry compensate husband39s Family For privilege oFinterFamilial relationship 39 SororateLevirate agreements I Sororate eligible sister marries widower I Levirate iF husband dies eligible brother marries widow I Suitable marriage partners 39 Incest taboo 39 Exogamy marry members oF di erent descent group 39 Endogamy marriage within descent group I How many partners 39 Monogamy 39 Polygamy I Serial monogamy I Polygyny one man multiple wives I Polyandry one woman multiple husbands I Post marital residence 39 Patriiocai 39 Matriiocai 39 Ambiiocai 39 Neoiocai I Is social organization an adaptation to the environment I How does descent in uence social relations I PUT IN WRITTEN NOTES HERE Modern World System Globalization Anthropology of Development 0 Globalization quotfrom the pursuit of property to that of happiness and backquot I Worldwide interconnectedness evidenced in global movements of natural resources trade goods human labor finance capital information and infectious diseases 0 Historical Background I First termed in the l980s I Beginning in the Enclosure Movement 1750 1860 in England during the Enlightenment Everything39s a commodity Private business is more emcient but put into practice has not been shown to work we Economic Globalization 39 Doctrine of perpetual economic growth premised on Free Trade WTO NAFTA 39 Increased economic growth seen as a solution to global poverty and environmental degradation Over the past several decades growth has risen drastically but quality of life has not I Gap between rich and poor continues to widen within and between nations I Rea wages adjusted for infiation are lower today than in the l960s 39 In USA I During the last two decades the gap between the wealthiest and the lowest income families grew from 1 times to 19 times Free Trade Foigers vs FairDirect Trade 1000 Faces of CoiTee I Free Trade wages and conditions of production are determines by market forces reduction or elimination of tari s Adam Smith39s quotinvisible handquot I Fair Trade producers are guaranteed a just wage 39 Free Trade I Corporations I Santa Clara County v Southern Pacific Railroad 1886 I Citizens United corporations because of SCC vs SPR can spend as much money as they want to elect whomever they want overturns 1907 law prohibiting corporate finance oF any and a elections I International Monetary Fund I World Bank I WTO and GATT I NAFTA 39 IMF and the World Bank I Bretton Woods Conference 1944 how to reconstruct after WWII bank and monetary Fund I Structural adjustment Programs I Counties receive aid money must meet the conditions set by IMF and WB reduce public spending open markets to Foreign imports produce domestic good For export rather than domestic consumption 39 WTO I GATT general agreement on tari s and trade Bretton Woods I Becomes the WTO in 1994 I WTO enforces global trade rules I 150 countries 39 NAFTA 39 1194 I Same as WTO but just US Canada Mexico I Mexican constitution gains support For NAFTA I Privatizes communai agricultural lands I Ejido common land owned by state but used by communities to Farm I Mexico and Art 27 I Cultural and environmental implications I NAFTA death sentence For the indigenous peoples oF Mexico Early Anthropology 0 Racism because people progressed quicker than others 0 Progress cuiturai roots oF progress lie in the Enlightenment individual is root oF a knowledge gained through observation modernity and posivitism I Progress is good right I Everyone wants progress don39t they I Missionization media and advertising I Not bad in and oF themselves oFten motivated by good intentions 39 Positive impact oFWestern medicine and technology 39 Spread oFWestern culture has often been Forced where it is not desired and its recipients have had little say in the way it is delivered and incorporated into their lives 0 Cultural Imperialism I When acculturation proceeds against the wishes and interests oF the less powerful culture it is called cuiturai imperialism Colonialism continues in a more subtle Form development I Can be good can be bad 0 I Good 39 Brings needed stu I Bad Cultural imperialism that industrial political and economic organization are imposed on other cultures 39 VIDEO Beio Monte Dam I Xingu River in Brazil I Trying to change the river ow I Will cause 2 tribes to have no water or fish Anthropology and the environment 0 ECOL ANTH I Human environmental interaction through space and time I Historical ecology 39 Landscape change through space and time where Landscape the spatial manifestation oF the relations between humans and their environment I Shit quoted From 1492 human activity is neither good nor bad necessarily I History is crucial to understanding landscapes I Political ecology Linkages between power and socialenvironmental conditions 39 Who are the powerful Who39s in control I Those in power shape the ways in which we a interact w our environment and therefore the environment itself I Conservation 39 Biological diversity 39 Ecological processes 39 Yellowstone I World39s first national park 1872 I Wilderness as an Angio construct I Forced removal oFindigenous groups who39d lived there For thousands oFyears I Others have done the same Serengeti National Park I Alternative 39 Community Based Conservation I CAMPFIRE I980s I Empower locals to share in decision making maintain local access to natural resources I Link conservation to social development ICDP I Forced removal CBC
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