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PHYS 1010 - Week 8 Notes

by: HaleyG

PHYS 1010 - Week 8 Notes PHYS 1010-01

Marketplace > Tulane University > Physics 2 > PHYS 1010-01 > PHYS 1010 Week 8 Notes
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Lecture Notes
Great Ideas in Science & Tech
Timothy Schuler
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 1010-01 at Tulane University taught by Timothy Schuler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Great Ideas in Science & Tech in Physics 2 at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
PHYS 1010 Notes Week 8 February 29 ­ Jan 4 ­ Magnetic fields ­ Magnetic particles are dipoles, and the two poles of a magnet are the North and  South poles ­ All magnetic field lines originate from the North Pole and move toward the  South Pole ­ We draw magnetic field lines by placing a compass near the magnet and tracing  the direction in which the arrow of the compass points (towards the south magnetic pole) ­ Right now the south magnetic pole is at the North Pole of the Earth ­ Earth's poles have switched historically ­ Earth's magnetic poles are not exactly located at the north and South Pole ­ Field lines pass through the magnet and form closed loops ­ Opposite magnetic poles attract each other, and like magnetic poles repel each  other ­ Northern lights: magnetic fields crashing down in one place ­ Spin: some particles, like electrons, produce a magnetic field characteristically ­ Permanent magnet: magnetic fields of many particles arranged in a specific  manner ­ Some materials let particles float and when they go close to a magnet, the  particles will arrange in a way that creates a magnet out of that material ­ Magnetic force only affects moving particles ­ SI unit for magnetic field is tesla (T) ­ The equation for a magnetic field ­ Tells us which direction the force will accelerate the charged particle  (perpendicular to both the direction of the velocity and the magnetic field) ­ Shows that magnetic fields tend to make particles move in a circle ­ Magnetic fields can never increase the kinetic energy of a moving  particle, only change the direction ­ Magnetic fields cannot do work ­ Magnetic fields only exert force on moving charged particles (moving charge is  the same as an electric current) ­ Magnetic force on a current­carrying wire ­ Running a current through a wire and putting it in a magnetic field will  make the wire move back and forth ­ Electrical current produces a magnetic field ­ A loop of current behaves the same way of a bar magnet ­ Loop of current inside a magnetic field is an electric motor: converts  electrical current into mechanical energy ­ Works by alternating the magnetic field/current direction ­ Solenoid: wire wrapped in a cylindrical shape to amplify the magnetic field ­ Solenoids start car engines (magnetic field exerts a force that pushes a  button that starts the car) ­ Toroid: a solenoid with ends connected to form a donut ­ Create an amplified magnetic field that force charged particles to move  in a circular path ­ Used as particle accelerators ­ Magnetism = moving electricity/charge ­ Magnetism creating electricity ­ "Induction": inducing an electric field ­ Magnet being moved into a loop of wire creates electric current because  from the magnet's perspective, those particles are now moving ­ Electricity causing electricity ­ Putting a loop of current next to another loop of current creates induction ­­> Wireless communication ­ Lenz's law ­ Current of a wire inserted into a magnetic loop will induce magnetism  that is the opposite direction of the original magnet, so it will "push back" at the magnet  being inserted ­ Verifies that there are forces being created, and forces can do work Dropping a magnet through a copper pipe ­ Copper conducts electricity ­ Changing magnetic fields create electricity ­ Current/magnetic field in pipe pushes against magnet (Lenz's law) ­­> Slows down magnet as it falls through pipe Electromagnetism ­ Electricity and magnetism are basically the same thing, they just work in  opposite directions Induction and energy transfers ­ Rail guns  ­ Conducting wire frame creates magnetic field that pushes one side of  moving wire out and gets bigger and bigger; used to fire projectiles  ­ Eddy Currents ­ "Whirlpool" currents produced when a solid object moves through a  magnetic field ­ Result in lost energy ­ Useful for train brakes ­ Eddy currents created by superconductors create gigantic electric  currents with no resistance ­­> huge magnetic field ­­> maglev trains ­ Superconductors only conduct at low temperatures, which is an  issue because it's lower than the temperature of liquid nitrogen (used to cool it off);  superconductors are difficult to keep cold all the time, which is why we don't use them  for everything Maxwell's equations  ­ Noticed that all of these equations together explain everything about electricity  and magnetism 1. Definition of electric field 2. Definition of magnetic field 3. Faraday's law: a changing magnetic field creates an electric field 4. Ampere­Maxwell Law: a changing electric field creates a magnetic field ­ Explanation that electromagnetic radiation means that light is made up of waves ­ But waves must travel through a substance­ so how does light travel  through space?  ­ According to Maxwell, light is electricity and magnetism (a wave that  doesn't need to travel through anything) Electromagnetic waves ­ Maxwell's equations 3 and 4 explain that light can move through an empty space because it is creating/driving itself with electricity and magnetism ­ Pushing electric charges up and down creates electric waves/electric field which  creates a magnetic field, and on and on  ­ We can send signals (radio, etc.) that keep moving forever ­ The speed of light is a constant (never changing) ­ Throwing a baseball 20mph means the speed it 20mph ­ Throwing a baseball 20mph out a car while driving 20mph means the  speed is 20mph ­ Turning a flashlight on means the speed is constant, but turning a  flashlight on while running also results in a constant speed ­ Concept of mass/time/length units is called into question, changes  everything we know about physics ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­End of Midterm Material­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Transmitting energy using waves ­ Transfer of energy without physically moving stuff from one point to another ­ Opposite of particles ­ All waves have diffraction and interference (particles have neither) ­ Diffraction: moving around an object in its path ­ Interference: overlapping waves create new waves ­ Waves: repeating motion ­ Changes position in time and in space ­ Mechanical waves: some type of physical medium transmits the waves ­ Medium is not necessarily moving left and right, just up and down ­ Electromagnetic waves: don't require a medium ­ Magnetic and electric fields that drive each other ­ Matter waves: waves behaving like particles ­ Properties of waves ­ Amplitude: height of wave ­ Wavelength: distance between peaks of waves ­ Period: time between each wave passing a certain point ­ Frequency: how many waves go by per second (basically same as period) ­ Velocity: wavelength x frequency ­ Creating waves ­ Transverse waves: amplitude is perpendicular to motion ­ Longitudinal waves: amplitude is parallel to motion


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