INTRO ANTHROPOLOGY ANTH 1102
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vivienne Schimmel on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Birch in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/202342/anth-1102-university-of-georgia in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Da 2 anuar 9 2013 What is anthropology o Holism and Comparison 0 Adaptation and Variations 0 Biology and Culture 0 Subdisciplines ofAnthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of humanity o A holistic discipline holistic complete 0 A comparative discipline I Crosscultural comparison Adaptation the process by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses 0 Humans adapt using biological and cultural means Variation biological and cultural differences between human populations Humans are a product of biocultural development Culture is the learned traditions and customs that form the basis of the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them 0 The lens we see the world with Biology includes our physical structure function growth and evolution 0 Genetically determined but with some plasticity Examples of biology and cultural development and adaptation o Cave men moving to Europe after the Ice Age cultural 0 Living in places of higher sea level biological Anthropology is first and foremost the study of change Subdisciplines ofAnthropology 0 Cultural anthropology o Linguistic anthropology 0 Biological anthropology O O Anthropological archaeology Applied anthropology Cultural Anthropology o Describes analyzes interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and differences 0 Ethnography field work an anthropologist will perform in a society 0 Ethnology synthetic comparative crosscultural of ethnographic data from multiple societies Linguistic Anthropology Explores how language shapes 0 Communication 0 Social identity and group membership 0 Cultural beliefs and ideologies 0 Cultural representations of natural and social works Biological Anthropology o The study of human biological variation past and present Paleoanthropology the study of human origins Human osteology the study ofbones Forensic Anthropology analysis and identification of human remains Also genetics and Ancient DNA Anthropological Archaeology 0 The study ofpast human culture through material remains o The quotarchaeological record I Artifacts potsherds tools ornaments I Refuse garbage I Burials I Remains of structures I Entire settlements and their distribution on the landscape Applied Anthropology 0 Application of anthropological data perspectives theory and methods to identify asses and solve contemporary social problems 0 Includes culture resource management 0 Not studying a community instead they are working together Anthropology at UGA Ecological and Environmental Anthropology o Humanenvironmentinteractions o Ecological anthropology the study of cultural adaptations to environments 0 Environmental anthropology conservation sustainability O O O O Da 3 anua 11 2013 o Origins and Developments ofAnthropology 0 17th and 18th century Western expansion and recognition of human cultural and biological variability 0 Anthropology originally aligned with natural history I A cabinet of curiosity a cabinet men would put artifacts and souvenirs that they found in other places of the world 0 19th Century quotArmchair Anthropology Early ethnology Used the data collected by others missionaries explorers colonial officials to propose theories about other cultures Based on biased accounts 0 Written by people who have their own agendas Assumed Western superiority I Mainly focused on quotprimitive society I Were not legitimate anthropologists 0 American Anthropology Late 19th and Early 20th Century I Franz Boas quotthe Father of Modern Anthropology 0 Professor at Columbia o Developed the first doctorate program for anthropology 0 Jewish German hated racism trained in psychics I quotWhy are the tribes and nations of the world different and how have the present differences developed I Advocate of the fourfield approach Four fields biological archaeology linguistic and cultural I Advocated using the Scientific Method to develop and test theories about human behavior 0 Scientific Methodology I One can only formulate theories and conclusions after thorough and rigorous collection and examination of evidence I Americanist archaeology also employs the scientific method to develop theories about the development ofpast cultures 0 Anthropology as a Social Science I Strong links to other social sciences eg sociology psychology I But also to the humanities eg literature folklore o The Scientific Method in Anthropological Research 0 A research question is a problem to be solved 0 A hypothesis is a suggested but as yet unverified explanation o A variable is the think or things to be understood 0 An association is an observed relationship between two variables 0 A theory is a set ofideas formulated to explain something 0 Coalescence and Con ict 0 Population increases three times 0 Small villages come together into large villages Da 4 anua 14 2013 What is culture Origins of the concept of Culture 0 Edward Tylor I 19th C British Anthropologist I quotCulture is that complex whole which includes knowledge belief arts morals laws custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society I Do not obtain culture by biological occurrence 0 Culture is learned 0 We are social animals 0 Enculturation is the process by which a child learns his or her culture 0 Culture is transmitted I Directly consciously by teaching I Indirectly unconsciously by observation 0 Culture depends on symbols including language I Symbols things gestures language images objects 0 We can learn any cultural tradition Human abilities that permit culture 0 To learn To think symbolically To manipulate language To create and use tools and other cultural products Biocultural development of the ability to learn communicate store process use and transmit culture information o Producers and consumers of culture Culture and Biology 0 Culture s evolutionary basis 0 How to mark events in the life cycle birth puberty marriage death 0 Shapes how we respond to biological needs I Reduction in tooth size I Babies could go without names until they were 2 years old 0 Food what to eat and how to eat and proper way to prepare food and when to eat 0 Elimination ofwastes changes from culture to culture Culture is integrated o WWII affected economy and gender roles Attitudes in government Entertainment industry Attitudes about other nationalities Types of culture 0 National Culture most recognizable o Subculture 0 Popular culture emerged in 20th century in uenced by mass media Key concepts 0 Ethnocentrism the error ofviewing one s own culture as superior and applying one s own cultural values in judging people from other cultures 0 Cultural Relativism the principle that all behavior should be evaluated in the conteXt of the culture in which it occurs Cultural Change 0 Diffusion borrowing of cultural traits between cultures 0 Acculturation exchange of cultural features through continuous contact 0 Independent Innovation the process by which humans innovate or find creative solutions to problems I Domestication ofplants and animals I Pyramids I Social institutions Culture and Globalization 0 McDonald s is all around the world 0 Pizza Hut right near Ancient Pyramid in Egypt 0 Globalization diffusion and acculturation and promoted change throughout the world 0 O O 0 Why study culture To better understand the human condition To collaborate with people whose cultural patterns and processes we seek to understand To bridge social distances To help give greater voice to the people whose cultures and behaviors anthropologists study To encourage respect for the diversity of individuals cultures societies societies and knowledge systems Day 5 lanuag 16 2013 Applied Anthropology 0 Applied anthropology is the use of anthropological data perspective theory and 0 Work for nonacademic institutions as well Applying Anthropology 0 Methods I Ethnography participant observation interviews and focus groups I Textual analysis archival research and other empirical methods I Applied archaeologists will also use survey and excavation methods I Make decisions about the significance and preservation ofimportant sites Development Anthropology o Focuses on social issues in and the cultural dimension of economic development 0 Help to plan and guide and carry out development policy 0 Work very closely with local populations 0 Assess cultural development 0 Ethical debate Anthropology and Business 0 Use ethnographic methods 0 Study parts of the organization workers managers etc and how they functions together as a system 0 Improve organizational culture 0 Study how products are used in homes Medical Anthropology o How illness is socially constructed diagnosed managed and treated 0 Disease a scientifically identified threat such as a bacterium virus parasite or other pathogen I Can actually be seen 0 Illness a condition ofpoor health as felt by an individual and which is culturally constructed 0 The incidence and severity of disease and illness vary between cultural and socioeconomic groups 0 Dr Susan Tanner UGA studies how educational and economic variation in uences the distribution ofinfectious disease nutritional stress and childhood growth Forensic Anthropology 0 Identification ofdeceased individuals 0 Age sex stature ancestry trauma disease 0 Cause ofdeath 0 Work with stat and international legal teams I Homicides I War crimes political violence Applied Anthropology o The Garbage Project I Gathered data on household consumption and waste I Advised cities and waste management firms I Led to modern recycling movement Cultural Resource Management 0 Archaeologists architectural historians and historical architects 0 Managing places of archaeological architectural and historical interests 0 Compliance with environmental and historic preservation laws Summary Careers and Anthropology 0 Anthropology an prepare you for a range ofinteresting career opportunities 0 An anthropological perspective will provide you with a unique conceptual and methodological toolkit valuable in a range of careers Da 6 anua 18 2013 Why study the past 0 5000 years ago civilizations began possibly 0 Spears dated back to 400000 years ago 0 Instead of myths we DIG and use scientific methods to understand and explain what happened in the past A holistic study ofpast human experience 0 Origins where do we come from Environment natural and adapted Settlement where did they live Economy what they eatproducedtraded Politics nature of powersocial structure Religion belief systemsiconographytexts o Notions of timepast textssymbols etc Palaeoanthropology and Archaeology 0 Palaeoanthropology o The study of fossil remains of humans our ancestors and other ancient primates in order to understand and explain processes of human evolution 0 Fossils OOOOO 0 Fossil the remains of a onceliving organism that has been preserved in the earth s crust o Fossilization typically involves the hard parts of an organism I Bones teeth shells woody tissues ofplants 0 Replacement of hard tissues with minerals made of stone 0 Archaeology 0 The study of material remains and cultural features in order to describe and explain past human behavior 0 AnthropologicalArchaeology o The primary goal of anthropological archaeology is to explain past human behavior 0 Recovery and analysis of material traces artifacts structures settlements etc o The goal is to establish a broad picture of human cultures and societies including subsidence systems economics and trade political systems and trade Methods 0 Both archaeology and palaeoanthropology use two primary methods 0 Survey 0 Excavation 0 Finding Archaeological Sites vs Fossil Localities 0 Archaeological sites can be found almost anywhere 0 Fossil localities are only present where geological contexts are suitable for fossilization Archaeological materials ie stone tools may indicate where fossils might be found 0 Archaeological Survey 0 How do we identify an archaeological site 0 Presence of artifacts most sites accidental discoveries local knowledge remote sensing o Settlement Patterns 0 Distribution of sites in a region 0 How many How big What buildings When did they date to o Excavation o Careful recording and removal of fossils or artifacts and other archaeological materials from the surrounding matrix 0 CONTEXT is everything 0 Associations between objects are very important 0 Da 7 anua 23 2013 Studying the Past 0 Where we left off last week Excavation o Careful recording and removal of fossils or artifacts and other archaeological materials from the surrounding matrix 0 Context is everything 0 Associations between objects are very important Locating objects in space the grid system 0 Site is divided into squares o Allows precise recording of where objects are located Precise locational data gathered using 0 Geographic positioning system 0 Total station 0 Measuring tapes Locating objects in time 0 Relative dating dating things in sequence I Superposition I Seriation 0 Absolute dating precise calendar dates I Radiometric dates Carbon14 I Dendrochronology Relative dating 0 The law of superposition o quotSedimentary layers are deposited in a time sequence with the oldest on the bottom and the youngest on the top 0 Stratigraphy Layers strata o Seriation I Placing objects in a chronological sequence based on changes in form or style Absolute dating 0 Dendrochronology Treering dating I Each year a new ring I Growth not constant I Wet large rings I Dry narrow rings 0 Treering Requirements I Start with same region I Work with same trees I Fit archaeological sample into sequence I Construct a quotmaster sequencechronology o The quotRadiocarbon Revolution I Egyptian pyramids built around the same time as stone hinge I Common timescale for the entire world I Revolutionized our understanding of the temporal relationships between different human societies 0 Radiocarbon Dating I Measures the amount of 14C in organic materials I Based on a known halflife 5 730 years I Applied to all organic materials plant bones shell wood etc I Only good until approximately 7000 years BP 0 Potassiumargon Dating 0 Geological technique 43 billion 100000 years range Can date the earliest archaeological deposits Dates volcanic products not archaeological o The quotMolecular Clock 0 Measures genetic mutations in Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA I Comes from mother 0 quotMitochondrial Eve 200000 years ago East Africa Evolution and Genetics 0 Evolutionary theory is evolutionary fact 0 Evolution is the change in the inherited characteristics ofbiological populations over successive generations 0 The common picture of monkey to man is not actually evolution 0 Evolution is not linear 0 Classification of living things 0 Charles von Linn Linnaeus o Classified living things into species based on I Overall similarities I Ability to breed together 0 Today we ve moved beyond Linnean classification more relative than absolute Ie all dogs can breed but will they in nature Kingdom 9 Phylum 9 Class 9 Order 9 Family 9 Genus 9 Species I Animals 9 Chordates 9 Mammals 9 Primates 9 Hominids 9 Homo 9 Homo sapiens o Creationism o All biological similarities originated at the creation determined by biblical scholars o The Discovery of Evolution 0 Uniformitarianism I The view that forces shaping the contemporary world were no different in the past I Earth s history has been a slow and gradual process 0 Natural Selection 0 Charles Darwin I On the Origin of Species 185 9 I Natural selection selection of favored biological forms through differential reproductive success 0 Alfred Russell Wallace 0 In the quotstruggle for existence individuals with advantageous variations will do better than those without them 000 00 Day 8 lanuary 25I 2013 Chapter 6 will not be on the first test Test One February 8 two weeks from today Format 60 lecture 40 textbook Group review sessions are being scheduled Email professor or my TA for accommodations Evolution and Genetics Natural Selection 0 Natural selection selection of favored biological forms through differential reproductive success 0 In the quotstruggle for existence individuals with advantageous variations will do better than those without them I Examples horses with long necks I The peppered moth Charles Darwin quote 0 quotIt is not the strongest of the species that survives nor the most intelligent but the one most responsive to change Biological changes occur by chance and accumulate over time because they are advantageous Genotype the genetic makeup or constitution of an organism biological quotbuilding blocks Phenotype the physical expression of biological characteristics part genetic part adaptation to environmental forces Biology and Evolution the basics O I The genetic material Deoxyribonucleic acid I A complex molecule that contains information that can direct the synthesis ofproteins I DNA molecules can produce exact copies of themselves 0 Genes I Portions of DNA molecules that do the actual directing of the synthesis of proteins 0 Genome I The complete sequence ofDNA for a species 0 Chromosome I DNA combines with protein to form chromosomes I Inherited from both parents I 23 pairs of chromosomes in each human being 0 Mutation I The ultimate source of evolutionary change is the mutation of genes through errors in the copying of DNA I Purely by chance Fun fact what we share our DNA with Chimpanzee 98 Cat 90 Cow 80 Mouse 75 Fruit y 60 0 Banana 50 Population genetics 0 Concept of the population I A group ofindividuals within which breeding takes place I Natural selection takes place within the population I This is the level at which evolutionary change occurs 0 Gene pool I The genetic variants available to a population Evolutionary Forces 0 Sources of change I Mutation chance alteration that produces a new gene I Genetic drift chance uctuations in the gene pool I Gene ow introduction ofnew alleles from nearby populations I Natural selection adaptation Microevolution refers to genetic changes in a population over a few several or many generations but without speciation Macroevolution refers to largerscale or more significant genetic changes in a population over a long time period and result in speciation Punctuated evolution 0 Punctuated equilibrium or punctuated evolution 0 Certain events can cause rapid and dramatic change 0 There may also be long periods oftime with little significant change 0 Chance is very important in macroevolution OOOOO Da 9 anua 28 2013 Final Exam Wednesday May 1 1200 300 Test 1 study sessions announced Wednesday Primates Primatology is the study ofnonhuman primates including their behavior and social life 0 Famous person Jane Goodall and her work with chimps We humans are in the order Primates Suborders o Prosimians more distant relatives of humans including tarsiers lemurs and lorises o Anthropoids monkeys apes and humans Why study primates o By studying primates we re essentially studying ourselves 0 Similar adaptive strategies in our evolution 0 Similar cognitive and behavioral patterns 0 They have societies Primate tendencies o Grasping opposable thumbs o Reliance on sight stereoscopic vision 0 Hands as primary tactile organs 0 Brain complexity 0 Parental investment single offspring 0 Social animals Our closet living relatives 0 Chimpanzees o Bonobos o Gorilla 0 We share 95 to 99 of our DNA with these species Social groups 0 Chimps tend to live in groups with 50 I Species tend to have territories with which they affiliate themselves I Males outrank females I Cleverness and ambition and smarts can help rank their alpha position 0 Gorillas are led by a dominant silver back male Aggression and hunting 0 Will defend their home 0 Brutal attacks by chimpanzees Affiliate behavior 0 Sympathy 0 Grooming 0 Hugging Reproduction 0 Only produce a few young 0 Young are very dependent on mothers and other group members Cultural behavior tool use 0 Chimpanzees have been observed to use rocks to crack nuts and using sticks and leaves as tools Primate evolution 0 Geological timescale o Mya million years ago 0 Cenozoic Era I Quaternary Period 18 mya I Tertiary Period 85 mya o Mesozoic Era I Cretaceous 146 mya I Iurassic 208 mya
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