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by: Vivienne Schimmel


Vivienne Schimmel
GPA 3.65

Velasquez Ru

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Velasquez Ru
Class Notes
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vivienne Schimmel on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Velasquez Ru in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/202343/anth-1102-university-of-georgia in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Anthropology Forces of Microevolution 9272011 84400 PM Gene o Basic biological unit of heredity o Area in a chromosome pare that determines wholly or partially a articular biological trait o Sequence of DNA determines specific characteristic Allele o Different versions 0 the same gene 0 A biochemical difference involving a particular gene Gregory Mendel Gene pool o An abstract way to think about the frequency of alleles in a population o If no differential fertility or mortality does genotype allele frequency changes between generations Microevolution o Change in allele frequencies in a population over time o Forces of Microevolution o Mutation 0 Natural selection 0 Genetic drift 0 Gene flow Mutation o Error in DNA replication o Ultimate source of new variation o Example sickle cell hemoglobin mutation Natural selection o Differential fertility or morality o Sickle cell anemia 0 Normal AS AA o SS sickle cell 0 Strong correlation between malaria and sickle cell AA vulnerable to malaria As resistant to molar no sickle cell disease SS sickle cell disease Random genetic drift o Random change with respect to the alleles o Most important in small populations 0 Ex avalanche o Founder effect small group colonizes a new area 0 Old order dunkers Gene flow o Exchange of genetic material between population o In human cultural shapes gene flow o Ireland patterns informs about its current population 9272011 84400 PM Human adaptation and variation o Phenotype physical trait behavior 0 Cultural and environmental Biological plasticity our ability to change in response to what we encounter while growing and living o Both biological and cultural plasticity o Ex body size and temperature adaptation o Humans try to maintain core body temperature 37376 C 986 996 Biological adaptation 0 General body size and proportions Maximize heat dissipation n Linear body form long limbs Reduce heat production a Small body size with reduced body isolation Eco geographical patterns Bergmann s rule o At lower temperatures body size is larger within species o So they have lower service area mass ratio o Heat is less likely to dissipate can retain heat better Allen s rule o Longer limbs in warmer temperatures Body size in humans c As body weight increases temperature decreases o Negatively correlated with mean annual temperatures o Relative sitting height 0 Negatively correlated with mean annual temperature Example 2 Human adaptation to cold o Lower surface area shorter limbs and body Evolutionary adaptation Body size relative limb length Acclimatization elevated metabolic rate o Phenotypically adaption to full range of changing environmental factors Acclimation shivering blood vessel constriction o Phenotypically adaptation change in 1 environmental factor Cultural subsistence clothing activity patterns others Example 3 human adaptation to altitude High altitude hypoxia o Percent oxygen constant21 but air less compresses 0 Less oxygen breath o Reduced oxygen availability affects all organ systems Responses to high altitude o Oxygen saturation in blood drops abruptly o Initial Response 0 Increase Ventilation rate and depth Heartrate and blood pressure o Several weeks 0 Increase red blood cell production 0 Lowers breathing and heart rates Acute mountain sickness o Distorted vision cant think clearly cant do normal activities without getting fatigue lost appetite Evolutionary adaptation o Andain increase hemoglobin o Himmals increase respiration Acclimatization o Body size lung size Acclimation o Body response respiration hemoglobin production Cultural 0 Diet Example 4 human adaptation to nutrition o Skin color 0 Influenced by 3 substances Hemoglobin Carotene Melanin n Absorbs UV radiation n Protects against skin cancer a UV radiation degrades foliate a B vitamin D Foliate is necessary for o Rapid cell division c To protect against neural tube defects spinal bifida Darker skin an advantage Selection for lighter skin in low light environments o Light skin advantage Increase vitamin D synthesis 0 Vitamin D needed for absorption of calcium can get rickets soft bones Inuit anomaly o Much darker skin than their latitude of residence would suggest o High diets of vitamin cD Are you lactose intolerant o Intolerance is the condition in which adults are unable to digest lactose containing foods o All mammals stop producing lactase after mutation o Mutation in humans allow to continue producing lactase and some o Caused bay termination of lactase enzyme production in adulthood o Lactase non persistence o For humans to consume lactose throughout our lives we must have a mutation that allows lactase production into adulthood o Mutation found more in those who have been around domesticated animals with a lot of milk o Lactose can enhance calcium absorption o Vitamin D also facilitates calcium absorption 0 If someone does not produce or consume enough Vitamin D lactose in milk can substitution to facilitate calcium absorption o The genetic mutation to process lactose in more frequent in less sunny environments Reading assignment 9272011 84400 PM Chapter 5 Alternative to creatism and catastrophism was tranformism evolution Uniformitarianismnatural forces at work today also explain past events Darwin and Wallace Natural selection process by which the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment do so in greater numbers than others in the same population Natural selection of peppered moth Association observed relationship between two or more variables DNAgt genesgtchromosomes basic hereditary units Mendelian genetics ways chromosomes transmit genes across the generations Biochemical genetics examines structure function and changes in DNA Population genetics investigates natural selection and other causes of genetic variation stability and change in breeding populations Pea experiment Genesgtallele different forms of a gene Mutation changes in the DNA molecules of which genes and chromosomes are built DNA 0 Copy itself form new cells replace old cells producegametes sex cells 0 Chemical structure also guides body s production of proteins enzymes antigens antibodies hormones and hundreds of others 0 Double helix 0 Thymine adenine cytokine guanine RNA 0 Carries DNA messages from the cells nucleolus to its cytoplasm Paired with bases matches that of DNA what permits it to carry message from DNA to guide construction of proteins in cytoplasm O o Mitosis 2 cells normal cells and meiosis 4 cells sex cells o Crossing over where homologous chromosomes have exchanged segments by breakage and recombination creates partially different chromosome o Mutation 0 Base substitution mutation substitution ofjust one base in a triplet of another mutation occurs in a sex cell that joins with another in a fertilizedeggs new organism will carry the mutation in ever cell 0 Chromosomal rearrangement pieces of chromosomes break off Population genetics and mechanisms of genetic evolution o Gene pool alleles genes chromosomes and genotypes within a breeding population o Genetic evolution change in gene frequency frequency of alleles in a breeding population from generation to generation o Mechanisms of genetic evolution 0 Natural selection Operates on phenotype Direct selection long term selection of the same traits removes maladapted recessive alleles Sexual selection competition of mates success of mating certain traits of one sex are selected because of the advantages they confer in winning mates Stabilizing selection maintain variety by favoring balances polymorphism o Mutation 0 Random genetic drift No natural selection but from chance Fixation due to drift more rapid in small populations 0 Gene flow Exchange of genetic material between populations 0 the same species Gene flow prevents speciation formation of new species Relethford Microevolution I Human populations o Gene flow Migration invasions contacts between different people o Genetic drift changes I population size o Small isolated population genetically distinct 0 Geographic isolation Low gene flow 0 Small size increase genetic drift o South American Indians Social structure of small tribes contribute to genetic diversity Small size and isolation increase genetic drift Fission fusion 0 O O O O O O 0 Group to large dividessmall groups combine Fission increase genetic drift Practice exogamy finding a mate in another group Founders effect c Ireland Viking invasion on the coast moved to midland Later coast migrants fro England and wales over rode Viking influence Separation west south west from north and east o Natural selection 0 Hemoglobin sickle cell and malaria Heterozygous have advantage Sickle cell worst than malaria Reproduction not changes with AA and AS in costa Rica but was in Alabama AS had high number of live births that AA AS 100 AA 88 SS 14 Horticulture increased malaria mosquitoessickle cell was low Sickle cell African Americans When s was brought to America reduced through natural selection 0 Rhesus Blood group Rhesus incompatibility Rh mom and RH fetus 0 ABO blood group Different typeshave different antibodies A have B antibodies AB have neither 0 Duffy blood group Fya fyb fy FYFY resistant to form of malaria Lack fyb and a molecules that it bonds to Negative correlation absent malaria where high FYFY frequencies 0 Lactose persistence and lactose intolerance 0 Evolution of dark skin Uv harmful to much would have vitamin toxicity Weathering Heights weitz Three stresses of high altitude restricted food source cold reduction in oxygen reaching body tissues Hypoxia caused by low atmosphericpressure reduction of oxygen diffusing though lungs into blood Warm clothing Housing stone walls and thatched roofing less protection Urban houses adobe mud or plaster stucco High basil metabolisms Short and stocky reduces heat loss larger proportion of fat Children more cold stress Woman have higher internal temperatures Sherpa house made with some and mortar wall two stories peaked roofs covered by mats or slate Tea with milk Plant during September and October Slower physical growth Larger physical growth Reduced fertility an d low birth rat larger placenta 60 survive adolescence Chapter 6 Race discredited in biology Two main ways of classifying diversity racial classification vs current explanatory approach Racial classification attempt to assign humans to discrete categories o Biological differences are real important and apparent to u all o Clines gradual genetic shift o Lack races because human populations haven t been isolated enough to develop into discrete groups o Caucasoid negroid mongoloid o Genetic markers don t correlate with phenotype o 94 of genetic variation occurs within race o 6 of genetic variation occurs between different races o Haplogroup lineage or branch of such a genetic tree marked by one or more specific genetic mutations o Foliate deficiencies neural tube defects o A and AB more susceptible to smallpox o Long noses is arid areas because membranes and blood vessels moisten air breathed in and cold because they warm the air breathed in o Thomson s nose rule association between nose form and temperature o Greater bulk and mass in colder environments o Smaller individuals in warm climates o Bergan s rule o Allen s rule size of protruding body pars increase with temperature Skin deep Jabonski o Darker people nearer to equator and lighter closer to poles o Darker skin protect from skin cancer o Hair loss first then skin color changes o Melanin natural sun screen o Loosing hairgt keep cool o UV breaksdown foliate critical for fertility and fetus development c Skin disease normally after reproductive years c Foliate important for synthesis of DNA spermatogenesis o Northern and southern latitudes don t produce enough Vitamin D year round like those who live in the tropics Great mysteries of human evolution Zimmer o Paleoanthropology discovery description and analysis of the fossil evidence of human evolution branch of biological anthropology o Australopithecus afarenis oldest known hominid Lucy Bipeds big brains Tools Chapter 7 Primatology the study of nonhuman primates fossils and living apes monkeys and promosimians 0 Includes behavior and social life Similarities between human and apes anatomy brain structure genetics biochemistry Taxonomy assignment or organism to categories according to their relationship ad resemblance Phylogeny genetic relatedness based on common phylogeny Monkey in ceboidea and ceropithecoidea Humans and apes more closely related that monkeys Neanderthals different subspecies of homo sapiens Homologies similarities used to assign organisms to the same taxon Similarities between species that don t share common ancestor are called analogies caused for similar selective forces 0 Produced by convergent evolution Orangutan pongusgt pongidae family only species in family Primate tendencies o Arboreal living in trees 0 Anthropoids monkeys apes and humans 0 Prosimians primate suborder that includes lemurs lorises and tarsiers o 1grasping 5 digits opposable thumbs bipedal 2 foot locomotion limited foot grasping ability 0 2smell to sight depth stereoscopic color vision portion of brain to vision expanded smell shrank o 3 Nose to hand sensation of touch conveyed by tactile organs hand fingerprints region 0 4 Brain complexity portion of brain connected to memory thought and associates increased in primates o 5 Parental investment 0 Social Behavioral evolution evolutionary basis of social behavior Chapter 8 Early hominins Bipedalism Ardipithecus earliest widely excepted Bipedalism is key in distinguishing between apes and early hominids Chad and Kenya Ability to see over grass and scrub carry items back home o Brains skulls and childhood dependency 0 Early hominids have small brains o Tools 0 Bipedalism for tool use o Teeth 0 Lost big back teeth 0 Sharp canines o Who were the earliest hominids o Varied aistralopithecinespleistocene hominins Anamnesis afarenis africanus garhi robustus bisesa Chapter 9 Archairc homo o Tool making otowan Paleolithic tools o Acheulian Chapter 10 the origin and spread of modern humans o Cro magnons first fossil found of an AMH in Frances Dorger valley o Glacial retreat western Europe o Cave art o Clovis spear point sophisticated stone tool classified by pointed that was fastened to end of hunting spear o Haplogroup lineage marked by pme pr more specific genetic mutations Chapter 4 Paleoanthropology study of hominid hominins and human life through fossil records Informed consent agreement to take part in research after being fully informed of it Anthropologist cant exploit individual groups animals or cultural or biological materials Methods 0 Multidisciplinary approaches Paleontology study of ancient life through the fossil records Palynology the study of ancient plants through pollen samples The trouble maker Kohn Ling Bau cave Flored Indonesia homo floreseinsis hobbit ebu gogo Found with tool only associated with humans Flo ancestorsgt cross Wallace Line deep water trench separating the island of Indonesia Child size 105 adult teeth females13 of human brain 18000 years old 3 interpretations O O O O O O Flordescendants of Homo erectus species with a larger brain and body undergone island dwarfing Flor and erectus evolved from common ancestor with small brain No flor small modern human with microcephaly small brain Ebu gogo creatures that lack human mental abilities hobbits are like reap people only smaller Small hairy creatures that walked upright but not humans Exterminated Tall tales of short beings Flor was found with sophisticated tools Tool found 1200 before Watercraft language and organization Argue that flor is a pathological human specimen Macroevolution 9272011 84400 PM Macroevolution a change of species over time including speciation What is a species organism that when they interbreed produce viable offspring Microevolution change in allele frequencies in a population over time Forces FossHs Phylogeny the development and history of groups of species and higher groupings Ex Bacterial resistance Darwin and Galapagos finches o Multiple founders effect c Changes based on different food available o Sympatric speciation Two main models of speciation o Allopatric speciation reproductive isolation plus weak directional selection 0 No gene flow spotted fish eaten more by shark white increase 0 Directional selection 0 Mutation random genetic drift and peiotropy o Sympatric speciation gene flow plus strong directional selection 0 Directional selection 2 strategies 0 Mutation and more selection o Peripatric and papapatric speciation less discussed How to study macroevolution o The fossil record o Compare and contrast modern forms use phylogenetic inference and develop phylogenies Fossil records are incomplete o Fossils are stone not bone o Fossilization is a rare event More missing links How can you tell fossils represent different species Relative differences Muscle attachments Phylogeny Development and history or groups or species and higher groupings Evolutionary relationships among a group of species Usually diagrammed in the form of a tree 0 Phylogenetic tree Phylogenetic inferences Inferences fro the tress right to left or left to right each branch come off means sharing of common ancestor Primate Behavior and Anatomy 9272011 84400 PM Kingdom animalia obtain food mobile o Phylum chordate notochord o Subphyla vertebrata back bone Class Mammaliawarm blooded suckle young n Order primates o Sub order anthropoid 0 Super family hominoid Family hominidae n Genus home a Species homo sapiens Primates o Grasping hands and feet o Nails instead of claws allows you to feel things better o Increased reliance on vision o Complex brains o High parental investment o Very social Who are the primates o Prosimians lemurs lorises Galagos Tarsiers 0 Diet insectivores and frugivores 0 Activity many nocturnal tapetum o Locomotion many vertical clinging and leaping o Anthropoids monkeys apes humans 0 Are more evolved Platyrrhines new world monkeys Activity arboreal quadrupeds Feature flat broad nose outward facing nostrils prehensile tail can swing from tail o Catarrhines old world monkeys 0 Activities terrestrial quadrupeds some arboreal 0 Feature sharp noses downward facing nostrils Tails are not prehensile Ischial callosities large calluses on rear end Hominoids apes Baboons macaques langurs mandrills O O O Hominoids apes o Social intelligent o No tail o Lesser apes Gibbons Hylobates 0 Fruit eaters o Socially monogamous o Great Apes o Orangutans pongo o Gorilla Sexual dimorphism o Chimpanzee pan Tropical Africa 0 Pygmy chimpanzee 0 Human homo WHAT WE SHARE WITH OTHER PROMATES o Complex social organization 0 Learning 0 Violence directed towards nongroup members o Tool use o Hunting Threats to nonhumanprimates o Habitat loss to humans o Bush meat trade 0 War o Disease 0 The Hominins 9272011 84400 PM Share common ancestor don t decent directly from monkeys Direct human ancestors after our line split off from the direct ancestors of the chimps Why did we split of from chimps o Most likely changes in environments o Global climate shifts to cooler and drier o Good for the growth of savanna grassland in subSaharan Africa o Great Rift Valley deepens separating eastern and western Africa o 2500 feet deep 18 miles wide 1500 miles long o Wetter forested habitat to west drier grasslands to east o Landscape change may have restricted gene flow encourages different adaptation o Over time chimps and hominins diverge Speciation by natural selection o Gradual change o Punctuated equilibrium What about hybridization Hominins trends bipedalism o 1 Bipedalism Adaptation to open grassland habitat Allows for longdistances sight of predators Possible reduction in solar radiation absorbed Later important for making and using tools carrying things Changes in anatomy due to bipedalism Foot platform for weight arch Hip support greater weight easier to balance Knee support greater weight change in gait Limbs legs lengthen forelimbs optimization Skull foramen magnum flat face Vertebrae double bent vertically O O O 0 Still have problems 2 Larger brains larger skulls 0 Continued shift to larger size 0 Requires birth of immature dependent young Compromise between pelvic opening and upright posture 0 Skull is separated into fontanels which flex and allow passage through birth canal o 3 Changes in teeth 0 Larger back molars thicker tooth enamel for grinding tough plant food in savannah forest 0 Smaller canines and premolars less necessary especially once tools were used may have made eating plant food difficult o 4 Tools 0 Increased manufacture 0 Increased use 0 Increased complexity Ardipithecus kadabba 58myya Ethiopia Earliest known hominins Lived in more arboreal environments Probably bipedalism Apelike size and anatomy Slightly smaller canines than chimps Fragments of 5 individuals Ardipithecus ramidus 44 mya Ethiopia o Likely developed from kadabba o Lived in forested floodplain environment o Apelike molars and premolars thin enamel but smaller incisors and canines o Probable bipedalism anterior foramen magnum o Fragment like 36 Australopithecus anamnesis 42 to 39 mya Kenya o May have developed form ramidus o Mixed habitat of open grassland bushy areas forest o Apelike teeth but larger Wider molars and thicker enamel o Probably bipedalism tibia similar to humans Australopithecus afarenis 38 20 mya Tanzania and Ethiopia o Maybe developed form anamnesis o Mixed habitat of forest edge savannah and open grassland savanna o Teeth are mixed apelike and human like features o Bipedalism skeletal evidence footprints at laetoli 0 Lucy The Australopithecines 32 mya o At this time the australopithecines a type of hominins branched into several possible lines along the gracile and robust continuum o Extinct line 1 0 Maybe have developed form afarenis gracile South Africa Bipedal 0 Teeth are mixed apelike and human like features 0 Mixed omnivorous diet emphasis on tough plant foods o Extinct line 2 o Paranthropus robust 21 Mya 0 May have developed from africanus but may have lived at same time 0 South Africa 0 Bipedal 0 Teeth are mixed apelike and human like features 0 Mixed omnivorous diet 0 Slightly bigger in body and brain to africanus more robust o Extinct line 3 o Boisei Paranthropus boisei 261 mya 0 May have developed from afarenis 0 East Africa 0 Bipedal 0 Almost same size as africanus robust 0 Teach are mixed apehuman but largest post canine teeth or any australopithecine HUE molars similar to a gorilla 0 Diet focused on low quality tough plant foods 0 Extinct due to climate Habitat change The Australopithecines the line that made it Australopithecus garhi 25 mya Ethiopia 0 O o Worlds earliest stone tools pebble tools dated t same strata at nearby site o Garhi found along evidence for butchering some stone material cut marks on bones smashed bones o Meat and marrow are nutrient rich o Mixed omnivorous diet o Some teeth like later homo species but gracile features very similar to afarenis o Competitor to boisei or jut contemporary o Link between afarenis and homo Homo habilis 217 mya Tanzania o Larger brains skull capacity o Reduces premolar and molar size change in diet o Teeth size linked to jaw size jaws more malleable teeth size genetically determines Less dependence on tough plant foods nor new ways to process them toolscooking less demanding chewing smaller haws favoring smaller teeth o Precision grip better hands o Short apelike limbs Homo rudolfenis 18 mya Kenya o Large brain skull capacity than habilis o Molars and teeth like a hyper robust australopithecine o Different species Larger specimen of habilis Out of Africa Homo erectis o Pleistocene 2010000 bp o Early 201 mya o Middle 1 mya 1300000 bp ice ages begin o Late 13000010000 bp ice age ends with the Holocene geological epoch Developed out of Homo habilis Would have been a short time span relative to other developments Punctuated equilibrium A combination of biological and behavioral changes separates H erectus from others about 17 mya3000 000 bp Postcranial below skull changes o Much taller larger body size than Australopithecus 0 H Erectus behavioral changes 0 Early Paleolithic tool industry o Bifacial flaking techniques Acheulian hand axe Flakes as flat tools fine cutting The first tool kit with different tools made and used for different task o H Erectus behavioral changes Huntingand gathering economy o Increased sizeformidable mammals o Increased sizemore calories needed o More meet o Hunting butchering of large mammals more common o Plant foods still Important o This is a mixed economy and the strategy that has served humans for most of our history Controlled use of fire o Heat Light o Cooking o Protection against predators These biological and behavioral changes made Herectus very successful o Encourages and enabled Herectus to move out of Africa o H Erectus n NorthSouth East Africa Western Europe Western and Eastern Asia o Culture and technology gave them an advantage o Larger size longer legs larger stride o Able to cover larger distances in shorter times o Larger brains 0 Increased memory associate Ideas Adaptation of strategies to new or changing habitats 0 Teaching and learning o Hand G economy works most everywhere 0 Migrating game seasonal food follow the food o Groups grew likely to split up 0 Individuals and smaller breakaway groups left for new territory o Tools fire and mixed H an G economy very successful in nechanging habitats o Important during the changing Pleistocene 3000000bp a common ancestor to Neanderthals and AMH atomically modern human arose likely in Africa o Thisancestor a form of Archaic Homo Sapiens split into those two groups by 130000bp 3000000130000 bp is hazy Neanderthals 13000028000bp o Africa Middle East Europe Asia o Features vary among different populations Neanderthals don t all look the same o Some generalizations in body form behavior o Generalized cranial skull traits o Occipital bun Projecting midface Low flat elongated skull Prominent brow ridge Very large incisors used as tools No projecting chin Flat wide projecting nose 0 Brain size similar or slightly larger than AMHs o Generalized postcranial below skull traits 0 Very robust strong build 0 506 feet tall 0 Large barrelshaped torsochest 0 Wide shoulders long collar bones o Longer femurs in ratio to tibiafibula in AMHs o These biological traits are seen as adaptations to different environments with some good colder climes Neanderthals behavior includes 0 O O O O O O Toplevel carnivores perhaps eating only meat or primarily meat Effective hinters mammoths bears reindeer bison horses wooly rhino Coordinated hunting animal drives Controlled use of fire Distinct tool kit Mousterian flake tools Bone tools awls and pins Wear on bone and stone tools showing cutting Scraping animal hides clothes ands shelter Cave burials flower pollen animal bones red powder increasing ritual for dead US Anatomically modern humans 130000bp present Originates in Africa went basically everywhere Distinct biological and behavioral traits from earlier forms Neanderthals etc Biological traits O O O O O O O O O O 0 Vertical forehead rather than sloping Smaller incisors Reduction los of prominent brow ridge Prominent projecting chin Less barrel shaped chest Torso Longer arms and legs in relation to torso In general les robust more gracile than Neanderthal Upper Paleolithic blade tools A blade is a specialized flake at least twice as long as it is wide Made from a prepared core Blade tools are most efficient than flake tools less material is wasted more cutting edges are available Blade tools made working wood bone etc much easier Bone tools fish hooks needles pins knives harpoons etc Stone and bone beads Ornaments 0 Some bone ivory figurines Behavioral modernity at least 50000 bp maybe earlier Abstract thought use od symbols Language Exchange Trade Increasingly complex tool kits Art Music Games Increasingly complex burial treatment Neanderthals 13028000bp AMH 130000present What happened 0 Neanderthals Outcompeted Replaces by AMH around 35000 3000 bp AMH more successful How often and in what ways did they interact Video 9272011 84400 PM 13 modern humans skull Hobbit Ancient tools of Flores cut of from Asian mainland Barrier from deep ocean trenches Kimono dragon child size wore wisdom tooth adult 12 others hunted and used fire brain size of chimp microcephaly 9272011 84400 PM Cultural deposition dominant factor in forming the archaeological record Discard everything eventually breaks or wears out and is discarded Loss Caching some items are intentionally left behind Ritual example grave goods Patterns time and pace Archaeologist document patterns in how material culture changes though time and across space Organizing data into meaningful patters in vital to the field of archeology Dating Absolutre dates are expressed as pecific units of scientific measurement days years centuries or millennia Relative dates express relationships or comparisons o Historic settlement of Williamsburg is later than pueblos of Chaco Canyon Radio carbon dating o How it works o A sample contains 100 atoms of 14C o After 5730 years 50 of these atoms have decayed into 14N o After another 5730 years hald for remaining 50C have converted into 14N leaving only 25 14 C atoms o After a nother 5730 years this would be haed again to about 12 14C atoms Dendrochronology Tree ring chronology 9272011 84400 PM Study Guide 2 for Test 3 Compare and Contrast Market economy versus Traditional economy What is kinship and what role does it play throughout the world Explain the 5 types of kinship discussed in class How does kinship affect marriage Is marriage the same all throughout the world Why or why not What is the difference between religion and magic What affects does religion have on society and the way of life Explain the three phases oflife events Explain the use of magic within the Azande culture What is the difference between power and authority What are the 4 different types of sociopolitical systems and what are the differences In what ways is power maintained Explain the two different types of colonies How did colonizers justify their colonization Explain the privileges of colonizers Explain the differences between neoliberalism neocolonialism and globalization


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