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by: Vivienne Schimmel


Vivienne Schimmel
GPA 3.65


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Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vivienne Schimmel on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 2120H at University of Georgia taught by Joseph in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see /class/202347/anth-2120h-university-of-georgia in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Midterm Review To be used with PP Slides eLC readings amp classnotes 1 Intro to Anthropology PP I De nition of anthropology I Sub elds physical archaeology linguistic cultural and applied Scope of physical anthropology amp archaeology I Key assumptions core concepts holistic ethnocentrism cultural relativism culture society I Anthropological explanations scienti c method amp understanding 2 Methods PP 2 Articles I Fieldwork as method I ArchaeologyPaleoanthropology Terms material culture artifacts as opposed to fossils sites as opposed to fossil localities features ecofacts vs taphonomy I How sites are located Chance e g Machu Picchu Unsystematic survey walk the terrain Systematic survey grid transects Subsurface testing shovel pit tests auger holes conductivityresistivity magnetometer Remote sensing aerial satellite I Conditions conducive to preservation of remains pay attention to locations mentioned in slides bogs desert ice volcanic activity caves even underwater water Not conducive Tropical climes 7 explains sparse fossil record in Americas I Dating 0 relative dating stratigraphic eg Grand Canyon layer cake palynology seriation o AbsoluteNumerical Dating radio carbon or carbon14 potassium argon dendrochronology thermoluminescence I Cultural Anthropology Methods Ethnography participant observation eldwork parse out difference between immersion and assimilation I Ethics I Film Unearthing the past digging is not the end all and be all of archaeology Archaeology in the form of computers remote sensors even space satellites is making it possible for archaeologists to expand their studies beneath the ground to a signi cant extent Use of subsurface methods preserve remains for future generations and better technology I eLC Readings Early American colonists were hit by severe drought Roman rise and fall recorded in trees 3 Evolution PP 1 Article see eLC website if you need extra help with concepts 39 39 quot herlmlev 39 quoteevolOlIIntroshtml I Four signi cant events in human evolution I Concepts cosmology evolution I Teaching of Evolution I Before Charles Darwin Creationism Ussher 1654 Evolution Erasmus Darwin 1794 Lamarckism Lamarck 1809 Catastrophism Cuvier 1812 Uniformitarianism Lyell 1837 present is the key to the past deep time I Mechanisms of evolution natural selection variability principle of segregation amp independent assortment mutation random genetic drift due to population isolation e g Deafness on Martha s vineyard gene ow interbreeding I Terms 0 ALLELE Alternate forms of the same gene e g tall TT dwarf tt HOMOZYGOUS Organism with 2 of the same kinds of alleles TT HETEROZYGOUS An organism with 2 different alleles Tt GENOTYPE The genetic make up of an organism o o o o PHENOTYPE Physical amp physiological make up of an organism DOMINANT Prevailing trait that is expressed RECESSIVE Unexpressed in 1 generation but expressed in subsequent CODOMINANCE blood types A amp B SPECIATION study of how when why new species arise GRADUALISM Darwin 7 gradual process of evolution occurring very slowly as different populations become isolated o PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM Stephen Jay Gould 7 according to fossil record major changes appear to have occurred periodically leading to rapid speciation 00000 0 BALANCED POLYMORPHISM Traits proven to be most adaptive in an environment are selected from generation to generation 7 this directional selection removes maladaptive recessive alleles from the gene pool eg malariasickle cell 0 DYSEVOLUTION o eLC article The Sins of the Fathers Take 2 4 Primates PP Frans B M de Waal Articles 2 Order Primates Family Hominids Divergent Evolutionconvergent evolution analogies vs homologies cladogram phylogeny Primate characteristics Generalized skeletal structure 7 exible not rigid shoulder joints due to ball joint and clavicles Dexterous digits 7 pentadactylism opposable thumbs Dentition 7 multipurpose cutting crushing suited to omnivorous diets Sight over smell 7 binocular stereoscopic depth Brain to body ratio 7 exceeds that of other land animals Reproductionmaturation 7 longer gestation and parental investment later maturation Humans 266 Orang 260 Gorilla 257 Chimp 227 Social animals family society troop Proto Primates 65 MYA Purgatorius Nonhuman Primate Social Group Composition Prosimians completely separate evolutionary path 6070 mya 7 tarsiers lemurs ayeaye Monkeys and Apes tailless New prehensile tails vestigal thumbs and Old world monkeys experiments with monkeys Lesser Apes simangs gibbons 7 Greater apes Orangs Gorillas Chimps Terms Brachiate Knuckle walk Grooming Tool use Hunting Sexual Dimorphism Fossil specimens 0 Purgatorius Protoprimate Montana 0 Tetom39us Prosimian Wyoming 0 Proconsul Protoape Africa Film Primetime primates Tool use in primates morality This film asks the question What makes humans different from other primates Filmed at Yerkes in Atlanta and Duke Lemur Center this film sequentially broaches subjects such as human and nonhuman primate aggression tool use mathematical abilities and social hierarchies and their relation to dominance power and sexual access Frans B M de Waal morality in primates empathy sympathy cooperation peacemaking generosity sharing 000000 0 5 00 d d 1 eLC Articles Darwin s last laugh I 39 39 A century of getting to know the chimpanzee Chimps eat meat live in communities kill their own resolve con icts reconcile mourn their dead Piliblll 01 Hominid Evolution PP Bipedalism article Type Specimens and Sites Ardi Lucy Hadar Ethiopia Taung Mrs Ples Sterkfontein South Africa 3 genuses Ardzpithecus Australopithecus and Homo and within these genuses are species eg Homo sapiens are a species in the genus Homo o Australopithecus 7 2 species Afarensz39s Lucy 32MYA Africanus Taung child 25 MYA Mrs Ples 3 2 MYA 7 both are examples of gracile australopithecines Miocene gap 7Piltdown fraud Hominin characteristics 0 Bipedalism 7 foramen magnum knees Laetoli 7 action fossil 0 Increased cranial capacity cc gt H sapz39ens 11001700 gt Neanderthal ltl700 gt Gorillas lt750 gt Chimps lt500 0 Changes in face jaw and dentition 39239 Prognathic to orthognathic protruding to at large to small 7 chin develops forehead vertical more so in past 600 yrs 39239 Saggital crest anchor for chewing muscles nuchal crest and brow ridge disappear 39239 U shaped dental arcade to full parabola 39239 Smaller canines gap diastema in opposing jaw disappears Out of Africa Homo erectus Film Challenging the human evolution model 7 radiator theory of bipedalism This documentary questions the longaccepted model of human evolution in which the increase in hominid brain size and the transition to bipedalism are viewed as simultaneous Working with data gathered from Lucy and other hominids a group of scientists present evidence that humans became bipedal thousands of years before their brains began to grow It is further suggested that bipedalism which allowed internal organs to remain cooler was an adaptive mechanism in the hot African climate Maintaining lower internal temperatures allowed the brain to increase in volume eLC Reading Born to Run 7 are humans well adapted for running endurance Archaeology T001s PP 3 Neanderthal links See Paleo tools link for more information on tools Recent OutofAfrica Model 7 Mitochondrial Eve mtDNA MRCA Stone Ages and tool traditions o Paleo lower Oldowan techniques hard and soft or baton percussion site Olduvai Gorge o Paleo middle 7 Mousterian Neanderthal technique Levalloisian or aking technique site Le Moustier France 0 Paleo upper 7 fully developed composite tools 0 Meso microliths eg harpoon barbs o Neo megaliths e g Stonehenge ground stone tools Fire found at various sites Neanderthals used fire Cromagnuns European H sapiens perfected use of fire 790000yearold site in Israel rates as the earliest hearth found in Europe or Asia 7 probably associated with H erectus Used willow poplar ash and wild olive Controversies 0 Man the hunter theory 0 Neanderthals controversies 7 ancestral to AMH cave bear cult poorly adapted o Clovis theory inhabitation of Americas preClovis or first Clovis Note Clovis refers to spear points with a uted base found in N America


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