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by: Vivienne Schimmel


Vivienne Schimmel
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Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vivienne Schimmel on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 2120H at University of Georgia taught by Welchdevine in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/202350/anth-2120h-university-of-georgia in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter 8 The first farmers Broad spectrum revolution 15000 Bp wider range of plant and animal life was hunted gathered collected caught and fished led to food production in the middle easy 10000 BP domesticated plants and animals became part of resources used by middle easterners Neolithic revolution the new stone age refers to the cultural period in which the first signs of domestication are present Climate change played a role in origin of food production Sedentism environments so rich in resources so lived settled lives in villages Food production began in marginal areaspiedmont steppe rather than in the optimal zones such as the Hilly Hanks 7000 BP simple irrigation systems developed Food production also directly related to increasing human population Most plants and animals are not easy to domesticate Chapter 9 State a form of social and political organization that has a formalcentral governemtn and a division of society into classes Causes of state formation Hydraulic systems agricultural economies based on water Long distance trade routes arise at strategic locations in regional trade networks Populationwarcircumscriptionmultivariate theory Attributes of states 1 state controls a specific territory 2 early states had productive farming economies 3early states used tribute and taxation 4states are stratified into social classes 5 had monumental architecturepublic buildingstemples 6 developed some form of recordkeeping First towns arose 10000 years ago in Middle East earliest town known as Jerichosraebeow sea level Pottery first reached Jericho 8000 years ago became widespread by 7000 halafian styledelicate ceramic style chiefdoms emerged in middle east Morton Fried1960 divide society into egalitarianranked stratified Egalitarian found among foragerslacks status distinctions except for those based on age gender talents achievements Ranked have hereditary inequality but they lack stratification Not all ranked societies are chiefdomssocieties in which relations among villages as well as among individuals were unequal Stratification sharp social divisions based on unequal access to wealth and power Kent Flanneryl999 only those ranked societies with loss of village autonomy should be chiefdoms Rise of the statecuneiformwedge shaped impression on clay smelting leads to metallurgyBronze Age Other early states Harappanindus river valley india Pakistan first Chinese state shang dynasty yellow river State formation in MesoamericaOlmec and Oaxaca early Mexian chiefdoms state formation involves on chiefdom incorporating several others into the emerging state it controls Zapotec first Mexican stateshift from raiding to warfare Teotihuacanvalley of mexico Cold new maize varieties and irrigation Aztectradeluxury goods Settlement hierarchy ranked series of communities that differ in size function and building types Why States Collapse invasion disease familne harm to the environmentdeforestation overuse land Mayanmonumentscalendarmathhieroglyphic decline famine stress the role of warfare political and social upheaval has as much or more to do with decline then the natural environment Chapter 10 Regional patterns affect the way we speak Nonhuman primate communication call systemslimited number of sounds sign language cultural transmission learning is fundamental attribute of language Linguistic displacement not found in call systems talk about things that are not present Human evolution allowed for language origin offers an adaptive advantage to homo sapiens Nonverbal communicationexpressions stances gestures mocements Kinesics the study of communication through body movements Phonology study of speech sounds Morphology studies the forms in which sounds combine to form words Lexicon dictionary containing all its morphemes and meanings Syntax arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences Phoneme a sound contrast that makes a difference Phoneticsthe study of speech sounds in general Phonemics studies only the significant sound contrasts Noam Chomskybrain contains limited set of rules for organizing language universal grammar Sapir whorf hypothesisdifferent languages produce different ways of thinking Focal vocabulary specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to group Semantics a language s meaning system Sociolinguistics investigate relationship between social and linguistic cariation We all engage in style shiftsswitch dialects Diglossiahigh and low variants of the same language Gender speech contrastswoman use different adjectives Stratification and symbolic domination Black English vernacular Historical linguistics deals with longer term change in language by studying daughter languages protolanguage is original language from which they diverge Language divides into subgroups When language disappear cultural diversity is reduced Chapter 11 Yehudi CohenAdaptive strategy a society s system of economic productiontypology includes five strategiesforaging horticultureagriculture pastorialism industrialism all modern foragers live in nationstates and depend to some extent on government assistance Recent foraging in Kalahari desert of south AfricaSan and certain remote forests Basic social unitband a small group of fewer than a hundred people related by kinship or marriage Mobility important for foragers shift from bands to band only make social distinctions based on age Horticulturecultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of productionland labor capital use simple tools slash and burn techniques not continous use of the same plot of landshifting cultivationrelationship between people and land is not permanent Agriculture required more labor because it uses land intensively animals irrigation terracingbuild stage after stage of terraced fields rising above the valley usually more densely populated then horticultural societies sedentary Pastoralism herders activites focus on such domesticated animals as cattlesheepgoatsyakreindeer Use their herds for food meat blood milk Confined to the Old World Nomadism the entire group moves with the animals throughout the year Transhumance part of the group moves with herds most people stay in the home village Economic Systems production distribution and consumption of resources horticulture major productive role to women mens work primarypastoralists men tend large animals women do the milking Means of productionland labor technology Alienation in industrial economies when factory workers produce for employer s profit they may not feel strong pride in or personal identification with products Nonindustrial societies have social relations with economic aspects Peasants small scale agriculturalists who live in nonindustrial states and have rent fund obligations Distribution Exchange Market principleitems bought and sold using money and value determined by supply and demand Redistribution goods move from the local level to a center then is redistributed Reciprocity exchange between social equals generalizedgiving something without expecting return balancedexhchange between people who are more distantly related negativenothing is reciprocated for a long time Potlatchfestive event within a regional exchange system among tribed of north pacific Coast in North America Sponsors give away food blankets and other items Enhanced ones reputation and increased prestigeeconomically wasteful behavior cultural adaptations to alternating periods of local abundance and shortage Chapter 12 Morton Fried political organization comprises those portions of social organization that specifically relate to the individuals or groups that manage the affairs of public policy or seek to control the appointment or activities of those individuals or groups applicable to states Elman Service four types of organization bands tribes chiefdoms states Tribes economies based on nonintensive food r 39 39 quot LiLuiLuI and r quot live in villages and organized into kin groups based on common descent Chiefdom sociopolitical organization intermediate between tribe and state Social relations based mainly on kinship but feature differential access to resources and permanent political structure Foragers The san the inuit aboriginal conflict resolution lacked formal law blood feud Tribes have more effective regulatory mechanisms but no means of enforcing decisions the village headlacks right to issue orders Big man elaborate version of village head had supporters in many villages rather than just one Ascribed status cannot control occupying themage gender Achieved status come through choices and actions Sodality relations based on nonkinship based on common age or gender Pantribal sodalities extends across the whole tribe spanning several villages likely to develop in the presence of warfare between tribes Age setsall men from the tribes component bands born during a certain time span Chiefdoms office a permanent position which must be filled when it is vacated Chiefly redistribution Social status based on seniority of descent Chiefdoms and states similar in that both are based on differential access to resources Stratification creation of separate social strate signified transition from chiefdom to state Max Weber3 related dimensions of social stratification wealthpower prestige States population controlfixing of boundaries census judiciarylawslegal procedure judgesEnforcementpermanent military and police Fiscaltaxation Chapter 14 Sexual dimorphism differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals Gender roles gender stereotypes gender stratificationunequal distribution of rewards Female labor predominates in domestic activities and child care women work more hours then men Gender among foragers men contributed much more to the diet than women did Gathering is generally womens work Men usually hunt and fish Gender status usually equal unless domesticpublic dichotomydifferentiation between the home and the outside world Men usually hunters and warriors Public and private spheres least separate hierarchy is least marked aggression and competition are most discourages and rights activities and spheres of influence of men and women overlap the most Gender among horticulturalists Women main producers Female status is higher because of matrilocality societiesreduced gender stratification Matriarchy patrilocality wage warfare against


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