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by: Jillian Graham


Jillian Graham
GPA 3.73


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jillian Graham on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPCM 1500 at University of Georgia taught by Palmer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/202374/spcm-1500-university-of-georgia in Speech & Communication at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Exam 3 Review The format of the test will be identical to previous tests The test will consist of a truefalse section a multiple choice section and an applied section Analysis of a communication episode will occur The test is 50 questions long and you will have 3 hours to complete it If you have any questions let me know CHPT 8 Sharing Personal Information 1 Be able to define selfdisclosure Intentionally shared private information that involves risk 2 Know the different elements of selfdisclosure intention choice and control of the information are in the hands of the selfdiscloser shared received and decoded by another individual private information that is not known by the public risk the possibility of negative outcomes includes selfassessments personal values interests fears concerns Experiences and so on See table 81 for a list of topics under private information Trust a dominant factor in determining whether one selfdiscloses or not beliefs that the other can keep a secret belief that the other will continue to care for us belief that the other will not perceive the information negatively 3 Understand the differences between quothistoryquot and quotstoryquot history information that sounds personal to the listener but appears impersonal to the speaker story information that might appear impersonal to the listener but is deemed personal by the speaker 4 Know the factors that influence selfdisclosure individual differences people have different needs of openness relational issues three patterns of selfdisclosure in relationships gradual increase then leveling off dating to be married stabilized then a sharp increase then leveling off coworkers to good friends acquaintances to good friends sharp increase then a leveling off friends or romantic partners who just quotclickedquot or quothit it off culture orientation high context vs low context values privacy vs publicity gender amp sex biology male male pairs seem to selfdisclose the least female female pairs seem to selfdisclose the most 5 Be able to identify different relationship based on their selfdisclosure patterns 6 Know important concepts related to selfdisclosure eg reciprocity dyadic effect quotclickingquot etc reciprocity the tendency to respond in kind to another s selfdisclosure dyadic effect the tendency for us to return another s selfdisclosure with one that matches it in level of intimacy 7 Know the principles of selfdisclosure selfdisclosure is rare 2 of communication can be considered selfdisclosure typically occurs in secure interpersonal relationships llbus rider phenomenon quotstrangers on a trainquot selfdisclosure is reciprocal lldyadic effect suggests that one s selfdisclosure will be matched with another s selfdisclosure of the same level of intimacy equalizes the reward and risks obtained by both members in the transaction selfdisclosure happens over time the intimacy level of selfdisclosure is positively associated with relationship development 8 Be able to identify the different explanations ie theories of self disclosure and their underlying components dialectics theory explains relational life as full of pushpull tensions resulting from the desire for polar opposites cyclic alternation helps communicators handle tension by feature the oppositions at alternating times segmentation allows people to isolate separate arenas for using privacy and openness selection means that you choose one of the opposites and ignore your need for the other integration can take one of the following three forms neutralizing involves compromising between the two oppositions disqualifying allows people to cope with tensions creates taboo topics or issue that are out of bounds for discussion reframing refers to rethinking the notion of opposition social penetration says that people like onions have many layers breadth a dimension of selfdisclosure indicating the number of topics discussed within a relationship depth a dimension of selfdisclosure indicating how much detail we provide about a specific topic The johari window a model used to understand the process of selfdisclosure consisting of a square with four panels that provide a pictorial representation of how quotknownquot we are to ourselves and others open self the pane that includes all the information about us that we know and have shared with others through disclosures hidden self the pane that includes the information about ourselves that we are aware of but have chosen blind self the pane that includes information others know about us that we are unaware of unknown self the pane that includes the information about ourselves that neither we nor others are aware of 9 Understand why someone might or might not self disclose reasons to selfdisclose to experience catharsis and improve psychological health and control catharsis a therapeutic release of tensions and negative emotions as a result of self disclosing to improve physical health to aware selfawareness to initiate a relationship to maintain existing relationships to satisfy I 39 of what 39 a good to escalate a relationship reasons not to selfdisclose to avoid hurt and rejection to avoid conflict and protect a relationship to keep your image intact and maintain individuality to reduce stress CHPT 9 Communication Conflict 1 Be sure to know how conflict is defined interpersonal conflict the interaction of interdependent people who perceive incompatible goals and interface from each other in achieving those goals 2 Know the differences between each of conflict s components interaction means that conflicts are created and sustained through verbal and nonverbal communication interdependence means that the people involved in the conflict are in a relation together and rely on one another perception refers to the psychological process involved in sensing meaning incompatible goals when one person wants something and thinks the other is standing in his or her way of getting that something 3 Be able to identify different types of conflicts by providing examples image conflict a conflict with another about one s sense of self content conflict a conflict that revolves around an issue value conflict a conflict in which the content is specifically about a question of right and wrong relational conflict a conflict that focuses on issues concerning the relationship between two people serial conflict conflicts that recur over time in people s everyday lives without a resolution metaconflict a conflict about the way a conflict is conducted 4 Know the factors that influence conflict gender and sex culture 5 Be aware of the myths surrounding conflict all conflict occurs from miscommunication all conflict can be resolved from good communication all conflict should involve a talk 6 Understand the different conflict patterns and how they might influence relationship development often relational partners exhibit the same conflict behaviors over time symmetrical escalation one partner s intensity is matched and enhanced by the intensity of the other partner symmetrical withdrawal the conflict avoidance of one is reciprocated by the conflict avoidance of the other Ion pu suit 39 msuit a complementary pattern where one partner s conflict behavior stimulates the opposite behavior in the other partner symmetrical negotiation the conflict negotiation strategies of the partner is reflected in the other partner 7 Be aware of the bright and dark sides of conflict dark side of conflict violence and aggression imposing one s will on someone else through verbal and nonverbal acts meant to hurt and cause suffering 50 of couples have experienced hints of subtle violence can be psychological or physical bullying persistent abuse where the victims believe it s difficult to defend themselves only takes place when distinct power difference are apparent communication behaviors isolating or ignoring nitpicky or excessively criticizing humiliating andor physical hurting someone bright side of conflict benefits of conflict airing feeling and increasing knowledge of one another enhancing the relation bond maximizing the chance of making the best decision stimulating a relationship back to what it was before 8 Be sure to understand how research has looked at conflict ie theories four part model describes the nature of conflict assumption 1 conflict contains four interdependent components assumption 2 for conflict to be managed effectively all parts of model must be addressed if a resolution is going to be found 4 components 1 Me refers to your own needs and desires placating passive response where you defer to others before yourself 2 You refers to the needs of the other pouncing aggressive response meant to shoot down the other person 3 Context refers to the emotional aspects computing refers to ignoring the emotional aspects 4 Subject refers to the topic distracting refers to deflecting the attention away from the topic explanatory process model describes the process of conflict assumption 1 conflict occurs from sequence of 5 episodes assumption 2 the completion of the sequence will influence the dynamics of the next conflict 5 episodes episode 1 distal context the history and areas of disagreement between the two parties episode 2 proximal context rules emotions beliefs of the individuals episode 3 conflict interaction occurs when problem begins to surface and someone or both people begin to address it episode 4 proximal context immediate results after the conflict interaction episode 5 distal context residual feeling and reflection about the interaction 9 Know how power is related to conflict power the ability to control the behavior of another use of power 4 uses of power for compliance direct application using any resource at your disposal virtual use of power communication the potential for a direct application of power indirect application of power refers to employing power without demonstrating it hidden power asserting dominance without saying words sex differences who wears the pants in the relationship sterotypes would suggest men do However wives exhibited more power in the making decisions wives talked more husbands gave in and accepted their wives opinions maybe both do reciprocation of indicators of power empowerment helping to actualize our own or another person s power CHPTJ 39 39 inClosequotquot quot 1 Be able to describe Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs selfactualization needs esteem needs love and inclusion needs safety needs physical needs 2 List and explain the different communication patterns that have been used to examine close relationships communication patterns the content of the interaction do their conversations show breadth and depth What do they do the diversity of the interaction do individuals experience each other in different contexts the quality of interaction do the partners talk affectionately to each other the intimacy of the interaction do partners discuss private details of their lives the partner s perception of the interaction do they have the same beliefs and values Does it seem like that your partner just understands you the commitment reflected in the interaction do partners openly discuss their devotion to one another Do they suggest they willingness to sacrifice for the relationship the satisfaction expressed in the interactions does the other person match what you believe a llsignificant other is 3 Understand the different perspectives framing close relationships cultural performances cultural members try to follow what their culture deems a close relationship cognitive constructs over time we have built up a knowledge base about what a close relationship is and how it is built relational scripts a sequence of key events that we expect to happen in a relationship narrow what should happen on a first date broad how a romantic relationship progresses linguistic constructions the way we label something defines our relationship 4 What communication practices are indicative of different types of close relationships friendship there aren t any religious ceremonies to sanction friendships or any legal bonds make dissolving them difficult romantic relationships they involve sexual and romantic feelings families their ties can be voluntary or involuntary 5 Be aware of the different explanations of close relationships with particular attention on dialectics social exchange and stage models systems theory wholeness means that you can t understand a system by taking it apart and understanding each of its parts in isolation from one another interdependence builds on the notion of wholeness by asserting that members of systems depend on each other and are affected by one another hierarchy states that these shifts and accommodations don t exist in a vacuum subsystems lowerlevel systems of relationship Ex Sibling relationship within a family suprasystems higherlevel systems of relationship Ex Neighborhood consisting of several families boundaries or openness refers to the fact that hierarchy is formed by creating boundaries around each separate system calibration centers on how systems set their parameters check on themselves and self correct equifinality means the ability to achieve the same goals or ends by a variety of means dialectics theory focuses on the tensions relational partners feel as a result of desiring two opposing things at once autonomy and connection dialectic centers on our desire to be independent or autonomous while simultaneously wanting to feel a connection without partner novelty and predictability dialectic manifests in our simultaneous desires for excitement and stability judgment and acceptance dialectic involves criticizing a friend as opposed to accepting them affection and instrumentality dialectic poses a tension between framing your friendship with someone as an end in itself internal dialectics tensions resulting from oppositions inherent in relational partners communication with each other judgment and acceptance dialectic affection and instrumentality dialectic external dialectics tensions between oppositions that have to do with how relational partners negotiate the public aspects of their relationship public and private dialectic ideal and real dialectic public and private dialectic specifically centers on how much of the friendship is demonstrated in public and what parts are kept private ideal and real dialectic reveals the tension between an idealized vision of friendship and the real friends that one has social exchange theories the heart of social exchange thinking lies in two concepts costs and rewards costs those things in relational life that we judge as negative rewards those parts of being in a relationship that we find pleasurable theory of interdependence the idea that relationships are interdependent comparison level a person s standard level for what types of costs and rewards should exist in a given relationship comparison level for alternatives a comparison of the costs and rewards of a current relationship to the possibility of doing better in a different relationship relative power position a situation in which a partner in a relationship believes that he or she has a higher power status than the other partner and so will engage in risky strategies without fearing


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