INTRO PUBLIC SPEAK
INTRO PUBLIC SPEAK SPCM 1100
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Exam 3 Study Guide SPCM 1100 Spring 2011 Dr Schaller Chapter 4 Why are listening skills valuable a listening takes up much of our time good listening skills are good job skills good listening skills are good academic skills listening and being heard empowers people and personal relationships you have an investment in the listening sitituation What are some barriers to listening a laungauge differences a vocabulary differences a cultural barriers o cultural allusions Ireferences to things you have no cultural awareness for a personal barriers 0 physical impairments o psychological o sterotypes lputting someon in a category and assuming they fit all of that category 0 prejudice preformed biases orjudgements a speech thought differential 500 vs 150 350 word lag a 4 thought patterns 0 smal depature 0 going off on a tangent 0 private argument 0 large depatures from the topis What is the Chinese character for listening comprised of a eyes ear heart What are the strategies to improve listening a use cultural schemas 0 mental models that guide perception intepretataion and recollection of a speech a know you listening purpose What is comprehensive listening What are strategies for comprehensive listening a comprehensive listening is listening for a purpose a imporved by prepareing in advance 0 attentiondirecting strategies think about what you are listening to elaboration strategies look for organizational patterns use strategies that complement you personal learning style 0 take note ofthe speakers manner but don t get caught up in the delievery What is critical listening What are strategies for critical listening a critical listening is asking why and sorting out where you belong in an arguement a improve by asking 0 what is the speaker s goal 0 should I trust himher o is this speaker knowledgeable about this topic 0 Does this message make sense 0 O O O O O Wheere does the supporting information come from Reliable sources what will I gainlose by adopting these ideas 0 what problems go along w this position 0 am i being swayed by emotions What is dialogical listening a listening actively How do you give appropriate verbal and nonverbal feedback when listening a nonverbal o posture lface speaker and lean forward slightly 0 distance 0 movements lavoid distracting ones What is the DRE method for giving written feedback a describerespong evaluate What is receiver apprehension a anxiety people experience while listening 0 namely when people fear they will misinterpretinadequately understand or fail to adjust psychologically to the message lhappens a lot in the new situations in college Chapter 12 What are languages symbols and words a languages 0 verbal codes consisting of symbols that a speech community uses for communication a symbols 0 signs that represent or stand for objects and concepts n words 0 verbal symbols that stand for or represent ideas What is denotative meaning a what a word names or identifies What is connotative meaning a what the word means to you the emotional overtones related feelings and associations that cluster around a word 0 ex the Fuhruer scene in Die Welle Why should we consider these two meanings in public presentations a because words are more than just definitions and you don t want to insult anyone What is an epithet n words or phrases often with negative connotations that describe some quality of a person or a group 0 ex nerdpig gt cop prolife gt anti abortion What is a euphemism a word or phrase that substitutes an agreeable or inoffensive word for a more embarrassingunpleasantoffensive word 0 downsizedlet go instead of fired What is jargon a a specialized technical vocabulary that serves the interests and activities of a specific group What is inclusive language a ethical terminology that affirms and includes rather than excludes persons or groups of people What is sexist language a language that negatively influences the way listeners perceive men or women o nonparallel language language that does not treat the 2 sexes equally lex man and wife are non parallel but husband and wife are parallel actress is non parallel as are male nurse and female judge What is ageist language a language that negatively influences the way listeners think about older people What is racist language a language that privileges one racial group over another How can we avoid using the above types of language in public presentations a avoid sterotyping a avoid invisibility o langauge can render groups invisible luse specific lables instead ofthe generic he avoid demeaning langauge avoid dismissive langauge avoid undue emphasis on differences 0 say my professor instead of my Latina professor unless its need How do you use language effectively a be accurate 0 meaning context and grammar be appropriate a be concise o eliminate unnecessary verbiage be clear be concrete 0 use concrete words rather than abstract or general terms 0 avoid vague words imprecise terms with indefinite boundaries a be interesting 0 alliteration lsame beginning sounds o rhyming o repetition lof words or phrases a antimetabole repeat but in reverse in a second phrase some words from the first phrase o metaphor Icompare 2 dissimlar things 0 simile luse like and as to compare things a archetypal symbols recurring metaphors and similes that arise from shared human and natural experiences 0 personification o hyperbole lexaggeration for effect Chapter 13 What does it mean to say that visual aids transcend culture Jaffe 2010 p 229 a pictures allow people to see and hear you message and make it easier for people who may not know what the word means get your message anyway What are the four major functions of visual or audio aids a some information is very complex and the right visual or audio support helps audiences understand it a visuals can emphasize or reinforce important ideas a they relieve monotony and help keep audiences attention a they appeal to a variety of learning preferences How do you choose the right type of visual or audio aid a choose the best support not the kind that s the easiest to create 0 3d visuals lobjects Imodels lpeople 0 2d visuals llists a text based visuals o rely more on words than images 0 6x6 rule lno more than 6 lines with 6 words Icharts a image basedvisuals o flowcharts o organizationalcharts lshow hierarchies and relationships lgraphs a line a bar a pie a picture 0 audiovideotaped visuals 0 photos 0 drawingsdiagramsmaps What are the different types of visual or audio aids that speakers can use a audio resources a video resources What are the rules discussed in class for using chalkboards Whiteboards and handouts What are the design principles for visual aids a choose a readable font 0 on handouts use a serif font w lines at the top and bottom of th letters lsans serif are better for smaller chunks of text Imaintain consistency Imake them large enough to see 0 use formatting features wisely 0 use color for emphasis What are the general guidelines for using visual and audio aids a make sure everyone can hear and see it don t create a visual for a visuals sake display visuals as you discuss them talk to your audience and not your visuals rehearse with you visuals don t violate norms or expectations a whenever machines are involved have a plan B Ch 14 Types of delivery and when you would use each type a manuscript 0 teleprompter a memorized a impromptu a extemporaneous How do you maximize your personal appearance in speech delivery a make the most of your appearenace a make the most of clothing and acessories o sincere not cynical What is impression management a self presentation using the metaphor of a staged drama in which we use props and personal mannerisms to create and maintain an impression of ourselves How do you develop effective mannerisms a control you gestures a make eye contact How do you vary your vocal behaviors a work on clear pronunciations o articulation 0 stress a use vocal variation a pause for effect a put it all together 0 communicative competence o confident style 0 conversational style What is articulation a the way you enunciate or say specific sounds What is stress a accenting specific syllables or words What is vocal variation a changes in volume rate and pitch that combine to create impressions of the speaker What is communicative competence a the ability to communicate in a personally effective and socially appropriate manner What is a confident style of delivery a way of speaking characterized by effective vocal variety fluency gestures and eye contact What is a conversational style of delivery a speaking that s comparatively calmer slower and less intense but maintains good eye contact and gestures Chapter 17 In persuasive speaking what is a claim a an assertion that s disputable or open to challenge What is a factual claim a argument about existence causation or predictions What is a definition claim a determining a category in which a thing belongs What is a value claim a argument about right or wrong moral or immoral beautiful or ugly What is a policy claim a argument about the need or the plan for taking action What is cognitive dissonance theory 0 Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding conflicting ideas simultaneously The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational m to reduce dissonance They do this by changing their attitudes beliefs and actions21 Dissonance is also reduced byjustifying blaming and denying It is one ofthe most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology A closely related term Cognitive Disequilibrium was coined by Jean Piaget to refer to the experience of a discrepancy between something new and something already known or believedExperience can clash with expectations as for example with buyer39s remorse following the purchase of an expensive item Chapter 18 What is an argument 0 intentional purposful speaking that involves reason and judgement What is a counterargument o umm duh What are Aristotle s Artistic Proofs Logos ethos and pathos o logos o verbal arguments from words in the speech itself Ireasoning by analogy figurative and literal o figurative by metaphor a literal parallel cases Ireasoning inductively Ireasoning deductively o pathos o emotional proofs o motivation lappeals to positive emotions lappeals to negative emotions lappealing to needs lunderstanding complex motivations a testing emotional appeals o ethos 0 speaker credibility Idemonstrating good sense 0 intelligence 0 sound reasoning o composure lexhibiting good character lexpressing goodwill o identification 0 coorientation a common ground lshowing dynamism What is inductive reasoning a starting with specific instances or examples then formulating a reasonable conclusion What is deductive reasoning a starting with a premise and applying it to a specific case What is a fallacy a failure in logical reasoning that leads to unsounds or misleading arguements Know the types of fallacies ad hominem red herring etc a unsupported assertation ad populum bandwagon appeal to popular opinion ad hominem an attack on the messenger rather than the message post hoc fallacy of causation a false cause overgeneralization red herring argument false analogy o comparing 2 way too dissimilar things to warrant the conclusion drawn a false dichotomy 0 an either or fallacy that ignores other reasonable options What are appeals to positive and negative emotions What are appeals to needs a narrative and examples positive a analogies negative What is a proof a reason to believe How does a speaker demonstrate good sense exhibit good character express goodwill and show dynamism a demonstrating good sense 0 intelligence 0 sound reasoning o composure a expressing goodwill o identification Icoorientation 0 common ground a show dynamism o be enthusiastic What is identification or coorientation a concerns shared among speakers and listeners that help overcome divisions and bring diverse people together What is common ground a specific areas or concerns that both speaker and audience consider important Appendix B What is a speech of introduction What are the guidelines for giving one a who is this person why are they important 0 provide name and job title 0 give a few relevant details about the person s educational and occupational background as well as personal characteristics or accomplishments tha twill hepl the audience to get to know them close by welcoming the new comer to the group O