INTERPERSONAL COMM SPCM 1500
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Date Created: 09/12/15
a u SPCM 1500 Final Exam Review y 413 i 39 quot i r 39 1 u39 39quot quotr gt quot1 Ev gtiquot n39 39ii i A l o Tlie de nitions of and distinctions betivee39n symbol signs symptoms and semblances 0 Signs and referents basic elements of a communication code 39 a it t I A sign i39s a ything that stands foi sdrnethihgquot elsequot 75 I Signals are signs that are designed for cor rnimication quot9 39i 39 41 1 1 1t 9 s 1 w39 an 39 mt quotm 3 quot w 0 Natural Signs are called symptoms i r Arbitrarygsigns sknowp asambslsl A a V 0 L Signs that resemble theirkreferent sare called semblances 0 The definitions and distinctions between acculturation and encultlir ation 5 w my H 0 Enculturations t 1 I 939 as w a wn 1 i n i I X e 39 I The process thiough ivhich you39 learn39the cultureinto which you re born your native culture i fay1 i a t 5 S I a was HAMr 1 Acculturation th r I as in 1 w gum as g 51 12 5 317 quot I The process by which you learn the rules and norms of a culture that is different from your native culture and that modi es your original or native culture I Principles of interpersonalcommunication ngggt 953 1 3593 v i t 3 r i o Interpersonal communication is irreyersible and inevitable One cannot not communicate a gmjquot 1 3 g g f o Interpersonalcommunication inVolves rules EvE quota f 1 1 J o Intei39personal communication is learned 1 3 2343 3 g a 1 g l 3 a e o Interpersonal communication is alviays affected by culture and pgyver 39 pg i 0 1Three category systems ofemotion min as m 2 n w rm 1 v o Intensity i i 1 a 43 H t 39 o Positivenegative valencei n39 by v s win a 3 no Actionpassivity i m x 33439 914quot1 quotPr 1 i 5 vhf 7 quot39 3 The definition and distinction between emotional quot quot quot emotionally and emotional experience vrahzz 57 1 5 tin chimera Leg 39 o Emotional communication g 4 2 quot3quot i gut 2 Im Means actually talking aboutexperience 3gt25g r Z a o Communicating emotionally ac A23 ya l gsi 39 I Suggests that the emotion itself is not the content of the messageybut rather a a property ofit 52193 37339 e35 4 Z quotFifi 5 o Emotional expeiien39ce gt u t 3 M 4 37 r g Fquot 3 IVRefers tothefeelingofernotionq aa r may y I I x 0 Hdw emotioir is communicated quot wax A or Facial Expressions 4 r 2 r v I Anger disgust fear happiness sadnessrand surprisegv n o VocalCues 4 l x i s39 3quot s o Gestures in a gt35 4 o Verbal Cues quot1 r a r 3 33 3 o Combining Cues waif 1 ma xu ni inci t l o The dark sidesof language sexist racist language static evaluation polarization 39 rei cation 1 3913 39 n y 3 1393quot mequot 9 its a 1 if 3939m quot a was Sexismr f j v W t I Unnecessarin differentiates bw females and males or exclu e trivialize or diminish either sex Parks amp Robertson 2000 sap H iszzzhjz mothered nurturing behavior s dag5 rte u o r fathered biological role a t L r 2 quotquotquot I 1 h 5 r n v I t m h 5 1 i 0 working mother quot3 mmquot a m f 31 f e I Eliminate Eliminate sexspeci cterms or using neutral terms they instead of r 1 i39t t39 mna itirihe she etc 9532quot Am may genequot 1 mi d332 333311 imj z t i39ii r O Racismisksv 7 395 Aim quotif5 i 3 t 7 1513 3 a Hquot f i who a i I Racist language Classifies members of one racial group as superior and others as rinferiorltA39sante 2002 1 g t 533 m p v x 39VHV LII i u V10 11 A w39 I Make sure your communication is free of o 39enSive labels and slurs 39 a V 2 2 l at Z4quot39 LQ 39 0 Static Evaluation 39 or g r a 2 z uz a at g 39 r 1333 39 a I Not recogniz ng that people and relationships change over time and responding i J wquotquot PWJY t4 39ux 5 x Jedi l 7 if 391 r 391 w r J to peoplethe same way you39would inthe past i o Polarization3026 squotk funquot 1quotlllzt i39rlu It wm may a quot39lquot quot7 5 32w 5 5m ntjrgr 3 L I People use the eitheror aspect of language and speak ofthe World in extremes quot ii r 5397quot 391 4quot quotMost people and thing s fall39somewher 39in betWeen quot 39 39 f o Rei cation rim swim v I The tendency to respond to ords or39 labels for thingsglrath er than the things 5quotFll l 39 i i1 5 thh rhselv esf i m JRT 333 5quot rquot Jr Li 4 4213 3 quot 1 1539 l Eii ih g sexispecincterms1 it 39 quot3 quot f r 0 Hg 1 using the plural they eliminates th rne cessity for hey sh39ez a Mr 1 531 m u a o EfgSZrnianki d39hurnanity humaiifbeingsfliuman race 1 quotHiJ W i iwi 39 I Firemen re ghters quotquot 1quot 339 39 r I Policemen police o ic l39r s ari M er 39i mm i n39 mp 2 i I Strategic39ambiguity v equivocation 3 quot3 quot 75 339 39 r ft 1 i I P o EquiV39oc39ationquot quotBurgh 7159quot m 4quot 5 i tv39wif we E 1quot quotHanoi I Choosing your words carefully to giv alistenei a false39impressioii without quot actually lying 5 quotV39 0 Strategic Ambiguity 39 metf Mitzidzquot 1339 us 3 I Leaving out cues in a message on purpose to encourage multiple interpretations f i 15alfif fi llbyOthefg izvit ttwquot iam izfmv tar3L3 on we z i Km Neiz slwu39z t 4 0 Confirmation and discontinuation z quotquoti 39 v i v39w 45 93 wail 11351 m o Discon rmation pm inwizm r 33 g 3332 x I Communication pattern xin which youTigr ior39ev quotpers on s presence as well as that quotiii 39 4quot 75 39z39J quot quot1133 quot iquot person s communications w l viii o39 3Cjn rmatio 3 i Twila i 239 3 xix111 59617 mzr hi 4155 quot quot 1 5 39 I Acknowledgment and support of another a 391 IT v I statements 39 2 v quot ii 39 A r r as 1 x s a t 3 3 o Imessages acknowledge our pOSitions whereas you messages direct responSibility onto w a e an r t othem tub aipunukn 39 i 57 W a o It statements 11 an I I It bothers r ne when you re late 39i aii i 2 u39 n 39iii 15 4 quot I I m worried when you re late i 11 39 v I It s nice to see you r 1 4 x v if I I m glad to see you g 1 339 391 3 I But statements Xbut Y 1 quot iquot 39 g ouerou are really a great person butf39l think we ought to39stop S ing each been i i quot5 l t l 0 You ve done good work for us but we re going to have to let you go if h i a 3 3 0 You re really a great person I think we ought to stop seeing each other because I m just i 143 u not ready to make a39commitmeritzcquotquot3 ltG E tmz fiat quotrxsa 39 F 0 culture and language idio iii quot 1 AW vi 1421 39r aft 392 1quot I 0 Culture and ethnicity 2 s zixsns39t min viquot My 35 w w F I t 3 1 cu 39 A vjrm11t i Ufa t 39i 39 quot L 4 I Idioms word or phrase that has an understood meaning Within a culture but that a a meaning is not derived by exact tr anslationn w i M 3 0 Space and communication territoriality room and fufnitur design t iinpersonal v i a personal communication in business a 3 a 42 r It 3 quot i g o Territoriality pajwi awe 393 a an 39 I The possessive reaction to an area or to particular obj ct s t quot a v s n I Primary territories areas you might call yourown39 4 21 3 I lt I I 39Secondary territories areas that don t belong toyed buf39y39ou have occupied them i and you re associated with them v w 14 2 of 239 a u I Public territory areas that are open t o all people i 39ti zi39 LIW VESJ 39 9 r i k 3 Space and Communication Muftit this Jr quot quotm um gains r u a t i It iiiHo39w do you arrange the objects iin your em iir onment the desks chairs tables P and bookcases Cries 215 73quot 1473233quot in mi 2 mail 1 Tufts kmr39r i Mug 45 gr l 3 ifniture design 1 in 212 mi39 zit4 41 155 quotquot n V I Arrangement offurniture 3 i z if g i I Reom COlOl trquot 1 ma u 33 2 f if Ema W yrs quot a 0 You might claim ownershipfof these by the number of times you use them or see them ie yourifa39vbrite chair a room quot 39 0 Color communication i g 39quotii 39m 5 quot 139 2 0 Color is one of the most subtle environmental in uences a39 W 393quot quot n 0 Color has symbolic meaning affects ourimo39ods and39perceptions 239 x f lt 3 e Yellow black and39pur39ple convey joy quotsadness and wisdomr spe ctiv ely 0 saih ws iimp ons about men and Wotnenviii business r 39w i 3 it P rt 0 Men Take UpMore Space itquot 3t Siemens thingy quotEaAstra 92 Hit t x o Handshakes Firm not bone crunching z u v if 3 39 s y quot 0 Women Smile More And Are Expected to Smile v 31 12 r 2 1 t 3 we rZWomenrMaintain Ey Contact Longer i ir 4W vquot sir V 7 3 0 Functions of nonverbal communication regulating and maintaining relationships 2quot regulating interaction exercising social39doininan e and an exampiedr each A o I don t know She gives you the apparent functions sothink vof an example i 0 Body communication clothes and adornmentattitudes associated With clothingT w o Encompasses all of the physical characteristics if an individual including body size skin 4 39 color hair color and style facial features 91539 I I 3 quot quot gt31 quot iw39J tr 4 0 Impact interpersonal communication e g skin color body 8126 I j a 0 Body artifacts eg clothing 1 quot 3i 1 4v 9 t r quot l a 3 a quot39 in x I Clothing indicates a great amount of information about self 39 s h 39 H t t 1 quotU aquot I In addition attitudes most often assocmted With clothing relate to i t y m x 4 9 a i w tnVa 39 n 0 quot A39 deSire to conformdre s to f t the part i z t s v zr in av 0 A desrre for selfexpressroh f L 39 39 iquot I m pf u t fquot 3quot Alan 9 its I i r 1 5F 1 31 f hf e 3 A deSire for aesthetic satisfaction 1 L mam w o Prestige values 5 I x n quotg h 7 t 939 a r m r it 3 39 o The deSirc for social partiCipation quot 5 we Him 3339s ti 1 ram o PhySIcal comfortvand R 3 r g a Y i d f y L39u L39 fume an h 39quot 3 quot g 0 Economy 5 if thyit s 9 Equilibrium theory Crane s survey A pm m is W 35 3 L p1u Vrri a g i39Ji r Heyquot 1v 1 3 I a to SpaceDistance as an indicator of mtnnacy My th K mm A Us 1 t m 4 v t o Intimacy distanceyary together L in 4 1 4 5 do 3 The greater the intimacy the39 closer thebdistance IOWer intimacy greaterrdistance y lt au39 It 39 r J v I v 1 1 quot It J39l quot v Iquot i 4 gJ39 o EgCrane s survey whm mjm Mm gt 5 i I Distressed couples distance was 25 greater than happy39couples quot 3 A 3 i quot I y r k l i A I I Distressed couple sistoodrl48inches apart iiquot i r 39r r o 39 Tim perceptionformalvinformaltime 5121 Tn 5w3 39ra Ha Home 339 sq o The study ofa person s use of time s u tan a mammalquot quotHome Si 39Llquot 4 0 Time can be an indicator of status 43 r in my d o PERCEPTIONVOF TIME a 3955 mam 7 3 a a in 2 wit a I Time is Money 239 fi 539 3 391 Tn 3m H 3 time39s 4 quot q392rrrs As mTim isPowern t 52m 1 a 391 2 117 ratwanquot I Time is Status Whosees who fand when c g at Em 0 Technical time scienti c r neasurement of times is 39f mmquot 1 o a Formal time time that society formally teaches u i mm a 3 Em t A 23 a 2 wa r o rlnform al timentime thatincludes three cencepts2duration punctuality and activity l mu 21 a391uti39 39iHappy couples stoodhlslz4 inches apart 39 in swig ft rad i i an 1 4 quot1 iii 0 Nonverbal communication andculture cultural univers39ills o 6 facial expressions of emotion anger disgustgfeai happiness sadness and surprise are biologically innate r in an 2 r m ur39am o Correspond to similarities in emotidn words across languages my w it writ same bodyparts ar e used rjz 3 in s 4 x 1 5 F I convey39similar meaningsvr ca Mfris ygv tr I accompany verbal saifii f g xii ii ff n 12 I motives same 1 l wi 231 5 3 wm this 2mm 7 1 n quotginquot 0 Examples of how culture displaywrulesr 2min j39v i fz osmium 1 any a 39 h quot f LI 0 Prolonged eye contact r rude threateningtdisrespectful European Americans I Smile when talking about personalanguish to not burden othersvJapanr a a l 0 Examples of don t touch middle ground and touch cultures a 5 39 i o Don t Touch Cultures ash193quot w r v n 39lt5vkeii39i39 o r I Asia extreme nocontact cultures um i t aluw wv to j I Japan Canada England Scandinavia Other N EurOpea n countries Australia is engagier iyetyilow tOUCh but gaining394 auntiegrinquot kiwi 4531 3 Murmurs t I Appropriate t0uchlimitedtoshaking handsin business situations No13th or t r a Halo 1 quot 3524 A expressions ofaffection mg J39 3 i M w a r 0 Middle round cultures imam 39iili39r J THLH Lem musin isms fazi liii r e the a a quot 395iquotFrancegt Chmaahelandtzeww 5 25 7 quot9 U MT Zz r zquotrquoti U aw i i if r quot39v s x t v l V Ia US betweenf no touch and middlega w m H VNH v V i i s t I French double C hQCkkaISSySE anyway a mu 2 w my 9 l glg i I Ireland male hug 233 is r H u i 1 0 Touch Culturesu m3 i s 311321 3 Friar or g a a vi 39439 Middl East count i Indianazmgkmmm whisk 1 rz a I Latin countries ltaly Greece pain Portugal Russia I Touch is frequent and common f 5 K i n p M 39 I Italy Greece Latin cultures mjentouching women is not a sign of sexual harassment 39 quot quot X 139 t 5 quot I Touch often sign of friendship w I u j unvmm was 3 am atheist o Touching opposite sex 1 1 WW f I 0 Americans very little and femalefemale gt malelmal e39 3 0 Japanese malemalegtAmericans 39 quot 5 EU m A k gr i o w Mediterranean cultures nialemale touch a irty al39eii iariasr feriialefjfeniial i t39du lii 39 o J 39 39 min3 viii quotUni 41m J Hi 71quot 3 1 w Arabs high same gender touch 1 l i and r ya ff 5 rm i 0 Americans touch opposrte sex far more th J apanese or Mediterranean r xi 7 u Tinr til 1 tv I lquot 39n J Hum u w39 39 C 7 o Arabs amp Far East more touch av01dant than all cultures for malefemale touching a 32 rm we 3 Business Handshake 1 r r 1 39ri 39 39 Unfiili rlul fit li itiw 7 w39 i ti y 39 A 39Q z w cut M5quot b 2 Mb 39i a b39hL I 39 1 i i P ll J V a 1 o Germans Firm Brisk and Frequent v o Arabs Gentle R e39peated and lingering A 0 French Ligh t Quick and Frequent i 0 South Asians Gentle Often Lingering 39 39 xo British Moderately rm amp frequent o Koreans Moderately Firm a radar M i i n ik39qz i Lam r 0 Latin Americans Firm and Frequent 39 39 sl 53 3 Trom39lMost Asiansquot Very Gentle and Ir ifrequentyr quotr1quot 355 is t 5 3 0 North Americans Firm and Infrequent 2 2r a 133 0quot Sel fdkisclosi ireede ned z 393112 39 A a i 31 re amt teary u in en sl1 x 33 no The process ole tting anotherl person know what youthirik feelfor want 9 a o Revealing private personal information that can not be acquired by somewhere else 0 Intentional y quoti r 222 9 3 iii i39 271 a 3 I Key components self disclosure trust degree of risk 5 3 v i 0 Usually involves some degree39ofriskifhl A vquot g t r 9quot 0 Public v private vgm ansarrgv w w I Public facts that we39 make parts of our public image I 39 Private information assessments oth goo dand bad that we make about ourselves includes ourint erestsafears andcqncernsx 0 TruSt 7159 lz quotquot7quotiui39 ti n 39 Inst existswhsnwu fully bsljsve in the iategzitx and Pharact r of your 33 in august QPiQ qal39EQrgfi ing yearn J a shafti3 i1rgtaA quoti39iquot 1 39 r Trust combines a r rags 3 simuhtfqr 1 Carlng infra i 391 a39i 39 l it quot39 gt34 r39 vi L i a x 39 competency Hum1 g 3549 2 s e 39 35 39iitiy wi i 1 quotpm 3 391C0m 1itmentm timid g mug 43quot h ia in 533 394 39 0 Evaluative and descriptive selfdisclosure Js x ivzi y 4r sew h o Evaluative disclosures yquot 5 aimET 19 395 Us 2137 lf v 3 Tell another how we judge otherpe oplegthings and events Wh twe like or v 1f 3 don t like s Ji 513quot 351 Kw 3quot Mj 09415425 JilinYquot quot39 a igigo DescriptiVe disclosures i 3 rsf W73 3 39 Selfrevelations i r 239 0 Private v public information Emu ii 32quot 2 32quot cs logisPubliCifacts that we make parts ofourlpublic imagery 143 5 239 a 9 o 39 Private information assessments aboth goodand bad that wemake about ourselves 0 includes our interests fears and 39con cemsyn a imp12 A an wt v i o The Johari Windowz v w i l saga73 2 mi 3m Eu an o i L fi39 a5 2 st gmi i 11 7quotququot43 w JP quot r Known to self Not known to self when 5 53452 r a A mm 75 J 82w 3 m rf i1 News i 2 r 335 39 vquot h 3quot vi a Jinx quottquot H mm v 24 u i wasquot i 2 nger 1 I nix 5 39 41 3 if Known to others Op en Blind iiquot 39 3quot 5 f quot 1339 quot5 39 my new 32 MW 41 i A in 9 v 5 u r f y Maw 138 39yiquot H J 2 w in i a 39 was 12 w r as 39 3 qgfav f 39 r39 i 2213 tn Liz s lt I m lxa 5351 3 S 39 4 55 5 li i39quot39s Not kno Wn to39 others Hidden 39 39 IJ5Un1 nox ng 1w m WE j 9 l K i 9 4 5 k a 1 139 w x e Y n 4 Q V H w I h viva le e z i quotquot In 391quot 4239 an irt1quot i w 39 1 9 quot i we 2 am lui g 3115 39 RWJM s u v w x uquot n 1quot i elm smin Sirn 3 5133 3 w 3quotiliquotquot1s faihl 33mm V a tMrs t u x 39 r I i 1 I W 392 sure a i an s M lirtm n r I 39 39 4 K i it J I a Social Penetration Theory w r39 w quota m in v r quot H gr i 1h 739 4 W63 surf 0 Changes over Time r o Person s layers all the information about th em39x ranging fromithe r no39st ob39vious toth most personal 39 ximlt1izi has Am i it l quotl quot p rmquot 0 Relationships progress from super cial exchanges to more intimate on es m as 0 Speci c stagesiofsrelationships are characterized byispem c patterns of selfdisclosure 1 f quot j 933 fl 3 lift PM i 39 1635 h 39oquot f Breadth the variety o fvtopicsi vain v miss 39 a the different domains of disclosure i I biographicalidata a quot33 we 34 quots 1zgt u 2 w Jasmine at a preferences food cliithiiig hiusic etc x 39i n n fl 7 a i ambitions I w This r 1 k y 7 I 0 139J conyic39ti6ns f ligldus wf 39i ffr Join m x gun a m t 39r n 3iquotquoto i deeply heldfantasies and fearsquot m 394 1 quot quot 7 quot 39 0 Eoiic39ebt 5f selfiwho39im 1 quot h t vquot 39 39 quotW 39 l 0 Depth the personal signi cance 3quotquot v t t 5 1 n 4 Aunt quot quot xi 2 39 s rquotquot quotI vr 39 occurs when we tell our friend how39 we feel about the topics n r kCha ractenstlcs of selfdisclosure scarce occurs usually between dyad reciprocal occurs Ill 39 a mom 39 39 v 11 quotir39n39 L 0 gth e context of time a t o SelfDisclosure is Relatively Scarce vim 3 t i n r I 2 of our communication 1 i4 m a i p I Most of our interactions are short ioutin hnd relatively impersonal Only a few l39u h 139 f 4 l 1 of our interactions are truly selfdisclosiize39riIie J11 H t is v o SelfDisclosure Usually Occurs Dyads u tm 1 1 xi Jitr m W Hi A 3935 ii 418 the Other Person lmportant to Youquot9 PM 1 H 39h 393 1 A w I People disclose the most in relationships that are clds e tii i 1 I Bus rider phenomenon self disclosure ma de to Strangeis i39ath er than close friends or relative 39 t we t Sm 3 dueaita 39v x fez due o quot 323 3395 1 a r o Selfdiscloshre is reciprocal I The dyadic effect retiirning39anbther s selfdisclosiure with lone that matches game332m n35 1litinlevel ofin macsr 2 39s39an 21 11 5 quot39iquotquottfh ftail o Selfdisclosure occurs in the context oftiihev an gear is eat unit I I Tir39ne 39and intimacy level of our self disclosure Vary together 4quotrquot 5min 23115 Z 5quot 1 I Time affects the meaning of disclosure E in c 0 Reasons for selfdisclosure 17 r 7 i 13 we quot macff 0 To experience catharsis and improve psychological health W a 39 I Catharsis therapeutic release of tensions and negative emotion through 39 disclosing 5 t o To improve physrcal health mg g 1 D f 9 33 3 3 may 5 0 To achieve self awareness v N 0 To initiate a relationship 0 To maintain existing relationships 7 H 4 quot 1 I To enhance closeness39warmquotth39 Md trustT j i 3 0 To satisfy expectations of what constitutes a good relationship 0 To escalate a relationship 1 l i 4 I Strongercloser interpersonalrelationships rim H A 121 i r 7 g gas H 2 I I A f i i i E t s 0 Reasons for not disclosing i f 1 HIV it x 2 y w c To avoid hurt and rejection 2 f aits s 39 u 3w mm 3939 o viiTO avoid39cori ict and protect a relatiOnShip 39e i m 39 Ln 39 0 To keep your image intact and maintain individuality n e To reduce stress raw uvf u m min 33 Selfdisblo sure39and cultu re 313 uh am 23 my s r a no Different cultures feel different levels if disclosure appropriate 0 North America favors disclosure over withholding information o High context cultures disclose less39than lowcontext cultures by t 2251quot I Low context cultures derive m eaning from activity r as P am a it F AltematiVes to disclosuress I a iquot xrgw as scram m at f i t g o Silence Hangman gt i i 1 m 3m 33 Elkeep younthoughts39and feelingstoyourselfiir 5 quot o EqUivocation Aim quotu xterm I Equivocal language Ambiguous language that two or more equally plausible 1i 3quot 5quot 1iqu1391m anings 5 ilf iirIdifiebmzquot 55 if i H 3 i39 3 I The value of equivoeation m 01 Mari o It spares the receiver from embarrassment 23 l s 39 g 353 a my 11930 r It can save facefor both the sender and receiver 39 quot o It provides an altematiVe to lying a Mi 31 o Whenrasked what you39 think about youn 39iend s ugly shirt you r espoffd Boy it s interesting novel 39 J v I 1 o Hintingt so i iquotquotltg 1 a has gm A i aresz i I Hints are more direct than equivocal statements 35 I While an equivocal message isn t necessarily aimed at phanging another s 2 tr i v behavior a hint Seeks to get39the desired response from the other person 0 You hint and say f I m suresmoking isn t permitted here rather than quot directly stating Please don t smoke It bothers me wquot I 5 a are Lying q H v 4 111 quot u35 3 t L 3 3w m t a i I A deliberate attempt to hide or misrepresent the truthz quot is I Extensive use of lying a sign of relational distress an m o is soquot I wReasonsltdr Lyingquot mm 29939 3 a as 2 M 3 1 0 White Lieis de ned at least by the teller as unmalicious or even helpful to the person to whom it is told 39 331 T a w a t i 31 p w x 2 iy 3 I 393 r em LA quot1 390 wReasons forLyingHvv s 7 in Mt 1 i r v 1 Mi l q 4 i39 139 oz nlo save face quot 3quot 3 J quot 4 quot445quotquot W a 5 i s 39 A I 0 To avmd tenSioncon ict t u Nu x i 0 To guide social interaction If 3 i i 5quot x i 7 1 3 o gQTo expan dorr educequot relatibnships 1quot i i Elr39c 3 39 3932 lt 3 F mam DOgt 3 T ain bWe a 12 WainMi 9 239 r u quot ix y f w V 7 0 Effects of Lies What are tlfe consequences of discovering that you ve been lied to I W39s 3 Wu L r 1 3 1 s 1 E ig 149339 y 39 3 0 Power A r 3IHI EA a 3 d 3 I o Relational dialectlcs V W 93 ff Jive 39 mm 0 All relationship39can be39de ned b y39a series of apposite s quot a quotaquot quot 5 Iquot a f1 0 39 DialecticaltEnsionsz39con i ts tliat a se39Wh h two opposing 39of incompatible forces exist 39 A Simultaneously I 395 it 7 3 393 7quot r ilquot I A 513 1 n i i 1 quot I39 VA39iit onorhyandlecinneetion5 5 3 1 Expresses your desire to remain an individual but also to intimately 7 l 39 w 1 7quot r39btquot quotu lids Wars W s r i 3pi j aiuzi ImPublic andfprivatefszm r r39n refuel 3 its 0 P Strate39gies for ni inagingtrelational dialectical tensions K i t nili with La 1 i O i 4 connect to another person and to a relationship ii the W39sr an Mi t J e I Novelty and predictability 0 Centers on the dual39de sire forinewn s s an dtadventiire39 on39the one hand and sanieness and comfortablenession the othem 1 g x if I Openness and protection u quotr w 22th i i i e i I Revolves around our desire for self disclosurestwhich makes as withtranspar nt t6 ah other39 and our desire fonwithholding disclosures which 5 lisikee ps ussafe frdm39another s diScIOSure 39v inim 4312 Additional Dialectics found39 in frie ndships autism 39 mint it n x fwis I Judgment arid acceptanceism a quotmi an few 4 mm 4 an 0 Criticizing a friend as opposcd to accepting theni as theyv39ar r59 I Affection and instrumentality err ail Framing your relationship with someone as an end in itself or seeing it as a means to another end 1 39 l 7 i quot4 matey Y ma mr Irv 3m 9 n h a museum gwllr a I How much of the friendship is demonstrated in39p39ublic39hnd how much is Jean in Mme itquot Y kept private wfiie I Ideal and reale i r ma ir m in Mr am 3 39 a W e 3 rm Tension between a y idealized vision39ofi iendship and the real friends one havewas t quot39 ifi er 5 39 39 I I r i quotL 1 quot quot mama 4515 t I it 39 1 i Denial I Communicators respond to one end of the dialectical spech umand ignore the A other 3933 timid 13 quota 39 4 in 39X 1 73 If M 31 s 5 15623 Disorientationwith it m IHLLCH rm w n a 33frfg iu 11 a i y if 4 it tum at f aquot 17 l 3921 w N39I 2b Communicators feel so oyerwhelmed39and helpless thatith e y are unable to cenfront theirproblemsnta 39N Yquot 5 3w Jezc 355 a nun i o Alternation 2533 1 i a sm lxd39i unit 7 r 1 39I Choosing one end of the dialectical spectrum at some times and the other end on different occasionsnvzsni 5 iNfi t farm at shin quot39 quot i o Segmentation 5er fiat39139 33 3931 m viewed 39 i I Partners who use this tactic compartmentaliz 39 differe ntar eas of their 39 in a 36 2 5rrelationship irfil we put r 3 21 gums 553 e 0 Balance 22 E ii iw e anewh m3de 252 I Communicators w 0 try to balance dialectical tensions recognize that both forces are legitimate and try to mmagezthEm through compromise I This requires give andtake 5 3zpz g 0 Integration zz951153quot may 3971 I Involves someytype of synthesis between the opposites o Rlecalibration h 4 t 43571 I Communicators can respond to dialectical challenges by reframing them so that i w p thaappar ntpa tad ction disappear it 12 7 39a A O Re39a irmatiom K 4 3 r I Dialectical tensions will never disappears Maslow s hierarchy of needs 1 gm 1amp3 n mg m 3 0 Illustration of how people s n eds areranked inworgle r of importance En 21 0 P999122 are basicallylgood and msel sh battled to satisfy cha i alwsrrlcvetneeds v r before they can demonstrate their goodness has 1 imp o Maslow places our social needs on the level j ust afterJ physical and safety needs A E i 39 3 m 5255 v l39 ee a quotiquot 2 53 r Lita3121quot5453 395 3 Nriz 1539 v b i 1 r 39 R r 4 39 t v 3 4 y 1 l e r w a a w t can 1quot t P v r tquot lt A l K 5 it 39 J rquot inquot 53 5 My g u a n I 2 iw39i w39 nx fz 4uxre u 1 1 h 1 K V i E 1 NEW w quott a 1 I I up gt39 i 394 39 A r V 4 N 3 39 39 t i 3 quot5C quot 121 y t J 39tr x id b 3 i r 53 R4 42 q f n 39 h k 39 quot 1quot v 1344 v in 31 f 7r F u Nags g 5quot i 3913ng 2 5 1 quot n 1 VJ v 3 v A gt t quotw h Self Ojix Hz i e 3 P u z 7 39 Webb A hrsmi Actuahzatron39 1 MM 3 r V aquot f 3381quot 3 1539 53 r KW quot h quot g Needswu quot3 A was 353 553512 513 r r r l J 1 g1 397 I I h h IEsteem Needs I r I 9 t 311 3quotquot H 5 Wu r 2 3153 39 fb g j J 3 1 Love and Inclusron Needs 173951 1 4 a r 1 k v F v i quot3 it 23quot ii F af 331131 51quot quota 39 9 l U 391 39 4quot 1 l1 L11 73 quot4 39 1 Safety Needs H re 3mmquot a ts itquot 11 nil i 7 1 Physrcal Needs i M y r 2 uf gtquot A a manned 1lt1 3 t quotJsrtZJW 1 v 4quot iium 39r 3 quot 2 quotwi 55 423 eiitdg J5 a i 4 a f U s 1 o 39 r gt h 39 it 39 r K 39339 3quot 139Q 1 3 quot f t 39r z o How does the quality of communication Inform about the type of relatlonshlp between two a I j 1 gt 3r i39J39q1 t quot persons r 0 Content HE S 9 97 39 39la Xu It quot I 1 v w T 3 t m I u x w v tx w t OU DiV e tgity my1511kffaf39grg I G r13 F113 3 viva m A lt139 quotpa avh i m gt 4 h k I a quot ii A quot A o Qualitles I M m n n quot 39 Hun v1 sham 39 quot n39 no hquot H E aquot r 1 439 ad F L39u w quotr htquot i u 39 A 39 u 1 5quot 39 390 Natureig 3 Irina frifsif 1 MLquot 3952 031339 iv 3 Lu V 1 14a 1 0 Quality of power 1 quot 5 1 3 395xv JW quot ruins m a g I O Intimacy fjmgh my 3 t e rig 945 9 2 ignwg39 my 39 5 3 1 3quot 3 quot 3 v 5v 3quot 0 Partners perception quoto Commitment7fe eet d39 quot1 2 s w 1 A r quot o rSat1sfact10n expressed 539 HM mm W 39 x of39 Uncertamty Reduction Theorgh 3 g 2 r A w quotvi5 r5 c x 339 w 39 o Berger amp Calabrese 1975 i n t amp a a Lyn wheeze g at r r 39o H Descrlbes relatlonshlp development a process of reducing uncertamty about one F 3 39739 i S39 anlothe39rg i u H r u i quot243 2 an 5 f 53w h 1 x L u an an 4 a 1 0 39ngh uncertamty prevents mtlmacijhereas low uncertamty creates mtlmacy Slmllarly vv u r r 1 r u w 39 hlgh uncertalnty decreases hkmg for another person whereas low uncertamty Increases cm 9 W7 glikihgm 2 e2 x mt 391 Jag 3Jrgm fty 3 if quot 2 5 39 39 r Attraction theory F l e 4 3 i g ins ham mur 1s e quot 39 0 We develop relatxonshlps w1th others on the ba31s of three major factors n quotA lt quot 1 hrquot 1 v 391 m 4 we 43 quot Wquot 1 39 I Attractlveness physrcal appearance and personalltyquot quot quot quot39 p f i A person may be attractive because of physical appearance or personality Hat eld amp Sprecher 1983 amp Mehrabian amp Blurn 2003 A Appearance especially important in the early stages of a relationship 0 Computer dance L I Proximity T 0 We are likely to develop relationships with people with whom We c interact frequently quot I 0 Mere exposure hypothesis quot exposure may lead to liking Zajonc 39 1986 I A i I Similarity a i l H u r What are some of the qualities that this person would possess n s o How many of these qualities are similar to you 0 The rule of homogamy 0 Matching hypothesis although we may be attracted to the most physically attractive people you will date and m ate with people v whci are 39similar to yourself in physical attractiveness o Homogamy v endogamy H w My 1 a m t M M W i a o Homogamy f WVquot 39 v x l 1 x l I Marriage be een individuals who are in some culturally important way similar s in to each otli r Homoganiy may be based on socid e o bmic status class x 39 r ethnicity or religion chm vi aquot V r u o Endogamy A quot Marriagewjthinaseci lgroup Wham a may weavmhi W4 0 Social Exchangetheory o Pro ts 39rewards costs If We often seek out people who can give us rewards that are greater than the costs y we encounter in dealing with them g n i I M m 0 Rewards anything that we wantthat39 you enjoyand that you d be m 3 39 z Ruc zrifil A r we urrtwi f 39i39ii tiiilltifa s g Y l Pg itp gb l i rmmimr n viarug 39mquot Mr rwil w t o Tanglble v intangible r M a 1 o Cost undesirable outcomes m d mquot is 0 Two dimensions of attachment ahd how they inform 4 types of attachmentjstyles 0 Attachment Theory A quot quotH I The attachment model posits that infants acciuirefmental models g in their r J 39 relationships with their caregivers that include beliefs about the extenteto which r they are valued and loved Fitness p291 m ii P 0 Attachment Dimensions Anxiety and Avoidance m L 1 w t quot Secure adults low anxiety low avoidance m 3Q m l w i 3 i 2 u Find it relatively easy to get close tolothersv and are comfortable 4 depending on others and having others depend on them Secure adults don t often worry about being abandonedor aboutgomeone getting too I Close to them i 3939f iil39 Ii 541 quotif K dimequot Zv39vm 39w r nil adultehighaezsistya 19W 2V idance o a Find that others are reluctant to get as close as they would like Anxious S a appurgnagv W j Aorwon39t want to stay With thcmnAnxious ambivalentadults want to merge completely with another person and39this desiresometimes scares people aWaY an at may sz 6 75 Medan adylts are sobewhatunwmfo abls being closeltqothers they nd it dif culttg trustothers completely dif cult to allow themselves to depend on Li 1 any my a j t u ambivalent adults often worrythat their partner doesn39t really love them 39 r 5 a I 4 X l V 1 o 391 A m 2 K 1 t n J vv JHE Aquot lii39f ll 11quot2 115 quot39j39 l quot 35 7391 l 39139 1 lm fis jug r villain urr frr w i Q r k s h 1 a r 39 a othe39rs Avoidant adults are nervous when anyone gets too close and39of ten love partners want them to be more intimat than they feelcomfortable39being 3 s cm af I 34 39tlF earful39avoida i nt high anxiety hi39gh avoidance you have negative 2210 views ofyourself and 39other s Will let y u down39ear a a a 3 quot12 39a rr39 63quot oi iDi smissiveavpidant ldw ar niietyhighavoidanceyou h39av39e apositive View of yourself but others will let you down so you becbme dis missive to relationships I ml 5 quot1 3 x t J 4 at t quoto I39quot v39 i quot3 wrr ua i h Ez lu li at r zs f lihquot 3 I quot 39y39l il tillu 3va 5515 l 2 p 114 f l539 Y e a x 4 mt39 4 r gt a 33 max 31 73 a v t lt 39 310Dle 0P hIaLI 1 MAWt V 11 15 n i h 39 aquot i39391 1 M 1quot Dcntzntcncels r h k 1 h lit w r f5sl Y 1 r 4 J 3 i l a H s 39 39 d r a I l39l11clt 4 v L a INC atly J 5 N g 39 391 39 lquot J l quotA W M t quot I l quot g 393 rquot T J r mf away was 3 tr 39vr2 3 n itquotshvr rT39H H 5 l v t quot J T a i 233 13 with mquot 3 rash 7 t 4 I Jen 1 a Pnsi ti 39 equot Low Secure 39 TWI J E EU L CilDiEtl 7 quot m t 1 5 Ufs Mina a Li I 59 af v m Jr Negative u 51 llikmissing trs re39arliqarful 1 39 l rri39iHighf A gym m39i39nTl 3 93 raga 39 f l Aflwtb 6 is 1 fl s I 393 2 IN 39 l quot 1 quot3757 39 0 Implications of attachment style on rhin a wticielatiohship39s 4 Examples of the different types of costs and rewards 72quot quot v v quot 4 V AIM 39IL J x fag 3 k 453 o Read it up there r 0 Characteristics of social exchan39g e ini relatigbnships 39 n u 1 v o All people do mental calculation39s abO t the costs and reWards they experience in relationships quot 39 i 39 495 75 a u 1 u t I 3 mil 4 quot M M pl 3 r w 4 9 quotNJquot I I1 iSubtract costs from rewardsr Fquot k Uquot 0 39f 325 Cost gt R ilV lrdd39S9 1656fl 39leal E quotquot3 ids vim ilr 5 343 355133 39 0 People are motivated by rewards and wishto avoid punishment 939 0 People are rational o People evaluate costs and rewards diff 39r39e 39tlyr have quott a wanes z n tcaf it A a b 0 Costs 45 a quot44 Enid 39 HaVi g to do faVOfS3for friends quot zz 5m 3 I Having to listen to Uncle Al s boring stories at family gatherings 3 Wquot I sHaving to babysityour brattycousinrquot3 1 373flmmit o Rewards axlewquot fr 39 39tquot4 quotf 393 u lx gzwa 1 3 39 I Having your spouse listen to your problems ahd offer39empathy I Having a friend to share in activities with I Sharing private jok s with yourbrothers 6quot The de nition39 f ai o niparisonilevelnr m at man 2 E 0 Comparison Level 39 r I A person s standard39level for Whatttypies of costs and rewards should exist in a j s a r N v Jew r a a u l l n I quot a 9 Jr h 9395th quotf l 39 3 i quotr 1 iquot a r v given relationshipmi 0 The de nition of comparis n lev el of alternatives 9 922 n e quot I 1 o Hovinyou compare the costs ar39idrewards of a39current relationship to the possibility of 1 le u A it doing better in a different relationshipsa 42 r 39 4 o itLHow judgments of comparison level andl39comparison39level of alternatives inform feelings of relational satisfaction 7 4 t ll Q Comparison Level at 397 a 5 kit 3 I Tells you that friendship might involve some give and take whereas love relationships require more giving than taking I heople will lyesatis ed in relationships where actual costs and rewards match L a what we expect from bur comparison level 0 Comparison Level for Alternativesquot i I This has been used as a reason some women stay in abusive relationships L 3 111 F J i I No better alternatives stay quot I If yon can t be with the onequotyoii love honey love the one you re with 0 Interpersonal model of relationship quot or just don t know a i v 0 Knapp s model39Stage Model 0 Initiating 39 ht g 1 r making contact A I Shortterm attraction a judgment of relationship poteiitial propels us into the initiation stage 39 39 I Longterm attraction which makes you want to continue relationships and move through the subsequent stages sustainsand maintains relationships I Goal to reduce uncertainty x i i 39 t Payorable39impres sions i o Behaviors commonalities 0 4 EmphaslzeP Si V34 1 mn z a 1 b i mu 139quot y s a I o Reciprocate immediately d g i L e r x 3939si 3Hiah9WyadOi139f39Ts i a an 9 1 94 11quot i 1 14quot W L p 5 31 ashJ g39FineD youlr39oi 39i E quot39 i39 i k I o Experimenting 39 39 39 ammwmfz is I Where people become acquainted by gathering information about one another I I Small talk interactions that are relaxed pleasant uncritical and casual r A l I Goals increase commitment H F 7 t I Establish common ground h r H 4 0 Behaviors smalltalkl z 3 vi 3 3 v a l s a M i i I 3 Exchange ofinforrnationrugx 5 4 r j 1 g 3 5 39kfquotg1t39 g M 0 quotOh so you like to skiso do Iquot s i quot i quotYou do Great sWhere do you goquoti a a o Intensifying 14 33 Newmfm my i 5 a m mg i I Iiitensifying refers to the intensi cation of intimacy inthe relationship I Goal establish conception of one s relationship I J 139 2 JBerl1lViI SZh l39i z Aj r 5 39 39fti 39fazsu39i 5 l a o More selfdisclosure Mean t gas o Informal films of address 3393 W air a v 39 o Markers of intimacy forms ofendearment m 3 W g r L o Westatement A H r m u y M m mm m 90 I39I39Iithinkxlloveyou39 mr m a i I Two people ndtice each other and indicate to each other that they are interested in 4 t K r WES392quot quotI love you too I s J 2 v 39M 0 Bending it w r I Bonding a public commitment39of the relationship s v1 5 E I Goal relationship as a39social institutionrwu 2 a i z i o Beliaviorz publicbf cial declaration s 0 quotI want to be with you always39ff1 1 2393 39 J E m quotLet39s get married39t nll m 2x i w o Differentiating 1 v 1 2 cu vs y r g I 1 Differentiating lhow couplesbegin to notice way in which they differ w I quotIjust don39t like biggsdcial gatherings quot39 r v i he 4 hQ 0 f if 39 5 39 I Sometimes I just don39t understand you39 511 m 39 This is one area where I am not like you at allquot 33 L g r g 7111 0 iJCircumscribing Matti 151 713quot 4g 339 1 n n 3 I ah 391 ha i r 39 fs mj Circumscribing restraining communication behaviors so fewer topics are raised more issues are outvof bounds and the couple actually interacts less I Did you have a good time on yourtripquot quotWhat timewill dinner be readyzg u 39 O Stagnatng 1 Panza 9 3 w i J 112 at 313135quot I Extending circumscribing so far that the couple doesnit39talkymuchp I Imagined conversations frone partner plast thepartlol botli partners in mental conversationsyd l I 1 a V o Avoiding quot i 1 I y tf quotquot5 mtRh 23quot R w L 3quot 3 3 quot if in i fquot l v I Alhs wtquot H3 3351 3 1 411quot uwr39lixrjg M v l4 t gt sh 1 xf ii if A lquot 3quot Bud 39 Partners xtesftaw withPhysieal viteemshtuwer a o Terminating maleer f I Process of ending arelationship 34 H v 1 39 Love de ned a v J zf 72 quot n quot 1 quot 4quot H f r f gt iquot 0 Love is a feeling that may be characterized39by passion and39caririg and by intimacy Passion and CQmIQ Immt up 4 y 4 5 o The six typesof love aridpran example of movigfor eachzwz n o Eros 39 39 ii i spi i 2 x36 1 Jquot a s i l quot I Focuses on beauty and sexuality sometimesitothe exclusion of other qualities 39 Wt it w 3 mm 32 1 r 39 Love as Magl f l gf i u a 5 i Si 39 i 39 LOYe as gg39v 4m is 53 9 3elfw sf 4 39 7 at 5 39 o LoVe at rst Sight 5quot quot 3 33 tquot 3 quot 2 5 39 99 a Very News o Ludus 39 pl 39 7 1399 39 33911 I Love IS seen as a game and focu I N gt ses on entertainment andexcitenrenth 2quot my w aquot i 5 0 Feel uncomfortable about commitment a 5 Ji 4 39 239quot p i 3 K3 P S cnets 9 i zgl 5 17 393 5575 i A 0 Have affairs 32 f g3 3s 35514 my 9 Sl rg rua im an J at 139 I irsrhli 3 39 I Love is akind of companionship peac e il and slow I Friendship is key if 1 lt 515 a l J as i 1 V 2 Milli 3932 I v 3 J 2 I z Di f cult to separate from friendships J x x r w I This love pa gladL 0 Develops overtimeMtg W at as a xer m 3 fl mum Endure39s long periods of inactivity or excitement a g y 1 1 i by I Lacks the heat of eros and the games of ludus o Pragma I Love ispractical and39n aditional wms AW 9 3 quot391 wquot 39 Looking for types friirgs e39u l k f 1514 2 u p 39 I Parentsr race riatiSriality family et uquot 391 I Love is logical ampMore stables slam an A lquot A f I Not magical but rational 1 39m 12 1 F i o Mania imam w 57 t r i 555 39ril I b39LbVeis obsessiveland posSess39ive characterized by elation and depression h I Selfworth comes from the relationship u 5 3quot r m 5 0 Nothing else matters w 1 fir 1 339 3 uns t uzmn39 1 l o Agape Alan quot1 x e a a 339 393 vi n fy39 iquot new rig 9 51 I Love is compassionate and sel ess characterized as Self giving and altruistic x i A Mu man a v if s M rI 39 No concerri for personalreward39or gain alwwlnu 39339 5 k 3 9 f I n n t A 5 z a m a 1 r va viaW Want the best forthe other person 397 WW I w v in them about love39fypes quot t w w s 2 3 W5 s39 21 350 s 1 t m up quotH o 1 We have all of these 6 love types in ourrelatronshrps 39 39L M 39 o 2 What separates us is the degrees of each 39 quot 39y39 V 1 a a y l r quota 5 A o 3339Degreescanchangeviv1thtrme 1 539 w a MM 39 quot 3 my 3 quoth 39o quot41Every relationship we havemay di err39 392W mixt l jg at t i x t 4 r I In your rst relationship you are insecure amp passronate H I In your next you are calm amp relaxed 39 General ndings a56irt16 eiidri k 8i39H iid cktsir er W quot 4 quot f rquot o Hendrickamp Hendrick 1 quot 1 1 39 I Men more ludic h M quot9 3 1535 quotquot33quotquot lf iz i y39aa K I Women tend to be storgic and pragmatic 3 item it m gg diigvom o 2 in u39g t 59 u M 39gst j may 39 t 39eri n gut a pm 0 Mania 1s the rst love style teenagers display 3 7 quot quot 1 r L mix a n n g 91 u m 91 r is was is 1 739 1 K 4 39 O Relatronshrpsbafsed orfsrmila39r lov styles last longer 391 7 39 0 National Statistics on Love and Sex 39 x s a a is a r 0 w slugging 5 N AInfat a oh ff nr kahunf M 4quot f3 mi mg a A it h o First infatuation39LW l3 M 1316 quot 3quot5q7quot quot First love E I39MM 1763 i 39 f tquot I B Gender and Virginia Women So oii r quot quotl 0 Average age for 15 time sci l6 l l7 o of virgins 18 24 years 62 Eff 1 0T8 M E J 1 Wequot comes before loye a 4 2 o quot Rdiiiahtic Lo ve 39cdnti quot quot quot 3quot quot quot L quot f2quot quot 39 I C After divorce Men are more likely to get re tiiz irrieiiil39 I D Married then are psyChologi iilly physically healthier but not soifor women z ehquot 573le 2612543 3 i 3 a 2 8 391 39 3 2 0 Reason 1 Without theirhwives 7ri16st i r 1en yhave no support systern and no is if i DA quotJ 14 m 39 one to talk to about life s stressesii 5 P I Reason 2 Women do most of the work in most relationships even when lbbth39 are working outside th home quot f5 quot 4 r 0 Age Love and Sex 1999 AARP Survey quot WU 3 34 I 60 of couples 45160 y39ear39s39bld r ep ort hayingws e39it ontie a week the average for all couples a 39 l quot I 20 over 75 report having sex once ka weeki I After 50 years of ageg39n39ien become more romantic women become more 39t g s 1 g r Pr r u n l 39 i g f L 39 395 h 139 39 e A I Why would it lead to relationship breakup g er a 0 Pursuit WithdrayvalWithdrawal Pur tiit 39 5 I 6 Mi 39 um if 139 Ir wig 2 flugr These tWo patterns are asymmetricalf A x is u a i l39 E A m I t Pursuit withdrawal person A pressesv for a discussion about a cori ictual topic i 2 Iquot tr 6 331 sbutpersonB withdrawsr 39 aw a s 2 g 39 v I Withdrawalpursuitzhjust the opposite 1quot 2A 5 39 g o Symmetrical Negotiation positive in a 1 aura a l M r p QE EaCh partner s mirrors the other s negotiating behaviors I They listen to each other and re ect back k Htng mm may 3 A l heyoffer suggestions for dealing with the con ict r Wu 3 In uential fac tors in con ic t managementquot3 13 yum 153 52mm 1 a 0 G ndel Wf u izie gri f 39h39 Md i any 3x39quot394395srm 392quot39H 33quotA I Men and women have been taught differ nt norms that affect their con ict interactions 2 w 4quot mpg M n a W I Women are more collaborativeaandhme are morecompetitive w l 0 CUlture innxm s H a easier15 vr 39 i z 39 I Differing cultural practices may put us in con ict with one another t J I French like to debate but not engage incon ict gv Lays xv 39 3 I Chinese hate con ict A 31 s Ashtrxquot I PQWer de nedm sng 339 A an 339 we 2m saw gigs 2 muni a k o The ability to control the behavior of another jug my 3 r 39 39039 The de nitions of and distinctions between the different modes of poWer and an example of quot each 5 fizz quotxix at vi a j quot 0 Direct application of power 3 is varquot n 3 quot I Using any resources at your disposal to compel the othen to comply regardless of 1 their desires m FEE w39igew 39 T L a no Direct and virtual use o power 14quotrn h a 53 yrgig a39 39h 1313quot I a quot I communicatingthe potential use of direct application 353 5 39 I Use o threats and promisesme ma s 3 Mgiun v l g 0 Indirect application of pOWel39gi u39 a KHZ21 g3939f mpg ragquot yerZhi S k I ggEmployinngower without making its employment explicit m w 1 w s I Relational messages e de ne the relationship and implicitly state thatthey have i M the powerto do thisg39 Wash ANDuni ma 375 quot15qu mquot 2 39139xj 3 Hidden usepfpowerxww e or Timur TJ 1quot 1gi 13 sg s min 1 is f I Decisions are suppressed or avoidedin the hiterest Loflone of the parties J u 0 Six sources of powering isw 1 3 i39waa quot3amp2 mi 2 3w r allquot u 39 1 5 quotExpert Power mg m 14fo 415 xv rig u gt 2m w I From knowledge or expertise ngfIJ ii 4 In wgir sir go mReferent Power 54 Missy A335 1nNjutp res wag 124 J39a f L V 39 I When Person A has a desire to be like Person B r 3 5 o Legitimate Power s xyhjs 39If fii r EM 92 1 1 5 rem social strudtureswhich give the rightresponsibility to control others o Reward Power 39 1 I i I I A 11 36quot m A29 a V 33 YM 1339 z i I When Person A has the ability to give Person B something they desire aggro Coercive Power Jv 1 w 11 3 sn 3 xsz 1quot 5 1 z 7 quot z I zi When Per39son A has the abilityto puni htake away rewards from Person B 0 r The traditional the Federal th s de nition vs newquot definitions of familyGalvin Billingsley A 39 In a 5 r if v v o Federal government I A 39 mm r wow 3 3 l I Shared residence 33m 3947 Q e n 5 539 3 a g h 39 39 1 4 quot i s m I Reproduction or adoption 39ofchildi39entu Jill li Mun 2 n12quot o The new way Kathleen Galvin 200439 Llth x39l xhgsm 3 quota39m i a I System with two or more interdependent people39Who haile a common history an 2 a n izuslzsll39 rL tr 39 avpreseht reality and who expect td in uence each o39therin the future l 0 Two parents of different or sarn sexand their children biological or adopted as quot3951 aquot 745 239 u 1 st 3mm 339 5r 39 39 0 Married or not 2 7 5 v 35 39w i Sr Ll i39 lg l h 39 a A gingie parem was lives herhis biological children V O Jilin 3 s wilt to 3 k153i i Wu 23quot fit 7 51 quot 31 i quot 39 I Two or moi persons Sharin39g a household that ar39e related by blood marriage 391 formal adoption or by appmpiia on39pr39lt 19775 r J 01335 i 5318 Jill o Fitzpatrick s independen separates and traditionals spouses 7 I u3 a i g55 T Trailitionals 1 i t39 431 3 3 Hiquot Isiah39 inn uhquot quot I gender role patterns quot winquot him i I dia39 gi at degreb of interd ndeii equotl We 3922 7 tx39 Iv my 39 p I an inclination to avoid con ict 3 I 3 o imdepe d nfsx 1 mtg sir n ring gquot is mv xwr139li 39 F i I avoid adherihg39to aditional s xrol sv39utisn w a 3 z I39 1 3 o Separates It We Rm Jaeam t e t I place a higher value on their individual freedom than on their relationships I more con ictavoidantthan independents fun 1 u quotErtri 4 1 7 39 l a l A A i m alarmer m 53quot have greater space needs and share lessscrzenlzsng r 3339 watcher an r o 20 Traditional s r 39 J 0 l7 Separates 1 2 w i it mi 1 3 snail 39 HM39ZZ 39i39393 lquotOquot 22Independentshmm 51 th insgs H r n M J v 39 o 40 Mixed A quot39quot 3 2 i 0 Parentchild interaction resulting in 7 in uence patterns 439quot 1 3 f if 13 55 a M o The father in uences the39mother s interaction with th ichild is i39 t 1 o The mother in uences the father s interaction With the39bhil39d39 z 3 7 t o The fatherchild relationship in uences motherchild interaction i quota Mquot if o The mother child relationship in uences the fatherLchild inte39raction quot F 7 L I w to 39339 39lThefatlierLchild relationship n uen39ces husbandwife interactionii H o The motherchild relationship in uences husba ndLWife interaction 0 The husbandwife relationship in uences the interaction among all the Tairfiilyxmembers quotI quot Parentchild taminu39 i a39tioiiz the child s basic in e dsfii r r the e i o The extent to which these needs are satis ed determines to a larg e eXtent how well the 1 child interacts with others when she is an adult t 39 a quot 37 1quot r quot o Belonging 2139 Llf4 m 1 3quot55 we Lu t i a I Refer to the parents creating a place for the child both iii theirihdme and in their hearts 7B anew 23 r c at c 5 t s i z s 3 1 quot o Nurturance needs m 5 quot354 4quot 2 i2quot a I 39l 4Hquot quot 5 3quot I C Ar ersatis e39d byCommunicatihg tochildren that they are loved and cared for and that parents are source of comfort 39 1 W squot i 1 mg o Suppcirtzwn39umr a w s E id hir large f m 3quot quotgilt 3 5 I Has to do with the encouragement and39support children 39need as they begin v Ar A I 3 man ii m 1 quotproblem solvmg and 11le tak1ngquot1 L J 3 W 1 g39 aw o 9016 iProtEctidhiu az mlnm i 1 quotout 3 anemia Mira imewu z39fl iiihriffWIKW 1 I Need to be safe 39 77 11 Emma o Structuring 39 Hm its2211 et quotquotf a a I Children s needs for limits mag Sumz u 1 Li l I c t a 7 x A 39 i i F i 39 quot 35 i t sexually assertive quotg I M 335 a 5 a I Majority of couples over 55 report nding their signi cant other more romantic and attractive 39 t at a 392 7 39 d j I The de nition of con ict saggy at 5 g a o Expressed struggle between39at least 0 interdependent partiestwho perceive 3incompatible goals scarce rewardshand interference from the other party in achieving d r 3 their goals 11 2 31 ght m 0 Con ict is part ofevery interpersonal relationship r H SKEN I The role of interdependence in con ict is 3 514 v n a k n t Oremtqraaidn 7i x m jur I lr r dusts fax q l I Con icts are created and sustained through verbal an nonverbal communication o Interdependence r quot r 3 is 3533 i n I People in a con ict are depehdent uponteachotth inza relatiopship with one anomer39 ttwdi n39 I VJ v3 1z i Tyk ln 1 ns W 39139 nah i I Must feel some degreelof interdependence t 4 experience con ict Thisis why con ict is natural and unavoidable 39 i 5 g 1 a W I Perception in con ict quot 39 o Perception the psychological process involved in sensing meaning I The Interdependent people have to perceive that they have incompatible goals I The de nitions of and distinctions between the differentjtypeso con ict and an example of l I each Mg r O i39Q 31 3 i J IKFESJ x 2 t L M WF quot1595 f f I ConCems selfpresentation 39 h f r 31 A x I Mom offers suggestionsabouthowto run your life when you consider yourself gr wn 39 a 2 x 3 1 2 w 0 content con icts m 4 quotsiftu 1 s L134 2 a in win I Center on objects events and persons in the world that are pspally external to the quotpeople involved in the con ict 3 3t g v m vim M 3 I I Revolve around anissuezlm l 39 at V 3f 3 2 I Public issues 33 t f 39I Issues outside the relationship g Hum 3 r 1 5 v 39 lfers nal issues r ri e 35179 i warygig ljc rst 3 i I Not outside the relationship 3 39 re 0 Value Con icts t r i I Specifically a question of right orwrong Laquot 39 Z like at s m 3 5vtv l I 1 Neighbors arguing about a tree on a39property line 39i l 5 I o Relational Con icts 391 27 I Includes con ict concerned with the relationship between the individuals with 1 j g i such issues as whon in charge the equality orlack of it in a relationship and ma n quot 5 gmakgwho hasthe right to establish rules of behavior rigmf or 3 Sign 5335 5 a lime I Variations on doing con ict 0 thcon ict styles mi answerer si mat v 5 31M 3 t 0 Characteristic approaches they take when their needs appear incompatible with what i n MU it x HT 1 L others want 3 w w go U F I ma Avoidance loselose people nonassertively ignore ors y39away from con ict I Can be physical steering clear of a friend after having an argument or conversational changing the topic joking or denying that the problem P exists mu 5 31 m quota 39 I Accommodation lose win we allow others to have their own way rather than i L n 39asserting our own point view 39 r i w 392 2 a 3 quot We ll do itlyour way quot 2 m 39 2 fjquot 39quotquot gtquot 9 Ca t in quot1H Miquot Competition WinLl s rings at 1 m quotfig fl wcg39 irf39 J u The ip side of accommodation nil so is 14 s Resolving con ict my way llies m rrtstaieJE 3233 I If 39v I Compromise negotiated loselose 319 quot dew quot39i iv3 I v 1 quot3943 quot v51 Ui l39o i Gives b39oth b39eople htileas t soiffe of Wh a39t they want alt ough both 39 sacri ce part of their goals quot1 quotI y I Collaboration win39iwin g H 3393 i WV iquot f quot3 5 3 4 Jiih T Hf I Seeks winwin solutions to g b h ic t J39J quot drt rrgnrrnilre quotthan an we r39 k 1 0 Goals solving proble s not my way or you i way But hur way 1 s 439 21 A r39gt quotn IN 71 13551 E Q 11 v25 r bil 7 A D 397 J r 5 gr w L lct XS always A l H x J H r 395 2 V 39 l x m quot lt rt 2 lt 2339 uquot vquot4 if5741quot f39uil Ix handi 11 391 u Con ictISJust mls ommumcation quot 4 v quot5quot quot quot o All con icts can be resolved through good communication quot39 a man s aw 1quot t r r v rP39i39h Hf a i o It is always b st to talk through all conflicts 3 a i quot quot 39 393 quot 39 f f jquot i I gt39 u 39 39 fw39t at 1 4 g fry m 1 39c o Satir smodel quotH quot A l 3 3 muffin ts vr trfgtl v3939quottgt39quotn a 0 You H l m 1 nwat L w w A n n I Refers to one of the part1c1pants 1n the con ictquot 5quot H l min rt a aw on m 71 hrs quotK fefsltbrt thbf sdust at swam i2 391 o Context 39 v quot1quot I Comprises the emotional background surrounding thequot con icts 3 39 0 Subject 7 l Axe941 ru he i quotquot5quot quot 1 Il i Whakt39the narti e39s a r e argiiin g ab l twl 93 71quot Hquot quotquot i o All four parts are equally important I o If each part is not attended to the con ict will fester quotv39 35 3quot 3 i 3 5 e39 339 5 63 Pl 39atin g39d has same 22 f M Wu 339939quot t L Disqualifying the cme mama 3239 3 Kim 239 m 2 t f a I guerng my own needs in the situation 339 5 V l quot quot o Pouncing i V 5 i Disquali ing the yon his a 1131 39 Haw23 3 I Respond in an aggressive manner without acknowle dgingdithe heeds of the other r person 1 l 5L39hiJ39 Iiif Vinequot H 5 0 Computing r I a 1 4 l 39 DisQualifying the contEthrl39ME quot39 H uttwm I 335 339 I Con icts touch emotions de eply and theyquot annot be resolved unless emotions are i addressed H quot v 3 2 gti39 iii a VolD istractingm a 2x J r5 2 1 1 394quot quot l Efn fm 7 t 39t 3quot 395 quot 3 v 3739 Keeping o n e of the parties distrath from the7subject of the con ict 0 How con ict can manifest in39 a rel tioin al 39s39y t m and th diff re39nt communication patterns ofcon ict quot 75 u quot alilzf 2 iflz39lirui39 ir w quot39 o Relational partners often notice that their communication behaviors fo rm r epeating quot3i 39quot w quot quot rl r v 39 15w 4 J39 fpattemsfw mf E39H i q l 11 2 1 5quot u w 53 7 will 393 a 4 rtn J39l l A Ln 51 t v39 Mrs E F 4 s a 39 a a 9 A l lh 39 n maz 51 2 539 l 71 L s 1 x I 1 P o A 5733quot n l r 5 x o Symmetrical Escalation r an 2 rquot N I r I 2 Each partner chooses t6 increases the intensity of the con ict L w t It 39mm 39r In Each 39par39tner matches the other s escalating ght39behaviors mlf 51 a sxf 31 ght ght GE 52 quotmi 35 mi ire2 pquot 3 F5 39 l o Symmetrical Withdrawal Ker w i 9 27 mm x ImNeither partnerjs willing39to con ontrthe othertriv vrizu lt 39 g I One person s move away is reciprocatEdby the39other s move away g I 1 k x I J 1 gt an 0 Respect a V I Children s needs for their ideas thoughts and feelings Tto39be valued apart from the parents a quot 0 Watzalawiek s interactioilal view Jl39 strt m in 31 m39 o Watzalawick sinteractionalview fzn 124 an 2 raeri m39X439quot I Assumption All individuals must be understoodwithin thecontext of the family from which they came t 9132 gquot 39 V m a v a 3 0 focuses on the entire family 4m rs 9 j e s o the effects of observed behavior39of the family on individuals behavior z R FS 3 iquot quott fr 2quotI39h i 4 R A 1 I H 0 Roles In a family con ict a Au u 0 De ned roles u 1 3 v 39 I Blamer quot m L 3quot in i IraPlacate i39 i iquot39quot 13 a 2f 2 Ale 9 m 7 I Computer w rt rrr39fw i sna r 5373 39 Distracter amp I 391 m i v 39 Sources of con ict in a family Wquot Viki n 396 quotAI 1 o Power struggles This quotii is way5 quot3 n u f mfg v 0 Differences in intimacy needsw39r W1 A lt 5 liningawe 121 6 o Interactional difficulties r hiet39irhwts 239 tail 0 Family members are generally critical and punitive i is 11 ma a ti 5 2 a 0 Parents are poor observers of their children s behaviors so deviant behaviors reach mkunmanageable p39rdportioris 36145 we 3 H quot 71333 Je n ails o Punishment is used in an inconsistent manner witquot 2 I Am an 6 Parents display lower levels of positive contact and are less likely to 3usepo39sitive contact a iv32b r tRewards39are us e edercivelylkgq mantis t c t l it ain t a o How do family narratives help reaf rm a family s identityquot 1 u my 39 0 Functions barfr 5 v35 r1 page 3 7 usequot h t t v I reaf rming the family sid ntityg39f itn m JAE a p23 r K I stressing family concerns V A i r o Narratives aie especially irnportant in families where39tliey serve a variety of functions for examplefreaffinning the family s identify by reinforcing share39d go als teaching moral values and stressing family concerns F amin stories shared during holiday gettogethers 3W m 395 E often serv all the func tidns for39example the story told by your grandfather for the r r 2 W39hifndredth tim39e vab outtheioccasionjwhenlyour father v vhi h connects the generations was given too much change and when he realiZe d39it went back to the store to return the extra money which teaches a moral Value and stresses rfamily concern for honesty 1 s l p 1 4 t 0 Two drmensrons of family communication 4 y a mm a site an u o Conversation orientation tai39w i N ma EFDJeEJ39 25 its 39Iquotxm 39 It a 3 z q lt 3 3945 t s m Involves the degree to which famrlies favor an open climate of d1scussron of a 1quot 3931 5 35 quot wide array oftopics 35ii aiut its nut quot7 awash Erwin 0 high V low var 12 5 pr ef Levi a quot5 713 7 539 conformity di39ientationREHJJ hiv s e 3 n quotv15 i a 3m 3 V m I Refers to the degree to which famrly co mumcatton stresses umformrty of attitud swaluesgand beliefs 4 2 as z fuvwfutu t quot o hig11VZlOW v r39f39u7 J v39ij t39 r 2735 r m as gt a Incl eylij r 1 39 quot i Hquot 539 3 0 Aspects of communication affected by tee nology quot quot x 5 n1 1 I Wu I H 1 7quot 0 Information 391 1 quot isquot M 39w A quot wquot l a gt u lt u H1uquot r393 111 33 3quot 395 39 Inlf I Immediacy y y 0 Speed and reach in REM ir a Integration writ n f n 2 g saris quotVila thud l k a r I 3 Access f maul r org 3 9325 5953mCollabofationm algae5 rth PM quot7 km 333 2 r l izri l s39j an await A smiw v39rzz39g 1quot43539 quotquot15I a 5 u o i convergence 0 The integration of various technologies I Voiceeactivated computers or cell phonecameram 39 L 3 quotcm i a H i 1 WPLKW w f vl gt av a 5 r a 139 VA d I V tow Characteristics of technology w w J J In huh o Pervasive as 21 With 39A 4 Jf Vi 39n 7 4 S l39lit la y 1 It s everywhere we canft escape it gi 3713 111 G I Mir ulst but I Q 3lt 5 an annoyancebut we can t livevwithout ityw I How do you escape technology 7952 23 my r a wing 0 It s con ictinginconsistent 39 1 waits 923 1 I Global Village Is mm W I Gives us access to more places cultures communities etc but brings us I 392 31K iquot k I together in a small community k v a 39l 5r v quotl 4 y 0 Powerful I In uences population eVents and cultures ag mggg 3 Mamiq39m wwmmg a I Can affect how people think how they develop relationships etc I Can disscminate info faster than ever to more ppllt than everbefore fulftiiililiii4405313 a a 1 l C 39 swims1 35513 s g I h n Mr s z 1 y i I k K1 A 35 Alain Drawbacks to online communication 0 Little Accountability viiiah gum r Aizg lf39 39l f m5tcz sine ENG re sponsibilityiv i mlw r 7 H z n k I Allows misguidance and manipulation No one s keeping anreye39on the uncountable number oftweb pagesimmmm q i w r twain m s quotM rrn a39z t39 ram 1 3quotquoti wit 4 anew 5 p wot li lli i o s Fostering Hate 13393 3 4 I Hate speech extremely offensive language that is directed Ward a particular 535mm 7 1 vil39 a es usc39ltzm2 Wilma m1 393 1 Hahn r group of people axis 2 i 1 I People readily take info on internet as true a l I Why can ppl put that stuffupthere 5mm r an L a l 0 Flaming 313 emquot 391 mar us39 V mm 3 v 53 People exchange malicious hestileor insulting commentsonline 2 f 21 i gal 3m ray Middle schoolers more likely to break upzwithsomeone online 5 quotpm ltnquot 42 v quota M f ca m 4 if mm F 7 m S ngni ny JL Increased Uncertainty 39 a g 1 a minus Limited social cueseg nonverbals andpotential feedback delays that can lead 139 Iiiquot343 P a y39 touncertainty or at least delay uncertainty reduction whichicould slow down 39 qty i 2 mg wrelationshipdevelopment 93 m i revamp I ui39 w u an 1 s 3139 aim Lid 239 quotif39a p39t em a 39f vizr 3 EN 32 1 4 r 9 2 3 2 2 r 1 a o I New form of surveillanceand jealousy l 5 j I Bene ts of online communication rummMagnum 0 Expanding and maintaining your social network xvium 3121 f w i my Parks and F loydc 23rdsf of survey respondents had formed new acquaintances friendships or other personal relationships as a result of online interaction 1 Ma 9 0 Good for irting and connecting My at Age and marital status do not affect likelihood of forming personal relationships I 3quot H3 1 i39zl J il Hi1 39is AY39thi 3 l39 I l a w Mariam mime mu stamina arm 2 I You can chose the time and placego contact safety A w3 g 2 171 239 0 Chat rooms are a great place to recruit social support 39 EaSier to maintain relatiQQSbiPSm am Are with it ll nf73t i39h i39 gt it 1 art it 1 o Multitasking choosing when to r39espond tovemails 4 my 3 s HOW do we present ourselves online M31 0 In quota 3 Face ouline A 3quot Edie f 3 quotlb 0 Assumptions about self presentation online I w my a z t 1 I The computer screen canDece39iv e v21 f Eon L h i 21 I Manipulate their image to sendjthe most positive impression possible Mm ggii39wirvaivesus more timeto respond zi Una yeti o Harder to fake being tall skinny and pretty FTF 0 Online Discussionscan Prompt Introspection yi 3 m We I After receiving an email you may engage in interhal39dialogue A o Re ect on both the message o1irresponsem 5 witty It I I n t havethis kind of time infaceto face F 3 i n i quotAi 52 39if iflerAvr 39 a i r39quotLn 5 he 1 o Timetoruminate Ki i 2 2 a A as 0 Online Discussmns promote IndiVidualism m a t f i I Search out ppl and things we are interested in d quotL quot 39 i quot 39 quotquot quotquot5 i 4 L I Not compelled to interactcommunicat at 39our own convenience 6 Online Discussion promotes SelfDisclosure c 5 5 1quot 39 39 I Feel more comfortable 39 MRquot a with i l I No immediate reactions ex DisappointmentdisgustWZ li t i n 5343 I Easier to revealemotions through a mediumcomputer is impersonal object that doesn t havehthe capacity to show emotion w i 39 Communication apprehension gaggi gg g 1 i 33 r 31 o A few or anxiety pertaining to the conmiunicatioiiprocess This is the result of a legitimate life experience that usually inegativelyaffectiom communication with f jig V A39 gt 1 4 quotl iaivaiquot I gnzx 39ugf f w 1 it g h iiquot i quot o The distinction between trait and state applfh 1y1 l13 v g H E 0 Communication Apprehension as a Trait W Y H E r 39i is i quot 13 quot39u i 2 a All limit I AnXiety overcommunication is present regardlessof any enVironmental 21 quoti 1 a i n L 7 quot 4 aquot 5 circumstance 39l V gt 39 i735 rg r quotq 152 u 4x 0 Communication ApprehenSion as a State v I rt W M 331 7 93939 39i 393 5 I qccurs whena veryspeci c set of Circumstances causes the average r 1 J H i quot39t 34 397quot m quotMS 3 i i J aL39i3quoti39 quot i person to become apprehenSive about pommunication Situations where 39 quot quot quot39 l 139 2 a 1 im msquot my i quot they would otherWise be relaxed I m f 1 3 v NM it i lt I I v The different models of interpersonal communication i 3 v i use 391 i i ii 39V as 393quot339 31 v s Jrr 0 Linear model Shannon and Weaver 4 3quot 39 u 39 U39 5 r i 39 1quot39 39 7 I54 111 V 1quot 3quot I One way process that transmits a message to a destination i 26quot LEWJ39G u h I Sourcesender produces the message M I 4 r 39 sxi1iax 73 1 quot 139 2 39 Viiquot quot quotu quot r 39 quotquot L iquot i39iquot39 39 I Messag the sender hasra MESSAGE39to sharej this is some idea i i 391 1i 3quot iquot v39 2 tlt ir Ltd quotin concept etc that can be written oral or even unspoken nonverbal r ya 39 554 5 y I Channel the sender Will choose a means by Wthh tO share the message fit39139 39r in This is the CHANNEL 1 f s i 4 ul i 5393 w I quot r 4 5 H l rillquot quoti I The target receiver a 3 was A S f I The sender Will encode the message make sense ofwhat she receives l39 through th ir39own perspectivequot 3 J quot 4quot 3 I NQISE anything that impedes a message from being understood as meant CS Interactioii al inodel 39Schrainm 39 i quot quot quot quot l e hr mg r a S quot 39 I Commumcation goes in two directions sender to receiver and receiver to sender 39 quot quot quot39 quot3 in l 513 s i Mn i i439 whiz i M 5 I 39Feedback interna17amp external is added to this model 4 1 I quot1 39I 39393z lt i39i I I 0 Internal feedback asse sslyour own communication r v w rt l 39 ui h a 0 External feedback feedback you receive from other people new 13w F i t l l a w vs o Interpersonal Cominiiiiieigtibn Etli vi 399 Transactional model BarnlundWatzlawickeBeavin1and Jackson a i I Giving and receiving messages is feciprocal39iae I Process in which the sending and receiving of messages is continuous sirfiultaneous andunavoidable r3 v M e I communication isn t s orh tlii g w 39d tb oth gwithit gf t t m mquot If i39 quotr m w an zjmi 39 w x V s I ers father it is an activity we 39 at J g 4 39 EMVL l n 7 1 ill wrongness of an action or behavror 39 ml i m t r37 39 2 0 Ethics the perceived rightiie s39s 6r determined in large part by society a d r I 3 H r a 33 at t quotu x r39 2r 2 111 1 39e 0 Five ethical systems M n l n u C 39 31 23lt tad v t 9 quotH v wt m0 J r i quot 9t9g9n9 imam an m n a bitingtn r Individual follow moral absolutes Aquotctpas though twe are examples to others piggy a F gwg g I UtilitarianismfMillr2N aieu 9s Zmugni ar quot 1 Ea 1quot inquot inquot an What is ethjc al is fvha t Wilhbrin 39the greatest good for the most People conseq nces a39ie important 39quot quot quotm I A quot My 4 H quot l ol1s 1 J 39 MR i5l lfLikljjdhgf d g a a Alm f9r39 sfm9nxsmi 9ls e m oualgvesel39 quot L I39 Etlnc ofCare Gi111gan W if quot1 ww39 39 1 7 W39th f 0 Being concerned with connection 3 395 f w a1 3 35 o l emuquotW L quotg t m 1 I Signi cant Chorc NilsenW if in 39 f H 7 t Z Jrquot a 1h 39l39139 fk L A g thQormnumcatlon is ethical to the eitent that it max1mizes people s i p u l U 39 v A gt32 5 3 A I 39 r 3r r quot 4 4 1 321 u u J 0 t v 39 ability toexercise free chmce f i r Vitu39r u 2 0 I Stages of perception E v quot I if H r a v t I u n 3 quotIquot JJquotz a Tiny il sfjfl mm Attending and Selectlng 39 IV j jx3939 2i 197 is i L If J IW fy rtquot l39 tilii f 1 35 P f a 19 32 39 3 14 5 439 gequires u to use Visual auditory tactual and olfactory senses to t 3 5 t r as if gna lg Hal quot f39 u 351 a g M L 5 1 v 3 Ram 39 l respond to stlmuh 1n our interpersonal env1ronment t 4 39 7 saw quotW a am I Selective Perception p quot a evarmtemm I 3951quotquot1r392 s39quot M mimic i 1 39 u 3 0 We de01de to attend to thl gs thatful ll our own needs capture 3m quotn 4 mr A39 39wz tifi 39 3 M m r 39 E oug own Interests onmeet on own expectatlons I 91 quot39vi quotHA I 3 l f quot2quot L11 quot1 39L3939a 391 1 in i o Organizmg in r x in A r y 39 v R n 1 6 f1 2 a 2 5 1 quotfaquot J efi 39 q 3 Place what are often a number of confusmg pieces of mformatlon into an l 39 LI39L 5 5x 5 quot2 L xx 539 J i W I 39 he 3 v 5 j 33 w 2m 39hs w u 4H5 I 1understandable accessrbleand prderlyi ashion 393 tkg392i 39v fl 3 39ltH392 A 4 Laws r an quot Jf39 311 a I O H y shrew at Baxttzwiigfnyqug 53kg Ham squot Link an yummy 2 o Proxnmtys W w nmw s nquot 1r1r n J 0 People group things closetogether 1n units r I 2 r m is in waif of T39 3 9S ml l3ty WW 5 l ii39iiv I quot r 0 People group things phys1cally Similar 111 units r39l u m u Hu u 12min 75 Wino rm ln Qontl sf x r as ian rz39f mirth v Hi i i 0 People perc we thn igs at are too different as not 39 A 7H a u n r 44 us a as 3 sin 31 31m Elstyiucii t 1 v wbelioqnging igggthquij HourEd 3155th N s a I Orgamzmg by Schemata i W 5 3 K a m Syhemata39 are mental templates prtstructures that we use to i a meme al1the infermtiop We Wire A h VOL Createdfrom personalexperience l 39s A I I u 9 39 xvuuwt 39 1 Jw t q M4 Awr 41397quotf I Orgamzmg by Scripts it l l a 5N 39 f tr 0 Scripts are rules governing events and sequences and are like schemata except that they focus on e 0 Actions 39 0 Events gt A 0 Procedures 39 a o Interpreting t r I Assigning meaning to what we perceiv a quot x I In uenced by relational history personal expectations and knowledge of the self and other 39 Q 0 Retrieving quot Recall information stored in out memories I Selective Retention t quot 0 Behavior that recalls information that agrees with our perceptions K o and selectively forgets information that does not o The de nition of an attribution 39 o The process of attaching meaning to behavior The de nitions of and distinctions between interhal and external attributions 0 quotExternalquot or quotsituationalquot attribution assigns causality to an outside factor such as the weather Q quot quotInternalquot or quotdispositionalquot att b tion aslsigns causality to factors within the person such as their own level of intelligence or other variables that make the individual responsible for the event quot 43 a 39 quot I Impression forniation theory the halo effect a 4 u 5 t 0 Halo39 effectf overallip39ositiv hnpression on the basis if one positive vquot characteristic 4 1 if h r 39r 13 gJ 4 r 1 O 9 J I iti Implicit personality theory 1 o The system of rules that tells y39bu which characteristicsI go with ivhiCh other characteristics Fill in th e blanks Whenidentifying persbnalities i v The various zones of physical distance and their associatit39m with relationshifi types as defined by Hall z r 39 L a o Intimate distance 6 8 inches i 3 r I 21 egtmo m a nd babyH if 039 Pers onalldistancez ll 439feet w i39 t 39 a V In 390 Social distance 4 to 12 feet i a quot r 39 0 Public distance 12 to more than 25 feet 0 Nonverbal Expectancy Violation quot 39o Attempts to eXplain people s reactions to unexpected behavior Expectancies are primarily based upon social norms and sp39eci c characteristics of the 39 communicators 339 r 39 s gt a to r Communicators develop expectations a quot o u Violations of communication expectations ar e ai39o39using Yand distracting o Communicator reward valence moderates interpretation39fof behaviors quotIX V4 r L 4 J ii L w if I 3 I x 5 Y u in 2 1 471 s a t 3951 m E quot 1 m5 5 g 39r quotis 339 U 4 u r 545 39 h 31 n in 391 t ifquot u we 4 392 o Triangle39ofmeaningn h 39 1 ear e 37 o Thetriangleofmeaning k a 4 39 3TH 4 inquot 1 3 I J 1 pw 3 ak v 33quot quotu r guitkf i i Mi at I 391 rm 2 u use i 221quot s r 9 t i l 3 x 41 Jam 39tn 431752 em s 36 not 2 259 3 when 39 g r quotEr39 L514 9 57 to 311 23111 vil vt 39 1quot H39 ll 4 H 1 wtquot 3 4 ZN39iv n39i39 Jim J 3 121311 5 3 I i6 39 U 139 hi 1 i 39 t 39v a 1 45 F 39 fii i39l x x 1dquot 395 r liquot39v i395 ri n J a Ii 0 u 1 b H u u in v 1311 3 39Ii 1 quot1 9 t ii l39ri 1s lyai i f iLii gr f39 34 t F E iz A V 3 at x v 4 39 quot H 5 UL quot e i j Lu ML f 519 A 395 u r s rt t a 7 i wt 2 umquot 122 1 rn 2 mqu 1 2 mu m Mitt at 9 A w 39 P 1 b rat a It 39 r 539 iquot i39J 391 il l ai39quot u Tquotquot ing at ilevt ag v v r L i iyi1 La 4L 39 5 Iquot 39 Ar 7 quot 5 i h I 74 3quot FXIYJHS 339 m 39quot39urm 13 x 73 3quot fx x H25 1414 w t Word upquot 39zp39f x 5 m 39J srthhirigt W elm 2 fi39 ti h 2 If furry feline house pet 1I 39 w v3 f 3 f fv s w39l L i as Meant fiE39umuit Vim 2quot man M at The de nitions of ahd distinctions betweenvphon olo gicalsemantic syntacticand pragmatic i levels oflanguage use I V 39 3923 my 3 p o Phonological TQLW 54th W mggmi A 3m u rSougdsxstcm ofapart1991a 1apguage1 4 I saw 2quot 39a The way Squadsfsmction Within a givenilanguhgs orraerossilanguages entra29 a i 1tacti9 539 2w 44123Humaniii EH urn u ri 5r tr3 x wa b my matquot 39 39 I 39 Rules that govern the structure of sentences and which determine their relative grammaticality g i 3 item er ashrxm i quot Modern research in syntax attemptsrto describe languages in terms of such rules and for many practitioners to nd generalrulesthat apply to all languages s 2 quot2 a gamma 0 Semantic 3 at mm my r 7 W351 sight 3 quot Aspects of meaning as expressed in language orotrherzsy stemstof signs 5 5 Semanti39cs39contrastsiwithsyntax which is th study ofzthe structure of Sign 43 3935 systemsfo cusing on the form not meaning I g 391 m I o Pragmatic awfut mur if I The ability of natural language speakers tolcommunicate more than that 1 am whichisi39explicitlystatedThe ability tounde139stand anbther Speaker39s a 39 uquot intendedmeaning is called pragmaticc ompetence muwm 4 Ci The de nitions of and distinctions between denotative and connotative meanings 323 o Denotative quot Wigwam 13335 39 a a 39 The literal conyentional me aning that most people in a culture have agreed is the meaning of a symbol Dictionary de nition 0 Connotative A quot a i M39 E L t ul r39 tyg c l w n r y vuf 1quot uvuia g a 39 I Varies from p rson to personz Defive from people s personal and subjective experience yvith a verbalsymbolr E r 39 r J1 39l I x 4 o The de nitions andquotdistinctionsbetWeen convergence and divergence asd tieii by Speech AccommodationTheory new 1 5er arms 3 fairway 33 3433 ff 0 Convergence lt v Nina s quot l I Process of adapting on s speech style to match that of other s with39whom the communicator wants to identify s I 539 4w arm 1 t o Divergence r T t 3 i By aI T39 Speaking in a waythat emphasizes their differences r establish a was rhH 431m credibility 9 quot5 3 ads if 33 a i 1 a 0 Three message design logics and typesmf jues sag39esassociated Witheach logic according to O Keefe s 254 quot 0 People have one of 3 distinct notions about how communication works to scrve as means to an end V p M w I Imagine that your friendhas just been dumped by his orher signi cant r Mi gvt w 1 other You never liked the signi cant otherquhat would you say to your friend in this situation gzv r r sz r w r t r if a a is 0w Expressive DesigrfLogic lg 39T39nquotquot v Fsi 32 b 5 rmi w A1 swam loser anywayhemat m myrrh 39 0 Conventional Design Logic in we 390 That is reallytoo ba dnYou will nd another 3 anquot a boyfriendgirlfriend 39 Cull w r a a b 39IRlietorica1215esign Llt5gic r quot l 399 sway 39 I r 3 39 1 o 2 I know how39muchyou b ared for himher I have been in the saine position myself and 39Il39know that it seems like you will neverfmd someone else trust meI have been there But just you wait theyill belining up to date you in no time o quotI he de nition of nonverbal communication e we may i 21quot 2quot 3 o Nonverbal Communication 1 w 1 at R 39Q w l 14 m 4 39 words that communicate messages r I All behaviors other than spoke a 132quot 39 uand haveshared meaningvbetweenpeopleam g N m I Human action and behavior and the corresponding nieaning that is 1 a attached toxbehavior In short everythingbut the Words 0 Characteristics of nonverbal communication a r o Nonverbal is often ambiguous nonverbal messages o en mean different things to different people i 39 7 op Regulates conversation I i l I Turntaking h i F I 7 o 39 Who talks whe and to yVhom 0 May cooccur with spoken words I mixed message textbook 1 w o eg smile verbal expression of happiness I Nonverb may con ict with verbal communication o e g I m happy o Might be enacted subconsciously or consciously n o Good riddance I don t know wh ydu went outwith that i quoti
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