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by: Dr. Jayda Mayert


Dr. Jayda Mayert
GPA 3.73


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Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Jayda Mayert on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MIBO 3000 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/202392/mibo-3000-university-of-georgia in Microbiology at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
MIBO 3000 Study Guide Test 1 This study guide is not based on what is speci cally on the test This study guide is what I would make for myself if I were taking this class and studying for the exact same exam Chapter 4 Prokagotic Cell Structure and Function Cell Morphology Cell Arrangements oCocci sphere olndiVidual cells oBacilli rod oDiplo oSpirilla spirochete what s the difference oStrepto o Spirilla have a spiral shape a rigid cell 0 Staphylo wall and motility mechanisms based on oTetrads polar agella o Sarcjna oSpirochete have a eXible cell wall and motility mechanisms based on structures called axial laments oAppendaged mycelial Cell Envelope matching picture could be on the test Glycolipid Oiigosaccharide r lntegrai v 39 protein g Integral protein Peripheral protein For most of the structures listed under Prokaryotic Cell Organization you 39re just going to need to go through the Powerpoint and memorize individual functions However I will add information that find particularly important on this study guide Prokaryotic Cell Organization Internal Structures 0 Cytoplasm o Ribosomes o Nucleoid 0 Inclusion bodies 0 Endospores Cell Envelope 0 Plasma membrane prokaryotic plasma membranes have hopanoids for stability 0 Roles 1 Permeases for transport of molecules 2 to generate energy 3 Synthesis of cell wall components 4 Sensing the environment Proteins are associated with the membrane permeases allows nutrients to come in the cell Cell wall protection against osmotic lysis S layer Resistance against low PH Stabilization for the membrane Capsules helps pathogens evade immune system recognition and thus prevent phagocytosis Can prevent cells from drying o slime layer similar to capsule but are more loosely associated wcell 0 Function protect bacterial cells from environmental dangers such as antibiotics and desiccation o Prevents cell from drying Appenduges o Flagella move liquid past the surface of the cell 0 Fim briae and pili Attachment motility and conjugation Cell Envelope Plasma Membrane PM AKA Cell Membrane CM For prokaryotic PMs hopanoids are used for stability for eukaryotic membranes sterols are used for stability however some prokaryotes use sterol cholesterol Helicobacter mycoplasma Why do archaea have branched chain hydrocarbons attached to glycerol by ether links and not ester links Because the links of bacterial are stronger Lipids are stronger because they need to confront bacteria What are the 4 functions of prokaryotic CMs that are NOT functions of eukaryotic CMs Have membraneembedded electron transport proteins to get energy from respiration or photophosphorylation 0 Synthesize lipid and cell walls 0 Uses sensory proteins that allow the cell to determine certain aspects of the chemical or physical conditions of the environment Cell Envelope Cell Wall What are 4 functions of a bacterial cell wall Protection from osmotic lysis and plasmolysis Confer cell shape Can prevent from toxic substances Can contribute to pathogenicity 0 What is the difference between plasmolysis and osmotic lysis Plasmolysis plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall because ofloss of water Osmotic lysis ruptured due to the water from the surrounding entering the cell 0 Transpeptidation reaction 0 Function increase strength and rigidity of peptidoglycan AKA murein The sugar derivative The sugar derivative muramic Transpeptidation Naceiylglucosamine Ct acid Nacerylglucosamine with a 0 Remember 2 amino sugars r NAG 7 00 idle acud linked to ca NAM make up the peptidoglycan i backbone NAM and NAG 51 4 NH D141 0 Crosslinking of amino sugars O 0 actually only occurs between t o different NAM sugars o 5194 0 Look at the picture to the CH0 CHiCH NH left from the PowerPoint quot As you can see 5 amino OH 0 0 30 acids are attached to LAlanine CHa NAM making it a Demamme pentapeptzde This can be replaced with O M ammo acids are diamlnopimelic acid or with LilSine or DAP attached to NAG ornithlne all arnino aCIds D Atanme O This means that any cross Wlth a free ammo group on linkin that occurs must the R side chain DAtanine 1 g g be between NAMs On Gram negative organisms Lysine is replaced with DAP a Mil e LAla DIGIu G ra m DAla DAP nip D IAIa DIGIU Likla DGIUNH Gram D Ala LLys GI Gly r Gw 6N LLys Gly 39 y D Ala Peptide nterbridge DGIuNHs LAla I wt 0 o o o o In Grams DAP links to DAla directly 0 In Gram s DAla links to LLys by forming an interpeptide bridge made of 5 glycine residues attached to one another Gram Positive Organisms Now look to the left NAM only has 4 amino acids attached to it now making it a tetrapeptide 0 Why 0 Because they go from four peptides to pentapeptide During a transpeptidation reaction 0 In ram When DAla links to DAP on a different NAM chain the last DAla with blue stars near it in the rst picture gets broken off Peptidoglycan is much thinner In Gram When DAla attaches to LLys on a different NAM chain the last DAia with blue stars near it in the rst picture gets broken off just like in Grams gtthere is no outerrnembrane 0 Note however that the links are different in Gram and Gram organisms What s the difference in function between lipoteichoic acids and teichoic acids Gram Negative Organisms Co mpare and contrast Gram Negative and Gram Positive cell walls LPS 0 Which part of LPS is an endotoxin o How can LPS protect bacteria 0 How can bacteria avoid detection from a human s immune system 0 Know why Deinoeoeei Planetomyees and Myeoplasma are unique 0 Know the difference between an archaeal cell wall and a bacterial cell wall How can different archaea stain Gm AND Gm not at the same time of course Cell Envelope Glycocalyx Slime layers and capsules 0 What are three functions ofa capsule o Aid in attachment 0 Can help evade immune system by inhibiting phagocytosis How are a capsule and slime layer different from one another in terms of their function What is a biofilm Is it always made of only one species different ones Appendages Pili and Flagella Pili are made of proteins called Pilin What is the function of adhesins on the tips of pili What is the difference between the location of assembly of pili and agella Which ofthe three parts ofa agellum are you able to see under a microscope Which of the three parts of a agellum rotates Internal Structures Cytoplasm Why are there so many ribosomes in the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell Internal Structures The Nucleoid All cells have structures that contain chromosomes What is this structure called in a prokaryotic cell in a eukaryotic cell What is the function of supercoiling What are plasmids and how are they different from chromosomes What is the relationship between genome size and bacterial growth ability A Study Guide for Final Exam May 2 06 Koch s Postulates guidelines to establish the relationship between a pathogen amp a disease 1 pathogen has to be found in all diseased animals amp healthy animals must be free of it 2 pathogen has to be successfully cultured in the lab using artificial medium 3 healthy animals when injected with the cultured microorganism have developed the same symptoms 4 same pathogen has to be found in the artificially inoculated diseased animal G cell wall G cell wall Gram Staining a differential staining technique 1 Apply Crystal Violet as primary stain all bacteria are stained 2 Apply iodine to fix the crystal violet in the cell wall of G bacteria 3 Apply ethanol or acetone to remove the stain from the outer layer of G bacteria 4 Apply safranin counter stain to stain G bacteria red Morphological shapes ofbacteria classifies bacteria according to this Rodshaped Straight chain Bacilli Streptococcus Sphericshaped Coed Tetrads 4 Diplococcus Sarcina 8 Irregular aggregation of Spiralshaped spheric bacteria Spirillium Staphylococcus Helixshaped Spirochetes The 3 domains 6 kingdoms Nchology Mycoses Phycology All Organisms Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Archaea Mme Archaea Pro sta Use of Metric system Gram liter meter I 1 I urnk 39 I lrnillion lOA6 mm millirneter 11000 100 3 nrn nanometer lbillion10A9 Ex 03urn 300 nm Solution preparation Spore Staining Technique a differential staining technique called Schaeffer Fulton Staining I Primary Stain Malachite Green 9 saturates endospore I Wash with water I Counter Stain Safranin 9 stains background Ex Endospore is heat resistant bacillus anthracis Detailed structure ofbacterial spore Life Cycle ofEndospore Forming Bacteria Sporulation and Germination Generalized Prokaryotic Cell s a Capsule Staining uses a simple staining technique called Negative Staining Mix bacteria with India ink nigrosin Spread in thin film Dry Bacteria appear as light spots against dark background Capsule vs Slime Layer vs S Layer example of capsule39s effect on microorganisms39 ability to cause disease pathogenicity virulence Capsule Slime Layer SLayer I Made up ofpolysaccharides sometimes amino acids Ex D I Organized layer like oor tile glutamic acid in Bacillus anthracis I A type of capsule pattern 39 39 39 I M d f t 39 39 Proteigzzzi222232 mm Streptococcus pneumoniae I IN tDiffuste d represents the only layer outside Capsulated strain 9 cause disease 0 S rue um the cell wall Uncapsulated strain 9 vulnerable to phagocytosis Cell Wall Peptidoglycan in Domain Bacteria Pseudopeptidoglycan in Domain Archaea Plasma Membrane Phosolipid bilayer vs Phospholipid molecule Inclusi0n Bodies Lipid Droplets Carboxy somes Cyano phycin of cyano bacteria Inclusion Bodies Gas Glycogen Vacuoles Granules Amino Acids Glycine Gly Mezthllogtlne Alanine Ala Serme Ser Phenylalanine Cysteine Phe CYS TXrOSine Tryptophan Tyr Try Lysine Lys Plasmids I Circular pieces ofDNA I Selfreplicated Ribosomes 70S Fimbriae vs Pili Can be transferred from a bacterium to another via conjugation through pili Certain plasmids code for proteins that enable bacteria to Withstand harsh environments eg heavy polluted habitats Resistant bacteria 9 Susceptible bacteria 9 Becoming Resistant bacteria Svedburg Unit of Sedimentation 9 a factor of mass size and conformation of organelle Prokaryotic Ribosomes made of two subunits Smaller 30S Larger 50S Fimbriae Pili I Hairlike appendages Abundant up to 1000 per cell I For attachment of bacteria to substrates making a biofilm gum A twitching or gliding movement Hairlike appendages Up to 10 per cell Aid in cell conjugation Flagellae I For movement of bacteria swimming or run Chemotaxis movement toward or away from a chemical Counterclockwise rotation run Clockwise rotation stop and turn Enumeration ofbacteria Use of Standard Plate Count diluting bacteria with a series of buffer solutions ie isotonic solutions use nutrient agar 50 C for plating after nutrient agar has solidi ed incubate for 2448 hrs examine the plates and select only the plate which has between 30300 CPU for calculating the CFUml of unknown Example The Mathematics of Bacterial Growth where n number of generations g generation time also called doubling time t incubation time Ni initial population size Nf final population size n number of generations Tng nlongilogNilog2 Example A comparison between Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells As of the genetic material Nucleoid Nucleus Nucleolus Nucleotide Nucleoside c t DNA Building block of Nt b Prokaryotic DNA on ams m Contain rDNA DNARNA nucleic 1 rogen ase ex39 Eukaryotes acids Adenine Sugar I Histones Eukaryotes DNA is associated with these basic proteins rich in Lysine and Arginine Beaded structure of histones wrapped by DNA N ucleosomes mitochondrial bacteria do not have these bc they are considered bacterial I Sketch the following segment of DNA 539 ACTG 339 ii As of Cell Wall fungual cell wall vs algal cell wall vs bacterial cell wall Eukagotic Cell Wall In Fungi Composed of Chitin amp Cellulose In Algae Composed ofPectin amp Cellulose some Protozoa contain pellicles which are ridge structures underneath the PM Prokagotic Cell Wall I Bacteria Made of Peptidoglycan Gram thick layer of peptidoglycan Gram 2 layers outer membrane amp thin layer of peptido I Archaea Made of Pseudopeptidoglycan G wall vs G cell wall Mode ofaction ofpenicillin as a beta lactam antibiotic vs mode of action of vancomycin protoplasts vs spheroplasts Mode ofaction oflysozyme Outer membrane of Gram Negative cell wall Detailed steps of peptidoglycan synthesis Peptidoglycan vs Pseudopeptidoglycan Peptidoglycan Bacteria n 1 11 Archaea I N acetyl Glucosamine amp Nacetyl Muramic Acid I 14 Glycosidic Bond between GiM Peptide portion with a mix ofD amino acids amp L amino acids they are stereoisomers I N acetyl Glucosamine amp Nacetyl Talosaminurinic Acid 13 Glycosidic Bond between GiT Peptide portion has no D amino acids


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