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by: Dr. Jayda Mayert


Dr. Jayda Mayert
GPA 3.73


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About this Document

Class Notes
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Popular in Microbiology

This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Jayda Mayert on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MIBO 8610 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/202393/mibo-8610-university-of-georgia in Microbiology at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
1 Vetsigian et a 101073pnas0603780103 Supporting Text File in this Data Supplement Supporting Text Supporting Text Freezing Before Diversi cation A possible sequence of events leading to a frozen code 1 2 is that translation emerged the code optimized itself and froze in a single niche and only then did some other evolutionary transition trigger the spread and diversification of its organisms The code is universal by virtue of competition and genetic drift between organisms occupying this single niche Or perhaps in a localized ecosystem there was more than one frozen code but it was a single lineage that diversified conquering a world that was either unoccupied or inhabited by inferior organisms lacking translation The original ecosystem was marginalized and the rest of the codes were stochastically lost during the expansion So the universality of the code is a result of a largescale quotfounderquot effect The problem with this freezing before diversification scenario is that it does not explain what was stopping the expansion of organisms endowed with some form of translation well before the genetic code froze The evolution of translation and the re nement of the genetic code was most likely a multistage process that took an extended period The alternative to freezing before diversification is freezing after diversification Even without understanding how codes evolve it is reasonable to assume that they eventually freeze Let us look at the first moment of time when all organisms have quotozen codes The codes diversified along with all other organism properties so we have many somewhat different codes and perhaps even some organisms that do not have translation at all How do we get from this situation to a universal code We now outline a variety of logically allowed possibilities explaining their merits and drawbacks Stochastic Universality The universal genetic code is a simple consequence of the fact that after an extended period all organisms will be descendants of a single organism and will inherit its genetic code This happens for stochastic reasons the descendants of an organism can invade a neighboring niche and by mere chance outcompete the organisms that were already there Because the entire phenotype space is connected the repeated stochastic takeover of neighboring niches will result eventually in a universe inhabited by organisms with a common ancestor The problem here is that because of the stochastic nature of the process it will be extremely slow In


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