INTRO AFRICA AFST 2100
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AFST 104 001
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STUDY GUIDE ASFT 2100 SPRING 2012 O V l V Chapter 5 amp Dr Aderibigbe lecture Religion List the major beliefs of the African religion using the pyramid structure African Traditional Religion Christianity and Islam List the minor beliefs of the African religion according to the lecture notes Life After death Morality Reincarnation Final Judgment State the sources of information for the African religion Oral and Non Oral or written Be able to mention the challenges faced by the African religion according to the lecture notes Geographical impediments Size of the Continent and generalization Colonial Indoctrination Diversity of Languages Secret Nature of the religion In uences of the other religions and western civilization and education Chapter 6 The purpose of rites of passage 1 Linking the individual concreter to the comm unity and through the com lnunity to the all encompassed and everpresent spiritual world Conferring privileges and responsibilities that come with the latest social membership Acquisition and transferring of indigenous knowledge especially about culture and environmental adaptation Demonstration of acquired knowledge and the performance of cultural competence Preparation of children and young people for future roles as they rst learn siln ultaneoust learning to teach and then teaching Provision of model of consistency and intergenerational unity through the ritual structure Preventing conflicts between age groups and the methodical abuse of women children and the elderly through the array of ritual procedures Be able to list and discuss the importance of understanding the society s rites of passage or initiation ceremony An understanding of a society s rites ofpassage can provide indispensable infonnation on the society regarding issues such as as Vv AA Ul v AA Iax VV 0 Social stratification o Worldview 0 System of traditional education 0 Individual achievement in the community List the major initiation rites in African societies a The rites associated with birth b The rites associated with adulthood c The rites associated with elderhood d The rites associated with ancestorhood 8 Name and meaning of the three types of kinship relations 1 Consanguine Relation relation through blood 2 Affinal Relation Relation through marriage 3 Dispora Relation established relationships other than blood or marriage 9 What is the rule of descent The rules or links that connect individuals within particular sets of kin because of known or presumed shared ancestry 10 Name and explain different types of marriages in Africa Polygamy marriage to more than one spouse at the same time whether male or female Includes Poly gyny man with two wives and Polyandry women with two or more husbands 11 What are some of the problems that polygamy has solved in the African societies It is a way to compensate for postpartum sex taboos as among the Hausa of West Africa according to which a husband is not to have sex with his wife for two years following child birth Chapter 7 12 What are some of the powerful tools that women could use to achieve equal representation in politics A n mative action and other empowerment policy 13 What was the major form of learning in Africa during the precolonial period lVlature members of the family guided and taught children Learning occurred through imitation and observation or apprenticeship 14 According to the chapter what is the meaning of when an old person dies a library is burned Adults passed on knowledge to the youth so when they died all of that knowledge went away 15 Explain the concept of womantowoman marriage Practice was encouraged to give a male heir to a barren woman Chapter 8 16 List at least 5 millennium development goals Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty Achieve universal primary education Gender equality and woman empow erment Reduce child morality Improve material health 9 HIVAIDS and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development 17 List the characteristics of smallscale agricultural systems Low external input Low risk Dependency on Agroecological factors Complexity and diversity Divided labor Land tenure 18 List and explain at least three factors affecting rural life in subSaharan Africa Environmental degradation and natural disaster damage to crops create economic loss Climate change temperature increase and rainfall decrease can have a negative affect on crops Healtl diseases such as HIVAIDS and malaria prevent those af icted from being able to work and provide 19 What are some of the UN recommendations of the millennium project task force on halving hunger Move from political commitment to action Reform policies and create an enabling environment Incr39ease the agricultural productivity of food insecure farmers Iinprove nutrition Increase incomes 20 What are some of the obstacles that the author mentions that hinder agriculture s potential to drive Africa s growth Agriculture s current meager results Poor performance of agricultural extension Increasing land and environmental degradation 21 What are some of the strategies that smallscale farmers can employ to escape poverty Increasing production Diversifying lligrating to urban areas Lecture on Agricultural development in Africa Dr Navarro 22 Be able to identity and differentiate climatic regions in Africa and the crops that grow and livestock kept in each region 23 How does HIVAIDS Affect Agriculture in Africa Lack of resources time and labor Decline in livestock productionReductiorI in area of land under cultivation Decline in yields missed agricultural deadlines Change in cropping patterns Loss in agricultural skills 24 Gender issues in Agriculture women are 70 of the workers Women are 60 80 of the labor39 produce for food consunlption and sale 100 of processing for basic foodstuffs Women provide do not have decision amp ownership power 90 of household water and fuel wood 80 of food storage and transport 90 of the hoeing and weeding work 60 of the harvesting and marketing activities Lack of access to education extension services information healthcare governance human rights land ownership credit least fed research technology Economic Development in Africa Pow erpoint Dr Houston 25 Be able to identify constraints to agricultural development in Africa Access to markets for products and inputs Impacts ordiseases and insectsRainfall variabililyLower levels of cultivated land arealVIanagement issuesFinancing inputs Environmental Issues Powerpointamp Chapter 2 Dr Carroll 26 Give reasons why conservation efforts have failed in Africa Local people have no stake in maintaining biodiversity 27 Understand what the issues between wildlife and humans beings are in terms of the negative impact of humans on wildlife and the Vice versa Human negative impacts human changes in habitats introduced predators side effects of pest control poorly regulated commercial hunting poorly regulated sport hunting introduced species competition environmental contaminants introduced disease multiple causes Wildlife negative impacts Human morality destruction of property crop depredation competition with livestock disease Africa and Health Issues Chapter 10 28 Understand the reason why people still prefer traditional medicine to western medicine Its accessibility affordability client s faith in its effectiveness Also inadequate resources unpleasant personalities and high costs of the modem healtlrcare system in most parts of Africa 29 Demonstrate a brief understanding of the history of western medicine in Africa by knowing who the pioneers of western medicine in Africa are The pioneering work of establishing health care delivery in most parts of Africa was by various Christian missionaries 30 Know the most widely practiced form of medicine in Africa Music amp African Literature Chapters 11 amp 13 3 1 Be able to identify and name various African musical instruments Idiophones Instruments that produce sound without any additional materials or support of any other materials Membranoplrones Drums with parchnrent head s Aerophones wind instruments grouped into three categories the ute horns and trumpets and reed pipes 32 Understand various training and recruitment strategies for traditional African musicians In the case of solo perfor1ners no recruitment is needed as a solo performer may come from a lineage of practiced soloist and he will have started leaming by rote from childhood Test Three Review for April 12 20111 The test will cover what we have done since the second exam presentations and readings and is for 10 of the final grade in the class The test format will be similar to the two last exams except that there will NOT be a long answer essay question Summary of what will be on the exam Readings UCA Chapter 7 UCA Chapter 8 UCA Chapter 10 UCA Chapter 12 Presentations Gender Issues Environmental issues Music and Dance Literature READINGS UCA Ch 7 Population Urbanization and AIDS Africa s Environmental Problems Women and Development African Literature March 22 Dr Njeri MarekiaCleaveland March 24 Dr Carroll April 5 Dr Jean Kidula April 7 Dr Karim Traore Population growth rate in subSaharan Africa 7 how does this compare with the rest of the world The world s highest growth rates are in Sub Saharan Africa The growing rate is at 25 a year compared with an average growth rate of 17 in less developed countries as a whole Population is like to grow from 705 million in 2005 to over 13 billion by 2025 The number of countries with the fastest rate of urbanization in the world that are in Africa number of cities in Africa with a population of 1 million or more the largest subSaharan African cityiprojected population in 2015 The growth rate of SubSaharan Africa s cities averaging about 48 a year since 1980 Africa has sixteen of the twenty countries with the fastest rate of urbanization in the world the percentage of Africa s population living in urban areas has double since 1965 from 14 to 39 today These growth rate occurred within one or two cities within each country rather than being more evenly distributed By 2010 there will be at least 33 cities in Africa with populations of 1 million or more Lagos Nigeria Sub Saharan Africa s most populous city will have over 13 million residents Lagos is gowing so fast that by 2015 it will be the third largest cities in the world with the population of 23 million people Family Flaming and education are needed to lower birth rates slow urban growth and ease population pressure on the land Africa has the world s highest birth rates and the lowest rate of I 1 im usage d I can reduce the rates ofpopulation growth The two views given of postindependence demographic trends ppl96l99 7 be able to describe the main position of each view with at least two points supporting each position The main eXplaination for sub Saharan Africa s resistance to the demographic transition is that Africa s disadvantaged position in the global economy has prevented the widespread societal changes necessary for the demographic transition to occur Most Africans have remained tied to the rural areas even when they live in the city Some conclude that Africa is beginning its demographic transition On the other hand any demographic transition in Africa will remain limited for decades to come The demographic transition DT is a model used to represent the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre industrial to an industrialized economic system 1 Africa s demographic transition is under way Decline in birth rates and overall population growth along with increased usage of family planning services and contraception In the mid 1990s crude birth rate were fourty four births per 1000 population in 2005 the rate had dropped to 41 In the mid 1990s overall population growth was nearly 3 per year this has now dropped to 25 Use of contraception is an important factor in the level of fertility Those with lower fertility are generally in countries with higher rates of contraception usage those with the highest rates of fertility had below 10 in contraceptive usage They develop family planning and declining support for large families In most of Africa economic crisis seems to be the major motive for smaller families and family planning Economic hardship they were too poor and they couldn t support their families for food and such In Caldwell and Caldwell 2002 structural adjustment programs are added as having an impact on the decline in fertility SAPs and budget constraints led to cuts in public funding for health and education services and the imposition of user fees Unmarried females desiring an education and career realized the negative consequences of premature mother hood and career realized the negative consequences of premature mother hood these trends resulted in a growing demand for contraceptive and lower fertility esp in urban area 2 Africa s Demographic Transition will be limited The declines in Africa s birth and growth rates and studies showing a desire for somewhat smaller families can produce only limited relief from continuing high population growth For one most of the declines are limited to a few countries mainly the more developed and those with the best family planning programs Even when they wanted to decline the family size the amount of children they wanted were from four five children Many study also showed that men want more children than women do and are less approving of family planning and the use of contraception men have more control over reproductive system Only 18 of African married women use any form of birth control and when they do it is to space children or limit their number to the large number around 6 Africans only wanted to reduce high fertility only if they will experience a greater economic and political security Cultural norm also played an important role in this they believe high rate of fertility will keep the tradition where births are needed to reincamate ancestors fostering of children extended family systems polygamy and morally based resistance to contraception The text states Quite simply African men and women want more children than people do elsewhere in the world p 218 The book describes this as a problem 7 why does the West consider it a problem Why do many in Africa not consider it a problem Relate this question to this section of the chapter and our discussions of African families As Caldwell and Caldwell 2002 observe cultural norms linked to high fertility cultural norm can be include a respect for high fertility abhorrence of barreness belief that births are needed to reincamate ancestors fostering of children extended family systems polygyny and a normally based resistance to One of the reasons African country refused to have family planning because by having family planning it will reduce their population densities and small population but if this happens it will lower their labor force and internal markets and countries resources will be underdeveloped By contrast development agencies and family planning proponents mostly from capitalist industrial nations high population would require an increasing demands for such necessities such as food services land andjobs High population means they would have to rely on lands where originally it was underdeveloped With the increasing of population pressure it requires great amount of money for the investment find a way to improve the land They also experience ecological damage There will also be an expanding poor s need for wood for fuel water grazing land income or land for crops Environmental damage were extensive deforestation destruction of wildlife desertification and soil erosion Therefore the pressures of population it was claimed threaten to reverse Africa s development efforts The book details two categories of approaches to the problem of rapid urbanization Be able to describe each and give three examples of government action for each Immigration to cities is the result of rural immigration 1 Urban villages rural villages that have grown into cities but lack even the most basic services 2 refugee city refugee from some type of incidence Discouraging migration includes efforts to upgrade conditions in the rural areas to prevent outmigration to the cities In Camerron after years of neglect of the rural areas the government in the 1980s began to pay farmers higher prices provide more training programs and increase aid to young farmers The government invested more in such infrastructural improvement as road building rural electrification school construction and expanded public health centers Secondly some government tried removing unwanted migrants from the city and destroying squatter settlement as means of controlling overcrowding and public health hazards destroy their homes or take away their basic needs Fail because they tend to return to the cities or N reconstructed on the same or similar sites Thirdly encourage the growth of medium sized cities Built new capital cities as a means of decentralizing their urban population focus more internally rather than putting pressure on the major largest city Improving the cities Since independence much of the investment made by African governments has gone to cities to provide essentials like roads housing water and electricity and sewage disposal First they have a sites and services policy a way to help the urban poor to upgrade their homes and settlements Residents build on these prepared sites and add improvement as their income allow They also have urban bias where it produces food for urbanites and cheap housing for middle class civil servants Structural adjustment programs imposed by the International Monetary Fund have forced many governments to cut subsidies to the cities along with other government spending Higher prices declining urban living standards and deteriorating social services and maintenance of public works followed Be able to list five reasons given for HIV AIDS prevalence in Africa At the end of 1990 the World Health Organization WHO estimated that there were 810 million people in the world infected with the AIDS virus 1 2 E V39 gt1 High frequency of sex outside of marriage The mobility of the populationiexcesss amount of males in urban areas leads to high level of casual sex and prostitution among women seeking economic survival and workingmen who are away from their wives High level of sexually transmitted diseases in Africa the highest in the world The low incidence of condom use The denial and shame associated with AIDS on the part of many Africans result in inadequate preventive measures The church has taught them that sleeping with another person outside of marriage is a shameful things Government inaction also has contributed to failure to stop the spread of AIDS young people and unmarried people find it almost impossible to get condoms from health series or family planning clinics Both the Catholic church and many Protestant churches oppose the use of condoms The widespread of belief in witchcraft among many Christians and Muslims also prevents behavior change and effective action against AIDS It leads people to accept a fatalistic view toward death and to believe that the cause of AIDS is malevolent forces or divine punishment Be able to describe the Global Fund to fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria When started Publicized by whom Level of USA supportwhat percentage of the Funds budget It started in 2002 Kofi Annan Secretary general of the UN urged donor countries to contribute 710 billion a year to the effort Initially the US response under President Bush was to pledge only 200 million to the Global Fund Then in his 2003 state of the union message he promised 15 billion over five years in the new AIDS initiative He also vowed to ensure anti retroviral treatment for 2 million infected people The US currently provides up to a third of the budget of the Global fund UCA Ch8 Environmental Problems TheUNC f n and D 39 I UNCED that took place in Rio de 0 Janeiro in July 1992 The Conference can also be called as the Earth Summit they develop a program of action called Agenda 21 which focuses on promoting both a healthy environment and the development of the world s economies and people The Earth Summit was followed by ten years later by the World Summit on Sustainable Development which met in Johannesburg South Africa August 26 Sept 4 2002 reaffirmed sustainable development as a central element of the international agenda and gave new impetus to global action to ght poverty and protect the environment They implement the Johannesburg plan turn which turns into the MDGs later Overall what percentage of the world s forests does Africa have What country in Africa has the most Brazil Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo DRC contained a major share of the world s tropical forests Overall Africa has over 17 of the world s forests and DRC has over 20 of Africa s forests Page 240 Be able to list and brie y discuss the following causes of deforestation in Africa Deforestation occurs when trees are cut down to provide firewood a primary energy source and timber and to free up space for more crop cultivation or grazing land Privately rational but collectively destructive 0 Poverty amp underdevelopment A major reason for the deforestation in Africa is poverty and economic underdevelopment People do not have money for energy therefore they rely on firewood for energy Instead of electricity or other modern forms of energy 90 of the population uses fuelwood for cooking in Africa and wood and brush supply about 52 of all energy sources Urbanization with the rapid increase in the number of people on the continent and higher rates of urbanization the need for fuelwood as a source of energy will continue to grow Urbanization seems to have a direct effect on the loss of forests in Africa because the spread of deforestation is most noticeable near urban areas The growth of towns and cities brings about increased demands for fuelwood and charcoal and account for much of the decline in tree stocks in the surrounding countryside Shifting cultivation a practice in which subsistence farmers clear and burn a plot of land in the forest then grow crops for one or a few years before repeating the cycle This method allow agriculture recycles nutrients to the soil and maintain productivity without fertilizers With increasing population and pressure on the land in many places the fallow period is cut short Eventually the soil becomes unproductive crops no longer ourish and the trees do not grow back SAPs Structually adjustment programs Ghana s third most important export commodity The fact that Ghana needed foreign exchange earnings has contributed to the loss of Ghana s already depleted forest resources Ghana s tropical forest area is now just 25 of its original size A growing but often underreported source of deforestation is con ict and the disruptions caused by movement of large number of people 0 O 0 Be able to list five countries in Africa that are largely desert have more than 66 percent arid areas Botswana Cape Verde Chad Djibouti Kenya Mali Mauritania Niger Somalia Be able to describe the relationship of soil erosion and deforestation Why is this a bigger issue in tropical forests such as those in Africa than temperate forests The big reason not a detailed explanation Soil erosion like deserti cation is tied in large measure to the problem of deforestation re ecting the complex interdependence in the ecosystems Tree often protect the soil from rain and wind that would otherwise wash or blow it away Despite the luxuriant growth in tropical forests most of the soils that support that growth are unproductive High temperature and rainfall throughout the year encourage leaching of nutrients from the soil so that few nutrients remain except for those held by the plants themselves This calls for better management of topsoils which include the need to reduce the clearing of forests o Africa s geologic formation old age and its geographical location in the tropics more vulnerable to soil erosion o Page 250 Using one of the two examples given in this chapter pp 253255 be able to brie y discuss the relationship between environmental problems and government development agendas Nigeria oil production Oil revenues generated by the mining and selling of oil have increased the capabilities of the Nigerian state making it possible to finance much needed development project But Hutchful comments that these same processes have generated growing regional inequalities impoverishment underemployment and degradation of the Nigerian environment Their activities which include exploration production refining and transportation have caused widespread social and ecological disturbance Pollution from pipeline leaks blowouts major oil spills drilling uids and refining ef uents o The environmental problems caused by the oil industry in Nigeria have resulted in political con ict between the Nigerian government and the foreign oil companies and the local population such as the Ogoni people of Rivers state Recently the Nigerian government in partnership with the major oil companies released the Niger Delta Environmental survey to find out how serious ecological and health damages the oil industry has caused 1985 the entire Hadendawa people of north eastern Sudan faced extinction due to starvation and dispersalThe Sudanese government with the help of foreign aid put vast amount of sugar and cotton plantations on its best land along the Nile The land which eight out of every ten Sudanese depend for their livelihoods is slowly perished due to over use and misuse It invested little in dryland regions no irrigation system when drought came Neither have the govemment s investments in cash crops produced money to pay the nation s way through the drought The result is starvation and debt UCA Ch 10 During pre colonial timers the status and degree of autonomy of women in Africa relative to other regions of the world The impact of slavery was crucial in many parts of the continent Population movement wars disease loss of productive labor power and a breakdown of familiar social institution Even thought with these problems the gender relationships in Africa were prevalent Women varied from being subordinated to a headmen queen king head of council and a warrior parallel authority structure between men and women in Africa It re ected the sexual division of labor and the different spheres of activity for men and women ex titles that were given to men and women ekwe title is associated with the goddess Idemili This title is given to the most high status Ibo women if Nigeria The most powerful of these women was known was Agba ekwe Also most women were served as religiopolitical functions thru goddness gure Eventhough women did have these positions of in uence and power males typically had more formal authority positions than females degree of male dominance existed Women had rights to land animals labor and the products of their own or other s labor women were producers they grew food animals and made tools cooked helped construct residences They hauled wood and sole their surplus in local markets Women were also reproducers in societies These vital roles were normally translated into high status for women and more autonomy than was typical for women in most regions of the world The practice of bridewealth in terms of the value it ascribes to women in Africa particularly in precolonial times 9 a typical custom in Africa which requires a transfer of goods and services from the male family to that of the bride or to the bride herself It s rather than just selling a daughter it indicates high value of African women the family needs to compensate with the loss of their daughters who will bring wealth to her husband s familyBridewealth not only adds to the prospective bride s sense of her own worth but also provides material benefits for her family Also traditionally women do not take their husband s name when they marry to retain their own identity with respect to their family of origin Once they marry women have right to leave a husband in case of mistreats However her family might have to return the bridewealth or leave her children to husband s family Polygyny 9 family labor was the primary means of accumulating wealth acquiring women was necessary to family prosperity Family gained not only her productive contribution but also more children Key points in Women in Economy section 0 Statistics of women s involvement in agricultural and their ownership of land 9 70 80 of the agricultural labor and produce up to 80 of the staple food They also cultivate about half of all cash crops Despite women s contributions to the agricultural economy only 78 own land or have leaseholds to land The division of labor between men and women 9Women work much more than men an average woman s work is 50 longer than a man s women work in the field an average of 1000 hours per year and spend an additional 3 to 4 hours a day preparing food cooking and collecting firewood and water inequitable division of labor that women must carry heavy loads while the men carry nothing Men often spend more on bikes watches and radios for themselves Women use most of their income for the household and their children 0 O Gap in schooling for males and females 9 education is especially low for girls in rural areas where fewer than 25 of poor girls are in school Although about 20 of girls in Africa go to secondary school this is only half the number found in the rest of the developing world Both males and females have been hurt by the drop in government spending in Africa and the increase in school fees 0 Employment opportunities for women 9 Most good jobs are held by men Most wage jobs for women are in jobs that are like nurses teachers clerks and secretaries Only 2 of the female working population is in administrative managerial and professional occupations and only 005 of senior positions in the civil services are held by women women have about 60 of informal sector businesses In Zimbabwe women s informal sector businesses are 67 of the total In Lesotho 73 and Senegal 84 Discriminatory laws and cultural practices make it difficult for women to complete economically in agriculture wage jobs or business Typically women havelittel access to ownership and inheritance of property or to bank credit Under some countries women have no right to manage property on their own 0 Women in Development initiatives specifically the Percy Amendment and USAID policies towards women in its programs 9 WID initiatives have been given more attention The Percy Amendment passed a women s impact statemen USAID now stresses that improving the education and status of women is a key element promoting sustainable development in Africa UN European donor agencies and other major foundations have developed women s programs as well In late l980s the world bank promotes women s education health training and access to productive resources In 1987 A women in Devlopment Division was created In 1989 a coordinator for women in development was included in the bank s four regional complexes Key points in Women and Politics section The challenges to the involvement of African women in politics where they now have low representation at least 3 1 Most women were not informed about the new opportunities or actively encouraged to enter the political area 2 Most women have so little access to land business or wellpaying jobs they usually lack the resources status and credibility necessary for successful political candidacy 3 a cultural barriers to women Many Africans male and female have accepted the principle of male dominance in society including in political leadership roles First female Head of State in Africa who is she What country is she president of What year was she elected First female president of the organization AU African union 7 Gertrude Mongella of Tanzania First female president Ellen SirleafJohnson is the first elected woman president of Liberia in Africa Elected as president of Liberia in 2005 She won by a margin of 19 points over her male rival popular soccer star Describe the efforts in South Africa and Uganda to increase political participation by women The fourteen member countries of the regional southern African development community have set a goal to achieve 30 representation by women in their respective parliaments Only South Africa Mauritus and Mozambique succeeded In 1994 south Africa s national election for the firs time women won onefourth of the seats in an African parliament After the 1999 south African election women s participation increased to more than 30 9African national congress party s commitment to ensuring women s representation on party lists submitted to the voters Uganda also revised its constitution in 1995 and set aside onethird of all councilor seats at the local government level for women Know which African country has the highest representation 0f or women in a house of parliament in the world Rwanda stands out as having the highest representation of women in a house of parliament not only in Africa but in the world Almost half of seats in its lower house of parliament are held by women and women also have gained a third of senate seats At the end of the chapter what reforms since mid 1980s are mentioned as suggest a better prospect for women in Africa at least 2 In the 1990s Ethiopia Ghana Zimbabwe and south Africa enacted new constitution declaring women s equality and proscribing gender discrimination in such area as property ownership employment or marriage rights Ghana includes women s right to maternity leave in its constitution and Ethiopia includes the right of women to plan their families Both Ghana and Ethiopia also have constitutional provisions against traditional practices harmful to women In cote d ivoire polygyny and bridewealth forbidden Since 1985 Ghana s intestate succession and property laws require that all customary marriage and family property be registered and distinction made between selfacquired and family property Kenya s 19941996 national economic programs called for joint family decision making on land use and an equal distribution of economic benefits between spouses Zimbabwe s 1997 Estate Act has been called revolutionary a man s surviving spouse and children are automatically his bene ciaries when he dies In 1997 the member countries of SADC agreed to reform all laws constitutional provisions and social practices that are discriminatory to women Kenya s proposed 2005 constitution also included provisions to guarantee women more property and inheritance rights and discourage widow inheritance UCA Chapter 12 African Literature Four inhabitants of Africa have received the Nobel Prize in literature since 1986 Be able to list them and their home countries Naguib Mahfouz Egypt Wole Soyinka Nigeria Nadine Gordimer South Africa and J M Coetzee South Africa The ways in which African oral traditions are transmitted The constants of African oral traditions are transmitted in a variety of ways In some societies such as the DogonMali any elder who takes the time can learn oral traditions Other extreme case of Wolof Senegal griot which belongs to a hereditary caste attached to a noble family Griot learns the tradition by heart from his or her father from the time he or she can speak This information is considered a sacred trust Whatever the mode of transmission it is the elders who are repositories of the treasures of oral tradition so that it is said Every time an elder one dies a library burns down Be able to discuss the implications of the statement Every time an old one dies a library burns down p 353 Be able to list and brie y describe the genres of African oral literature Prose tales prose in the African oral tradition is that which tends toward ordinary speech as opposed to chanting or singing although it may contain elements of the latter Its principal form on record is the tale which contains elements of myth legend and history Tales which are generally performed at night by adults amy include mime dance and song may mix animals humans and divine beings and amy exist in related group sor cycvles such as the cycle of the hare or tortoise or the hyena Tales serve many other functions they can explain a behavior pose a problem rather than give a cleaer moral lesson Also tales can explain the founding of a dynasty the origins of a people or the behavior of a god Myth myth may be defined as a story of a complex of story elements taken as expressing certain deeplying aspects of human and transhumant existence Ex Myth that explains how the universe spirals out from a single seed Poetry in oral literature poetry is distinguished from normal speech by the sustained rhythm and modulation of the voice It ranges from formal epic chants to informal melodic songs Narrative epic usually a chanted formulaic narrative that takes several days to o perform the epic tells historical legends dealing with conquerors and founders of a dynasty 0 Occupational poetry it consists of poetry that belongs to a group exercising a trade such as farming fishing or hunting 0 Cult poetry is sung during ritual for the divinities and as an aid in the practice of medicine 0 Praise song rulers and other important men and women more likely battle song Forms of written African literature indigenous languages and European languages 1 the African literary response to European accounts about Africa 2 the shift in the postcolonial era from responding to European literature to addressing problems of the new African nations Written African literature in European languages was born in reation to European colonial writings intended to explain Africa to other Europeans Although individual authors have varying positions they tend to smooth over differences in order to invent the concept of Africa as a place with cultural constants The French general wrote distinguished studies of the Wolof Senegal with the intention of infiltrating them and subjecting them to French domination The variations in African literatures in the European languages Written African literature in European languages was born in reaction to European colonial writings intended to explain Africa to other European colonial writings intended to explain Africa to other Europeans European writings take many forms including novels such as Joseph Conrad s Heart of Darkness travelogues such as Andre Gide s Voyage to the Congo and reports to various commercial companies intending to set up operations on the continent Also colonial newspapers are an important source of European Views For each of the following authors be able to identify what country they come from what languages they write in and two of their most famous works Camara Laye represents the beauty and harmony of traditional African culture but also the painful necessity of change L Enfant noir 1953Dark Child Le Regard du roi 1954 Radiance of the King Dramouss 1966 A dream of Africa His works are written in french Chinua Achebe major Nigerian novelist who has written poetry short stories and various children s stories He is a writer from the more learned tradition of Nigerian writing Morning yet on Creation Day 1975 His rst novel Things Fall Apart 1958 His third novel Arrow of God 1964 His second and fourth novels No Longer at Ease 1960 Man ofthe People 1964 After a period of more than 20 years he published another novel Anthills of the Savannah in 1987 His works are written in English N gugi wa Thiong o the Kenyan writer formerly James Ngugi His novels Weep Not Child 1964 The River Between 1965 and A Grain of Wheat 1967 Petals of Blood 1977 7 a picture of corruption in modern day Kenya Devil on the Cross1982 7 was originally written in Kikuyu He is one of the most powerful writers in Africa today and one of the leading proponenets of writing in African languages He has several plays The Black Hermit 1968 The Rebel 1970 Wound in the heart 1970 and I will Marry when I Want 1982 Short stories 7 secret lives and other stories 1975 Critical essays homecoming essays on African and Caribbean literature culture and politics 1972 PRESENTATIONS Gender Issues Njeri Marekia Cleaveland March 22 Ms Marekia Cleaveland described women s issues in Africa as being very diverse be able to discuss three factors contributing to this diversity She also mentioned some commonalities know two of these Urban and rural women diversity among African families connection to the home base even among urban and diasporic Africans Even though they are not back at home they always try to reconnect to their past family s teaching Differences in some issues such as abortion Priorities vary too Rural women might value access to basic needs such as paved roads higher than political representation There are area where it has no highland and there are some that do diversity pastoral nomadic communities different from women in highland areas Issues common to allmost Political representation access to resources basic human rights inheritance Some are global trends Ms MarekiaCleaveland mentioned four African countries that have policies that have increased females in political positionswhich countries are they know 3 Ms Marekia Cleaveland described women s roles in precolonial African society What roles did she describe for men and women How did she describe the in uence of women in this society Precolonial they have strict gender roles Men involved in community affairs while women took care of the domestic matters In Kenya women provide 7580 of labor in food production in competition with coffee production with other continent such as Columbia Men own most of the land New constitution provides inheritance of land for women Be able to discuss the impact of colonialism on gender roles as described by Ms Marekia Cleavelandieg in agriculture land ownership views on work to care for the family vs employment General description of the Hut tax and it s impact About 7580 of women work in rural areas Women in Kenya can and do purchase land sometimes inherit it but there are financial limitation for most women Some women were able to receive land but that was because they weren t married by having land it gives them some power at least Division of labor in the formal sector is gendered with more women in secretarial services teaching and nursing Few women in medicines and engineering Recently new trends colleges encourage women to take science courses Men involved in macro community affair and women being active in the more private domestic spheres The average women in Africa is almost as par gaining equality in America women seat in parliamentary have been improved Dr Carroll Environmental issues in Africa Lecture March 24 How many elephants in Africa In terms of the environment be able to compare the preGlobalization histories of North America and in Africa as described by Dr Carroll As globalization started how the impact of did Europeans differ on the two continents In terms of wildlife how do the two continents differ What are charismatic megafauna According to Dr Carroll how did the myth of Africa as the Garden of Eden evolveiknow three groups of people who contributed to this Dr Carroll stated that 39 39 I negative 39 quot are 39 39 in a game park in Kenya Maasai Mara Be able to describe what is meant by this and its significance For conservation efforts on the African continent to succeed what did Dr Carroll state must happen Dr Jean Kidula Presentation April 5 Be able to discuss the relationship to culture and music as described by Dr Kidula Be able to list and describe four different kinds of instruments used in Africa mentioned by Dr Kidula Are these instruments common in all parts of Africaibe able to elaborate on your answer Be able to describe the performance in class 7 what instruments were used Who participated How was it different from purely European performances In most African music what is the importance of the timeline Dr Traore Presentation Two Friends Reading discussion April 7 Dr Traore contrasted Western literature and African literature what is the most obvious difference Dr Traore stated that African literature has many levels iwhat were two reasons that he gave for this Be able to make a simple drawing that re ects the main actions in the storyibe prepared to explain your drawing Be able to describe the levels of meaning in the Two Friends story 7 should be at least three Be able to explain what was represented in the story by a Senegal b the initiation festival c the woman d the vulture and e the tree Test One gSeptember 14I 2010 Study Review Guide AFST 2100 This is to guide your studying The test will cover all that we have done so far presentations and readings Chapters 14 of Understanding Contemporary Africa and is for 100 points 10 of the nal grade in the class The format will be fillintheblank with a word bank matching multiple choices and short answers a sentence or two Review Sheet A Ch 1 Readings UCA Chapters 1 2 34amp6 Common stereotypes about Africa and Africans at least two That the inhabitants are simply savages Africans are all pagans Africa is a continent Africa is a giant jungle The relationship of the West and Africa described particularly Western multiparty political systems 1500s Westerners came in pursuit of trade minerals land and new land to conquer this culminated in the slave trade Led to a white minority rule in much of Africa Westem economic system capitalism is appealing But Westerners still export tons of raw materials to sti ing the African economies The African economies are not integrated on a global scale because they have been unable to industrialize Westem political systems do not fit Africa The lack of experience in governing severely handicapped African leader many governments J J J into rule The towards democracy inspired Africans in the 1990s and the struggle for democracy continues today u Geographical size of the continent with its natural regions Africa is 3 times the size of the United States separated into savanna desert jungle and tropical regions The ITCZ and its effect particularly on agriculture and pastoral life ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone air ow from opposite directions meet and converge which creates an updraft of displaced air Creates the pattern of wetdry in much of African Fa1ming societies coordinate planning and herding of livestock according to the migratory pattern of the ITCZ Pangaea and plate tectonics or continental drift Believed to be the mother continent and was the central region of Pangaea All other continents broke off of Africa gt created the Great Escarpment 0 Be able to discuss mineral production Africa as compared to world productioniie what percentage of the world s gold diamonds cobalt bauxite chromite is produced in Africa How Africa s potential hydroelectric power is potential described Why is this potential underdeveloped Gold 7 25 diamond 50 cobalt chromite 50 bauxitel3 The potential for hydroelectric power is enormous because of the rift valleys and rivers but the potential is wasted because a lack of market Africans use very little electricity due to a dependence on agriculture Ch 3 Stateless societies versus State societies Stateless loose to no organized government state organized government with structured hierarchy ex Ghana In what contemporary states were the following ancient kingdoms located Axum Buganda Zimbabwe Zulu AxumiEthiopia Northern Sudan BugandaiUganda Zimbabwe7Zimbabwe Zului Congo S outh Africa Slavery Indigenous practices Atlantic slave trade and Indian Ocean slave trade How many slaves reached the new world from Africa How does this compare with trade to other parts of the world Indian Ocean slave trade relatively small compared to the Atlantic trade exported to Asia for plantations concubines soldiers and mine workers There was a signi cant rise in demand for slaves for French plantations 10 million slaves reached the New World 40 million were taken elsewhere The year the Berlin Conference was held its purpose and the problem with the boundaries drawn 1884 with the purpose to carve up Africa amongst the major European powers The boundaries ignored the preexisting cultural boundaries Variation in colonial rulesystems particularly between the French and British direct rule vs indirect rule Indirect British rule let the Africans rule through traditional tribal authorities Theoretically meant to reduce interference but led to African leaders using their power for great economic gain Any unacceptable traditional ruler was deposed by colonial powers Direct French rule established administrative units that cut across traditional boundaries created a transethnic elite and used the French language at all levels of administration Goal of the textbook and a course such as this as described in the final paragraph of ch 3 To sharpen awareness of Africa39s part in the world s history Presentations Fact Figures amp Geography Ade bigbe 097 0 Diversity on the African continent peoples ethnic groupstribes climate land cultures and languages Sierra Leone 7 180 inches of rain 6 months of rain 2 weeks solid amp 6 months of dry people verbose amp expressive 7 arguments common and not a big deal a bit aggressive 7 aggressively friendly Food is mostly rice amp very spicy Kenya 7 Much less rain 7 parts are a desert two rainy seasons mountains and vast plains people are more reserved 7 arguments rare and avoided 7 a big deal when they occur Little public displays of affection 7 never a hug or public kiss food is com and NOT spicy Ethiopia 7 Also dry highlands long written history 7 rich traditions Christianity long established I was shocked to see people in church greet themselves by 0 Cradle of Mankind The earliest humans were in East Africa it is also the mother continent continental drift theory 0 Comparisons of Africa and USA Africa is three times as large as the United States 54 African states v 50 US states 0 Number of independent countries and Islands 54 0 Population of Africa 900 million 0 Signi cance of Nile River Lake Victoria Kilimanjaro Cairo Sudan Ethiopia Liberia Nile River gt longest river in the world Lake Victoria gt second largest lake in the world Kilimanjaro gt largest mountain in Africa Cairo gt largest city Sudan gt largest country Ethiopia Liberia gt not colonized 0 Gross National Income per capita 490 0 Triple heritage of most Africans Afroethnic Languages African religion tradition predate contact AfroIslamic lang Islamic legal systems religion Westem Lang AfroWestem lang Promotes racial pro ling in African classi cation 0 Length of time since colonization 50 years Dr Ojo Language and Society in Africa 0819 Most African linguists believe there are how many languages in Africa 2028 What proportion of the world s languages is found in Africa l3 Be able to discuss the thought behind the quote A language is a dialect with an army navy and a ag Dialects are the differentiation of language from one region to another This quote suggests that a language is formed when a region isolates itself from the rest of the world through nationalization e orts such as forming an a1my navy and national symbols such as a ag Definitions safe endangered moribund and extinctdead languages Safequotsafequot if children will probably be speaking them in 100 years Endangeredif children will probably not be speaking them in 100 years Moribundif children are not speaking them now Deadloses all its native speakers Reasons for the prevalence of multilingualism among Africans Trade travel western education contact and intergroup communication colonialism Definitions lingua franca national and official languages ethnic language mother tongue Lingua Franca a language used to communicate between people who do not share a mother tongue national a language that represents a widest distributionhighest number o icial used by the government and seems to have symbolic value ethnic a language spoken by a particular ethnic group tongue a language someone learns from birth Differences between Pidgins and Creoles A simplified version of a language but if used long enough the children learn the pidgin as their first language the speakers are known as Creoles What is the difference between an ethnic language and a mother tongue quotnative tongue from the quotcradle tonguequot the latter being the language one happens to learn during early childhood while one39s true quotnative tonguequot may be different possibly determined by an inherited linguistic taste and may later in life be discovered by a strong emotional a inity to a specific dialect How many major groupings phyla of African languages are there Which of these is the largest in Africa and the world 4 gt NigerCongo Niger Kordofania Dr ThomsonLanguage Extinction 0824 Brie y describe the clip from CNN that Dr Thompson played in classiwhat was the topic amp how did the problem described develop Dr Thomson told stories about being bitten by a snake and about catching a butter yibe able to recount these stories and discuss the lessons he learned from these experiences Snake I remember that it was poisonous and he didn t know what to do and to believe if it was poisonous or not Butter y Avid butter y collector was watchingwaiting for a blue butter y An elderly African man walks up and tells Thomson to defecate and the butter y would come Thomson assumed the man was trying to play a trick on him Eventually he follows the advice and the butter y is immediately attracted to the smell Learned to trust the Africans who had so much experience with the wildlife that cannot be simply taught Cleaveland African History 0826amp31 Be able to discuss three obstacles to economic development in Africa Lack of fertile soil for substantial crop cultivation stripping of resources by colonial powers disease AIDS and malaria According to Dr Cleaveland what was the rst great high civilization in the world What are three factors that contributed to its development Nile River Valley civilization because it was supposedly in a benign area for malaria and a good environment for harvesting which led to a mass supply of food and eventually spare time for growth of their civilization Be able to discuss trade across the Saharan Desert Indian Ocean and Atlantic oceaniwhen did each develop what were the destinations what was traded Saharan trade for gold and salt mainly consisted of the major African empires and was done with camels and mainly with Islamic traders gt began in the eighth century Indian Ocean trade 800 ad cotton silk and porcelain objects East Africa lots of intermarriages and major spreading of Swahili Atlantic Ocean Trade 1502 was the major blossoming of trade but the trade had existed long before that interchange of slaves and Western luxuries concentrated on the West coast of Africa What were some factors that helped the Indian Ocean trade develop before Atlantic Ocean trade The Indian Ocean was more easily accessible to a wide range of peoples Asian Europeans Middleeast European contact with Africa 7 beginning year Be able to contrast North Africa and subSaharan Africa Portuguese traders began establishing settlements along the coast in 1445
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