NAT RES CONSERV
NAT RES CONSERV FANR 1100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cordia Gusikowski on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FANR 1100 at University of Georgia taught by Greene in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see /class/202399/fanr-1100-university-of-georgia in Forestry and Natural Resources at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
FANR 1100 Study Guide Invasive Species Summary of Key Concepts 1 5 quot P Uquot Invasive species are any species that is not native to that ecosystem and whose introduction does or is more likely to cause environmental harm or harm to human health Invaders multiply exponentially over time Native species are those found in a given ecosystem or region Exotic species are those that are not naturally found in a given ecosystem or region Weeds are simply plants in places that we do not want them Most invasive species are accidentally introduced by packing materials crop contamination and shipping containers They are intentionally introduced for ornamental agriculture wildlife and erosion reasons Examples of invasive species include kudzu honeysuckle and privets Chapter 15 Study Guide Plant and Animal Extinction Summary of Key Concepts I Iquot S P Uquot 9 N 9 5quot H O H H Wildlife and plants are extremely beneficial to our world There are economic benefits along with just the pure beauty and enjoyment that nature provides They also provide food and other ecological benefits like flood protection erosion control and nutrient recycling Scientists estimate that there are somewhere between 30 billion and 80 billion species that share this planet with us Estimates also show that approximately 100 species go extinct every day Most ofthese species are lost in the tropics Preserving biological diversity is essential to creating a sustainable society Most species have become extinct since the Industrial Revolution because they are unable to adapt to the changes caused by humans The major causes of extinction 1 habitat alteration and destruction 2 commercial overhunting and overharvesting 3 the introduction of alien species 4 pest and predator control 5 pollution and 6 the pet trade In many places only tiny islands of natural habitat still exist These are called ecological islands The smaller the island the fewer species it can support Wetlands provide many direct and indirect benefits to human society and are an important habitat in need of protection Commercial hunting has a long history of causing species extinctions and near extinctions Hunting for the most part does more good than harm Humans have frequently introduced alien species of animals and plants only to discover that the benefits never really materialized Three major methods to protect plants and wildlife 1 the zoo botanical garden approach 2 the species approach 3 the ecosystem approach The zoo botanical garden approach used to strictly focus on raising endangered species in captivity It has expanded to include releasing the endangered species in the wild H U 4 H U39I FANR 1100 Study Guide The species approach involves plans developed to protect individual species by controlling human activities that threaten them and by improving habitat The ecosystem approach is perhaps the most effective and least costly This approach sets aside large areas that are populated with a sufficient number of each natural species and letting nature take its course This approach also includes to restore damaged lands and waters to better manage entire ecosystems to establish preserves surrounded by buffer zones and to create wildlife corridors Extractive reserves allow human access to natural areas to sustainably harvest nuts fruits and other plant products Keystone species are often key components oftheir environment and their loss can result in the loss of many other species Protecting keystone species is very important to the health and welfare of the world s ecosystems The Endangered Species Act of 1973 represents the United States first concerted effort to protect endangered species The act required the US Fish and Wildlife Service to identify endangered and threatened species and protect their habitat through a number of means It also bans the importation of endangered or threatened species Chapter 16 Study Guide Wildlife Management Summary of Key Concepts 1 5 quot 9 H O H H Wildlife management is the art and science of making decisions and taking actions to manipulate populations habitat and people to achieve human goals The habitat of a wild animal provides shelter food water and breeding sites Wildlife population densities tend to be higher on the edge where many plant communities intermix A home range is the area over which an animal habitually travels while engaged in its usual activities A territory is any area that is defended It is usually smaller than the home range There are four types of animal movements 1 dispersal of young 2 mass emigration 3 latitudinal migration and 4 altitudinal migration Movement promotes survival by providing food water and a hospitable climate Additive mortality simply adds to the deaths caused by other factors Compensatory mortality is the concept that one kind of mortality replaces up to a point another kind of mortality in animal populations The major mortality factors affecting deer populations are starvation predation hunting disease and accidents Emergency feeding of animals is not a sounds practice because it is costly and helps spread disease Waterfowl populations have been affected by loss of habitat oil and chemical pollution hunting and lead poisoning disease and acid rain Lead shot was completely phased out in the United States in 1991 because it causes lead poisoning in fish and waterfowl FANR 1100 Study Guide 12 Two major wildlife management techniques are habitat development and regulation of wildlife population 13 The National Wildlife Refuge System includes 548 individual refuges and 37 wetland management districts 14 Waterfowl cause damage to crops especially in Canada Outdoor Recreation Summary of Key Concepts 1 2 Outdoor recreation is any outdoor activity for pleasure There are two types of outdoor recreation consumptive and non consumptive Consumptive uses are those that take something from the outdoors Examples include hunting and harvest fishing Non consumptive uses are more passive and do not take anything from the environment Examples include bird watching and nature walks The carrying capacity is the maximum number of people that an environment can support without causing destruction of the natural environment and unacceptable decrease in visitor s satisfaction The biggest issue with outdoor recreation is the conflicts that occur with what use should be designated for a certain area For example if a Boy Scout group camps at the same site as a romantic couple Chapter 17 Study Guide Sustainable Waste Management Summary of Key Concepts quotl Only 325 of the solid waste is recovered for reuse and recycling The discard approach is to dump municipal waste into the ground or sea as far away as possible with little regard to the impacts on the environment The reduction approach is more sustainable t attempts to reduce consumption Reducing per capita consumption may become a very realistic goal as resource supplies decline People can reduce their consumption by buying less buying more durable products and holding onto products for longer periods of time Reuse and recycling are two more sustainable approaches They reduce solid waste generation and conserve valuable resources Recycled materials can be extracted from municipal trash at central stations or separated out of the trash at the source A successful recycling effort requires ways to promote remanufacturing and procurement Governments and businesses can help recycling by promoting all phases of recycling and improving the market for recycled goods In 1976 Congress passed the RCRA which called for a complete end of open dumps by 1983 The sanitary landfill replaced the dump Sanitary landfills are excavations or natural depressions in which garbage is dumped compacted and covered daily with a layer of soil to reduce pests Landfills are cleaner than open dumps and they can be reclaimed They also have many problems Pollutants could leak into underlying aquifers Rotting garbage produces O quot FANR 1100 Study Guide methane And it wastes valuable resources that could be reused or recycled It also requires large tracts of land Incineration and composting are now being used in many areas of the United States as an alternative to landfills Incineration is a source of air pollutants Industrial nations also produce enormous amounts of hazardous waste Hazardous wastes include toxic organic chemicals toxic heavy metals corrosive materials combustible chemicals and highly reactive substances that could cause explosions or toxic fumes when heated Most nations face two problems in relation to hazardous wastes 1 cleaning up the abandoned waste dumps and contaminated industrial sites and 2 dealing with the millions oftons of hazardous waste products each year by factories and other sources In 1980 Congress passed a law that required the EPA to identify and clean up hazardous waste sites in the United States It also includes measures to prevent further toxic contamination Hazardous wastes can be dealt with by reduction reuse and recycling disposal or detoxification Chapter 18 Study Guide Air Pollution Summary of Key Concepts I Iquot N Air pollutants come from natural and human sources Natural air pollutants are produced in greater amounts than human air pollutants but human air pollutants are a greater concern because they are in limited areas which lead to a build up of harmful substances Pollutants are either primary or secondary Primary pollutants are directly produced by some activity or natural event Secondary pollutants are directly produced from primary pollutants through chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere The major pollutants are carbon monoxide carbon dioxide sulfur oxides nitrogen oxides particulates VOCs and ozone Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas Carbon monoxide is a colorless odorless gas released from the combustion of fossil fuels and organic materials Sulfur oxides are produced when naturally occurring sulfur in fuels and oil combine with oxygen Most of the sulfur oxides generated are from burning sulfur containing fossil fuels in power plants and other industries Solid and liquid particles suspended in the air are known as particulates Lead is one of the particulates of concern A volatile organic compound or VOC is an organic compound composed of hydrogen and carbon They are released from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and from evaporation VOCs react to produce photochemical smog Photochemical smog is produced by the reaction between VOCs nitrogen oxides and atmospheric oxygen in the presence of sunlight Ozone is one ofthe components of photochemical smog 10 U39I 0391 FANR 1100 Study Guide Radiation inversions occur primarily at night as heat radiates from the Earth s surface into the atmosphere rapidly cooling both the ground and the layer of air lying over a cooler layer containing pollutants that cannot escape by vertical mixing A subsidence inversion is formed when a high pressure air mass sinks down and warms up Cities are warmer which is known as the heat island effect The heat island effect causes pollutants to concentrate in a dust dome above a city Air pollution is affected by climate but it also affects climate Two basic strategies exist for dealing with air pollution pollution control and pollution prevention Five general strategies for reducing auto emissions are 1 ensuring a more steady flow oftraffic 2 improving the efficiency of the internal combustion engine 3 replacing the internal combustion engine with electric engines powered by electricity directly or through fuel cells 4 developing hybrid and plug in hybrid cars and 5 increasing the use of mass transit Indoor air pollution is becoming a bigger issue To remove indoor air pollution there is a three step process eliminate isolate and ventilate Chapter 19 Study Guide Global Warming and Climate Change Summary of Key Concepts l Iquot S P Uquot 9 N 99 Global warming refers to the increase in the temperature of the Earth s oceans and atmosphere which can be caused by natural and human factors Global warming can cause massive and devastating changes in the Earth s climate known as global climate change Climate is the average weather conditions including temperature precipitation and storms Approximately one third ofthe sunlight striking the Earth and its atmosphere is reflected back into space by clouds dust and the Earth s surface The rest is absorbed by air land water highways parking lots buildings and plants warming the planet All heat is eventually radiated back into outer space and through the atmosphere so that the energy gained from the sun is balanced by energy radiated back into space The greenhouse effect is when certain chemical substances in the atmosphere can alter the Earth s energy balance by absorbing heat radiating toward outer space and radiating it back to the Earth s surface warming the planet Greenhouse gases include both natural and human produced chemicals water vapor carbon dioxide nitrous oxide methane and chlorofluorocarbons Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gases It is released from combustion of organic materials from decaying vegetation and animal waste and by all living animals during respiration Without carbon dioxide Earth would be 30 C cooler than it is today The Earth s surface temperature is influenced by two factors those that alter the amount of sunlight striking the Earth s surface and those that change the rate at which heat is lost or retained l l N 4 FANR 1100 Study Guide The average temperature of the Earth and the Earth s climate can change because of 1 changes in the Earth s orbit around the sun 2 changes in the Earth s tilt 3 increases or decreases in solar activity 4 increases or decreases in volcanic activity and 5 chaotic interactions of the climate system The two most important human activities that can alter climate are the release of greenhouse gases and deforestation The release of greenhouse gases from natural sources has remained fairly constant over the past 100 years but it has substantially increased from human sources There is a lot of evidence to support the idea that the earth s surface temperature is rising 1 rising ocean temperatures 2 rising sea level 3 melting of glaciers 4 the breakup of the Antarctic ice sheets 5 a decrease in Arctic polar sea ice 6 more frequent heat waves and drought 7 an increase in tornados and violent storms 8 changes in precipitation 9 an increase in the severity of hurricanes 10 an increase in the incidence of forest fires 11 the spread of insects and diseases from tropical climates One of the most significant efforts to reduce greenhouse gases is the Kyoto Protocol It is an international agreement to curb emissions by industrial and former Eastern bloc nations The USA refused to sign it and has opposed actions to curb domestic production of carbon dioxide Chapter 22 Study Guide Nonrenewable Energy Resources Summary of Key Concepts l Iquot S P Uquot 9 N 9 n more developed countries fossil fuels such as coal oil and natural gas are the predominant sources of energy Nuclear energy conservation and renewable energy sources have grown in importance since the 1970s In the less developed countries renewable fuels especially wood are the main sources of energy Yet industrialization is increasing their reliance on fossil fuels Coal is burned in electric utilities and in some factories and homes where it releases the solar energy captured in plants by photosynthesis millions of years ago Coal reserves are estimated to be large enough to sustain the United States for the next 200 years at the current rate Unfortunately coal cannot easily or efficiently be substituted for oil and natural gas and it is a dirty fuel Mining has an enormous impact on the environment Because of environmental problems the coal industry is promoting clean coal burning coal more efficiently to reduce pollution and sequestering carbon dioxide in deep wells to prevent further global warming Unlike coal oil is in short supply Many experts believe that oil production has reached an all time high They call this peak oil Peak oil represents a historic moment after which demand cannot be met by supply Natural gas burns much more cleanly than other fossil fuels and may become an important transitional fuel as we expand our reliance on renewable energy sources
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