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Date Created: 07/08/14
O 06 Paula Franco 12 141 1 p6 Chapter 9 Memory The Phenomenon of Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of info gt Memory indicates that learning has taken place Memory capacity is perhaps most apparent in recall of unique amp highly emotional moments in our past gt A clear memory of an emotionally significant momentevent gt Ex 911 Forming memories Select Process Store amp Retrieve info To remember any event 1 Get info into brain 2 Retain info 3 2 Get it back out Brain slower than a compt but parallel bc it does many things at once amp is an info processing system 3 Stage Processing Model of Memory limited and fallible 1 Record to be remembered info as a eeting sensory memory 2 It s processed into a shortterm memory bin where we encode it 3 Info is then sent to longterm memory for retrieval later Working memoryfocuses on how we attend to rehearse amp manipulate info in temp storage we actively associate new amp old info amp solve problems RAM Includes verbal amp visual component bc each subsystem is limited we can t effectively engage in 2 convos at once but we can talk verbal processing amp drive visual processing Encoding Getting info in The unconscious encoding of incidental info such as space time and frequency and of well learned info such as word meaning gt Occurs automaticallyeffortlessly gt Difficult to shut off can t switch it onoff at will gt This shows that our brains can parallel process it s the brain s ability to multi task gt Ex recalling the exact location of facts in a textbook or the route to class Encoding that requires attention amp conscious effort gt Info is remembered by effort or attention gt Rehearseconscious repetition gt Herman Ebbinghaus A German philosopher who studied memory said that amount remembered depends on the time spent learning Even after learning material additional rehearsal A attention We retain info better when rehearsal is distributed overtime Tendency to recall the 1 tamp last items in a list gt gt We process info by 1 Encoding its meaning 2 Visualizing it 3 Mentally organizing it gt We tend to not remember things exactly as they were we remember what we encode gt 3 types of encoding 1 Visual images O 0 Paula Franco 12 141 1 p6 2 Acoustic how it sounds 3 Sematic its meaning Selfreference Effect We remember if it relates to us Encoding Imagery our earliest memories are usually visual ones gt This is bc you encode the info semantically amp visually 2 codes are better than 1 gt This is why we tend to remember moments of pleasurepain but not its duration Rosy Retrospection People tend to recall events more positively than they were Memory aids gt Chunking Organizing info into meaningful units such as letters words amp phrases gt Acronyms example or chunking ROY G BIV red orange yellow green blue indigo violet 9 Storage Anything stored in longterm memory lies dormant waiting to be reawakened by a cue A momentary sensory memory of usual stimuli a eeting photographic memory A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli Shortterm Memorylimited in duration amp capacity stores 7 or so bits of info At any given moment we can consciously process only a very limited amount of info Longterm Memorycapacity for storing limitless There s no one specific spot in your brain for memories Weaker emotions mean weaker memories Hippocampus vital for laying down memories Learn how to do something new amnesia patients can processed by cerebellum amp amygdala Declare to know how to do something amnesia patients can t I Retrieval 2 Ability to retrieve info not in conscious awareness we remember more than we recall In order to retrieve a memory you must have a clue that ll help you get to it The activation often unconsciously of particular associations in memory That eerie sense that you ve been in the exact situation before V Forgetting Failure of encoding info never gets in storage failure fading of memory record or retrieval failure lack of retrieval cuesinterference from other learning 7 Sins of memory gt 3 Sins of forgetting 1 Absentmindedness inattention to details produces encoding our mind is elsewhere as we lay down the car keys 2 Transience storage decay over time unused info fades 3 Blocking inaccessibility of stored info it may be on the tip of our tongue but we experience retrieval failure we can t get it out Freud call it repression Paula Franco 12 141 1 p6 gt 3 Sins of distortion 1 Misattribution confusing the source of info putting words in someone else s mouthremembering a movie scene as an actual happening 2 Suggestibility the lingering effects of misinformation a leading question Did Mr Jones touch your private parts later becomes a young child s false memory 3 E beliefcolored recollections someone s current feelings toward their fiance may color their recalled initial feelings gt 1 Sin of intrusion 1 Persistence unwanted memories being haunted by images of a sexual assault Sometimes we may not be able to retrieve certain info bc of interference gt When something learned earlier disrupts recall of something you experience later Ex You initially learned that the Civil War was fought to end slavery and then later you learned that it was originally a war about preserving the Union so you have difficulty learning the new info preserving the Union bc of the old info end slavery When new info makes it hard to recall something learned earlier Ex Learning new names interferes with teacher s recall of names of previous students Sigmund Freud proposed our memory systems selfcensor painful info After exposure to subtle misinfo many misremember
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