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by: Christa Torp


Christa Torp
GPA 3.65


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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christa Torp on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TELE 3010 at University of Georgia taught by Juwayeyi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/202405/tele-3010-university-of-georgia in Telecommunications at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Study Guide for Exam 4 Chapter 12 l The units of measurement for radio and television 0 Radio Persons 0 Television Households pg279 2 The devices past and present used to measure television audiences Telephone Recall Method 0 Placing calls at different times during the day to homes selected at random from phone directories 0 Used by the Cooperative Analysis of Broadcasting CAB until 1946 Telephone Coincidental Method 0 Respondents asked if they were listening to radio at the time of the call 0 If answer was yes asked to name the program station 0 There was a better method introduced by CE Hooper Co Audimeter 0 Mechanical device which collected data from a random sampling of radios O Consisted of a stylus that made a scratch on a roll of tape paper synchronized with the radio s tuning dial Indicated if a radio or TV set is in use and to what station it is tuned NTI Nielsen Television Index 0 0 Reported viewership of network programs NSI Nielsen Station Index 0 Reported viewership for local television markets Diary 0 Introduced by the American Research Bureau Arbitron 0 Primary recorder of local radio research Storage Instantaneous Audimeter SIA o Sends info directly from the audimeter through phone lines to Neilsen s computers 0 Makes possible overnight ratings People Meter 0 By AGB Television Research 0 Developed to compete with Nielsen o Handheld keypad allowed different viewers to record the shows watched Each family member had a number they keyed in before and after watching TV so the meter could identify who was watching which shows 0 Also records demographic information 0 Initially recorded a sharp decline in child viewership o Advantage They are not affected by memory and data is sent directly to Nielsen and people meters report data about who is watching 0 Disadvantage People meters are relatively expensive to install and maintain RADAR Local People Meter LPM Portable People Meter PPM o A device carried by an individual that detects subaudible tones in the stations signals to measure tv viewing radio listening 0 The size of a pager but still unclear whether it will replace current technology GrabiX o Developed by Neilsen o Minutebyminute ratings combined with scenes from the TV program 0 Measures drop in viewership 3 Audiences rehsearch organizations dominant in television and radio Nielsen AC Nielson Media Research Dominant in TV ratings Arbiton American Research Bureau Dominant in local market radio ratings RADARRadio s alldimension audience research Rates network radio listening 4 Ratings terms e g CUME HUT Rating Share etc HUT households using television Represents the number or percentage of households that have a TV set during a speci c time period Rating 0 TV of all households with a TV set watching a particular program at a particular time 0 Radio of the market listening to the radio Share share of the audience 0 The total number of households watching a particular program at a speci c time divided by the total number of households using a TV 0 Based on households actually m a TV rather than just those that have one 0 Some programs have the same share but different ratings CUME cumulative audience 0 Estimate of the total number of different listeners who listen to a given station at least once during the time part under consideration 0 Measures how many different people listen at least once during the week during a given day part Average quarter hour persons 0 Estimates the average number of persons who are listening to a station within a 15minute period in a given daypart 5 How Intemet ratings are measured Early attempts to measure web page traffic were programs that measured hits or the number of times someone logged on to the page However the numbers were unreliable Media MetriX merged with RelevantKnowledge and NielsenNetRating Inc dominant players Competing with Nielsen is comScore Advertisers are perplexed because the 2 services sometimes gives con icting reports on Web traffic Measuring Web visits is much more difficult that measuring TV and radio listening Many businesses and gov t orgs don t allow ratings companies to install tracking software because they fear that the software might be used to access con dential info or sales data As a result daytime tracking of Intemet use is still underestimated 6 Sampling and the terms associated with sampling eg representative confidence interval etc A sample doesn t have to be large to represent to whole population as long as it is representative of the population Blood test Con dence interval An interval calculated from sample data that has a 95 chance if actually including the population value In sum Nielsen ratings are not an exact estimate subject to error but when margin of error is taken into account the Nielsen rating provides an accurate estimation of audience viewing behavior 7 Other ways of measuring audiences e g callouts concept testing etc Music research 0 Call out Research Listeners are surveyed by telephone and asked to rate certain songs on several rating scales Plays hooks 510 second pieces ofa song Uses different scales so programmers can determine the songs their audience wants to hear Disadvantage Can t be used to test new or unfamiliar music Auditorium Testing Gather 75100 people into an auditorium to evaluate music selection both new and familiar songs Stations considering a format change use this method Examine reactions of new format Advantages Can test new songs Test much larger number of hooks or entire songs Can test more than 300 in a single session Other definitions Hooks 510 second cuts of the most memorable parts of the song Burnout When radio stations play the same popular songs too many times that the listeners get tired of them Market research Used by broadcasting and cable programmers to gain knowledge about their audience and their reactions to the programming Concept Testing Used by production companies to gauge audience reactions to possible new program ideas Audience is given onetwo paragraph description of the concept of a particular show and then asked if they would watch it It is an opinion method Rough cut are sometimes used to test commercials Simply produced version of the ad using minimal sets amateur actors and no special effects Get a general sense of direction and approach for the planned ad Some low ratings of the rough cut are due to its un nished nature Electronic Response Indicators ERIs For new ads and programs Seats in an auditorium is equipped with a dial or series of buttons enabling viewer to rate continuously what they see on the screen Responses are sent to a computer that keeps track of avg responses Determines which parts of ads are liked and disliked Cable Testing More realistic method Research company recruits a sample of viewers from atypical market Members of market watch the new program on unassigned cable channel Survey is conducted afterward to see if they likeddisliked it and ascertain if they would watch it if regularly scheduled Focus Group Group of 612 people and a moderator who have a focused discussion about a topic members of group are screened Provide more detailed information on how viewers think Researchers recommended that more than one group be conducted Best diagnostic device for attitudes and behaviors Audience Segmentation Research 0 Psychographic research Segments the audience according to various personality traits Audience members report their viewing and listening behavior and the rate their personalities on a number of different scale Results are used by advertisers and producers 0 Lifestyle surveys Similar to psychographic research but put more importance on values that may in uence consumer behavior VALS is used to segment audience based in their lifestyles It divides people into 8 groups Advertisers use VALS to develop campaigns consistent with values and orientations of the target market 8 Organizations involved in ensuring accuracy in ratings Media Ratings Council MRC is an organization that strives to ensure reasonable accuracy in the realm of ratings It periodically audits Nielsen Arbitron and other ratings services to check on their methods and reports Chapter 13 9 The broad areas that various theories cover and what the theories posit Hypodermic Needle Theory shooting beliefs into people s minds 7 Considers media to be a powerful persuasive force 7 Believed messages have strong universal effects all people would have same reaction to masscommunicated message 7 Critics claim theory is too simplistic Limited Effects Theory media does not have direct in uence on audience 7 Persuasion was main focus for research 7 In uence is filtered by several intervening factors Personal experience beliefs values family etc 7 Critics claim research was done primarily before TV began to dominate media Found mass media is simply one of the many determinants of how people think or behave Speci c Effects Theorymedia competes with or complements other sources of in uence such as friends family and teachers 7 Middle ground between previous two theories 7 Under certain circumstances speci c media can in uence certain members of the audience ie children Catharsis Theory watching would reduce Viewers aggressiveness Stimulation Theory watching prompts aggression Cultivation Theory the more one is exposed to TV the more likely that person s construction of social reality will re ect TV and less of reality 10 Cultivation theory and the various terms and people associated with the theory eg resonance mainstreaming etc Also know peopleleaders in theory Mainstreaming heavy viewers within social subgroups develop common perceptions that differ from those of light viewers in the same subgroup Resonance A situation where the viewers get a doubledose from TV and reality ex HV in high crime area view of a scary world by both TV and rsthand experience It was popularized by George Gerbner and his colleagues at UPenn 11 Why and when cultivation occurs Long term cumulative exposure to TV cultivates a small but signi cant acceptance of ideas and perceptions that are similar to that world portrayed on TV Motivation for viewing lowinvolvement viewing may be more potent than planned viewing Amount of experience with the topic works best when audience has only indirect distant contact with topic It contradicts resonance notion Perceived realism of the content cultivation may be enhanced when viewer perceives the content to be realistic 12 Advantages and disadvantages of various social scienti c research methods eg eld experiments surveys etc Psychologists use the experimental method Sociologists use surveys Experimental methods Can take place in either controlled lab setting or natural eld conditions Laboratory Experiments 0 Done under tightly controlled conditions 0 Allows researchers to focus on effects of one or more factors that may have impact on audience Usually two groups are involved and treated differently Advantages Allow researchers to make statements about cause and effect Disadvantages Done under artificial conditions Lab might not occur in real life Field Experiments Occurs outside the lab Natural events occur that create conditions necessary for an experiment Advantage Naturalness Disadvantage Lack of control Subject to contaminating in uences of outside events 0 O O O O O O Surveys Generally consist of a person s answers to a set of predetermined questions Advantage Realistic approach Disadvantage Can t establish cause and effect Can only be assumed respondents give valid and truthful responses Longitudinal surveys 7 surveys that are repeated over time Trend Study 0 Same questions are asked of different people at different times 0 Example presidential polls Panel Studies 0 Special type of longitudinal survey 0 Same people are studied at different points in time o Advantage Some evidence of cause and effect Disadvantage Can take a long time to do Respondents suffer from attrition Respondents die move get bored leave study group etc 0 O O 0 Content Analysis 0 Studies segments of TV and radio content in order to describe the messages presented by the media 0 Advantage Useful in de ning media stereotypes and gauge television Violence 0 Disadvantage Cannot be used alone as a basis for making statements about the effects of media content It would take an audience study to substantiate claim a content analysis itself would be insufficient Meta analysis 0 Looks at many studies in different settings and across a variety of samples 0 Gives good synopsis of major findings 0 Each individual study in analysis provides different estimate of strength of relationship that is being examined 0 Picture of relationship can be determined 0 Suggests that the precise impact of TV Violence is affected by many factors including age sex and family interaction 0 Disadvantages It can oversimplify a complicated pattern of results Any design aws in original study will produce misleading conclusions 13 Various research conducted on media and politics e g research on exit polls image effects etc Media provides political information sets voters agendas establishes candidates images and has some limited effects on voters attitudes Exit polls are surveys administered immediately after people vote that is used to predict the election outcomes before the polls close nationwide Research monitors how media in uences voting behavior shapes campaigns and changes the basic political structure Since the 1960 s TV has been the most in uential medium in deciding voter behavior Research on exit polls suggests that the impact of an early call depends upon the perceived closeness ofthe race and how early the call is made Research on politics suggests that a candidate s image can be the dominant factor in many elections As party ID weakens voters tend to rely on a general image to help them make up their minds The image effect seems stronger among uncommitted voters and is most noted during the early stages of a campaign 14 Media and sexrole beliefs Men outnumber women in starring roles 2 to 1 Females were more likely to be portrayed as passive deferential and generally weak in contrast male characters Recent studies show that women are now portrayed in a wider range of occupations 7 Panel studies have examined the correlation between viewing and stereotyping In addition the result of the reexamination of this correlation suggests that TV viewing led to more stereotypical attitudes and people with more stereotypical attitudes watched more TV thus reinforcing the effects 7 Sexrole beliefs can be affected by mass media ex Girls exposed to sexrole stereotypes and counter stereotypes 7 Recent content analyses show role stereotyping has decreased somewhat Research shows that women working behind the scenes create more equitable portrayals of female and male character 15 Nature of relationship between television viewing and IQ Heavy viewers tend to have lower IQs than light viewers There appears to be a weak negative relationship between IQ and TV viewing but age is a complicating factor In addition the direction of causation is not clear Youngsters who watch a lot of TV do not do as well in school as do their light viewing counterparts Type of TV content along with the amount of viewing was important in determining the precise relationship between TV and achievement The data offer some support to notion that TV viewing as a small adverse effect on IQ and school achievement TV teaches certain cognitive skills necessary for school success TV shows can help reduce genderrelated stereotypes In sum of all the studies excluding especially designed educational programs TV provides no particular educational bene ts to its young viewers Chapter l4 16 How various countries deal with foreignproduced programming eg quotas etc United Kingdom BBC produces 75 of own programming purchases 25 of programs from others Commercial channels produce their own programming or its purchased from independent suppliers much like US China radio programming resembles public radio in US no more than 25 of programs can be imported Countries supporting the New World Information Order want regulations concerning the amount and type of programming that crosses international borders 17 The various factors that affect a country s media political philosophy social history and economic system Educational in uence Cultural in uence 18 The various media systemsiauthoritarian libertarian and social responsibilityiand their characteristics 0 Authoritarian These systems use the media to promote governmental goals 0 Libertarian These systems give great freedom to the media and promote a free marketplace of ideas 0 Social Responsibility These systems argue with a free press but in return for its freedom the press had responsibility and obligations to fulfill for society 19 The various media systemsipatemalistic permissive and authoritarianiand their characteristics 7 Paternalistic the gov t or Whatever agency in charge of broadcasting media knows What is best for the people and programs their systems accordingly with the BBC in Great Britain serving as the prime example 7 Permissive broadcasters are allowed by the gov t to do What they please 7 Authoritarian government controls the system With speci c objects in mind The former Soviet Union as the most vivid example Most countries now have diverse arrangements in which more than one of the above approaches are represented Arrangement of country s media system depends on political philosophy social history and economic system Three various media systems are also known as media controlquot Ownership Government Government P a corporation quotV 9 Education Goals Mobilization Cultural Profit enlightenment 3 Regulation Strong Moderate Weak 5 3 3 License feeTax a 3 Financing Government Government Advertising subsidy Advertising Cultural Programming gmgfaquot Educa anaquot Entertainment Entertainment 20 When various broadcasters began broadcasting eg BBC VOA etc Many of these services are on the Internet Voice of America 0 Started as propaganda under the jurisdiction of the Of ce of War Information 0 founded on Feb 24 1942 BC China Radio International CRI o arted during the 1940s Voice of Russia Chapter 7 The Business of Broadcasting Satellite and Cable Broadcasting Sales Practices a Radio Sales i 56 radio stations are commercial and must sell advertising time ii Radio sales are closely tied with demographic analysis and program planning 1 For instance an allnews format has an older higher income audience so there will be more ads for luxury cars etc iii The Search for Spots 1 There are three types of advertising purchases made in broadcasting a Local sales are the sales of ads to businesses in local areas where station ad rates are pegged to the share of the audience that is listening 39 Radio stations also use cooperative advertising where local retail stores sell items made by national manufacturers which is good for local stores because the ad is better and the national company pays b National spot sales are the sale of radio ads to major national and regional advertisers like Ford and General Motors i National spot sales are made on behalf of local stations by station representation firms reps c Network sales are the sales of ads by regular networks that carry specific programs such as a college football game i They have to be aired within the programs and carried on each station in the network ii Local stations receive no revenue for such programs 2 Ads cost more or less depending on what time they are so the radio station s rate card is broken down into dayparts time where the most expensive is the morning drive time followed by the afternoon drive time a Other dayparts are midday evening late nightovernight b For something that runs all day it s called run of schedule iv The Future of Radio Sales 1 Local sales account for nearly 80 of revenue and network radio has rebounded with famous personalities like Rush Limbaugh 2 Radio is poised to grow slightly but it has generally stagnated even after efforts like radiobillboard advertisements v Public Radio Stations 1 Affiliated with NPR and carry network and syndicated programs 2 Well financed by educational or communities and rely on listener support 3 They also use underwriting to minimize costs and to solicit corporate and advertiser support though they cannot make a direct call to action like llCALL 1800BUYACAR NOWquotit has to be sketch b Television F vi Tv has a greater reliance on outside programming than radio because their programming is based on shows of a fixed length that are meant to reach large audiences Stations sell adjacencieswhich are lucrative local spots aired next to primetime daytime and late night and weekend programming 1 They command a premium and are very lucrative for affiliated stations The amount a station can charge is influenced by the number of people predicted to watch a given program or to watch during a given time period and the number of ads the advertiser wishes to place Competitive programming is the primary factor that affects the way the industry works 1 Shows that were once successful on network stations are then syndicated to local stations and these reruns compete with other locally produced programming Getting things Upfront and Network Sales Audiences for TV networks have slipped but network television is still an effective way to reach large audiences Iquot Television viewing is heaviest during fall and spring and lightest during summer so ads are broken down into sales periods but most networks prefer upfront revenue a This sales period begins in late spring and ends before fall where national advertisers buy time on the news season before it starts 0 National advertisers also use scatter buying which involves buying time over several time slots during the day the four quarters in scatter buying match the four seasons P This is costeffective because if the actual audience share does not meet estimates the cost for buying the time slot will decrease in the market and vice versa 5quot Networks collect money from advertisers on the premise of reaching large audiences but they have to rely on their affiliates to carry their programming a Some networks use compensation to offer an incentive to affiliates to carry their programs affiliates can make additional revenue by negotiating for the rights to sell additional local inventory in return for carrying programs The Economics of Networking 1 In the 1970s the government barred networks from owning financial interests in their own programs but that is allowed today Iquot TV programs per episode cost can be millions of dollars and networks usually lose money the first season a program airs because promotion and compensation and production exceed revenue initially 3 To make it profitable networks charge more for ads during popular programs and then they can also make money selling it for reruns 4 Sports programs are super expensive to air because of athletes steep salaries and team owners rely on the royalties from broadcasters to pay and since sports cannot really make much as reruns networks often lose money vii Syndication and Local Sales 1 Nonnetwork time is filled with syndicated shows like reruns such as Seinfeld 3 Everybody Loves Raymond or first syndications such as Jeopardy Entertainment Tonight Access Hollywood a These are shown on local stations in the early fringe hour before primetime b Sales are made per episode for predetermined number of showings 2 Ad times in those shows are sold locally or in national spot sales to back the cost of syndication and cover the station s overhead and still bring profit 3 Because costs can be high some shows are offered as barter syndication where the station doesn t pay much for the program but the distributer gets ad time to sell within the program 4 News programs are important to sell because they generate revenue viii Spot Advertising 1 Commercials that national advertisers place on selected stations across the nation like harvesting equipment makers purchasing ads in rural markets a Buying time on the network wouldn t be worth it because they don t need people in NYC looking at tractor ads 2 Spot buying is handled by local station s national representative rep 3 Reps offer programming advice and market research because better ratings means easier to sell ads for more money which means more commission ix Local Sales 1 A lot of ad revenue for a local station comes from selling ads to local merchants and car dealerships etc 2 Stations employ account executives to visit potential advertisers and develop their advertising strategy x Cable Television Sales 1 National cable sales are similar to network sales and advertisers buy time both upfront and in scatter markets though much cheaper because cable is still a niche medium and there are many cable channels 2 By coordinating the break times on different cable networks franchisers can show commercial pods of local spot sales xi Public Television 1 Public TV station funding comes from various sources but they still rely on underwritings and local revenue raising promotions a At the station level underwriting means includes local companies helping pay for advertising Chapfer 8 1 MOST plenfiful radio programming Music Programming 0 Can be pre recorded or syndicaTed 9 ouT of 10 sTaTions use music programming as a backbone NeTwork music programming is rising again MaTriX of Radio Programming 0 BOX 1 Locally produced media programming 0 BOX 2 Pre recorded and syndicaTed music 0 BOX 3 NeTwork music programming 2 Methods of radio formaT evaluafion FormaT EvaluaTion How To deTermine whaT songs To use when They geT pulled eTc Play lisT STaTions provide reporTs of Their songs on iTunes 0 Can see whaT Their compeTiTion is playing and whaT geTs airplay Call ins Telephone calls made To The radio sTaTion To deTermine how lisTeners feel abouT programming and respond To cerTain songs arTisTs personaliTies eTc Call ouTs STaTions using conTesTs enTranTs and Telephone direcTories To receive informaTion O Hooks shorT selecTions of music are played over The phone for lisTeners To raTe The song or answer radio sTaTion39s quesTions AudiTorium TesTs Assemble groups of lisTeners in large rooms 200 songs are hook TesTed Focus Group STaTions selecT a small group of lisTeners and conducT in depTh inTerviews abouT Their music preferences Specialized consulTanTs Provide experTise in one parTicular area research music eTc InvesTigaTing iTunes Billboard Magazine eTc for raTings and populariTy 3 Ways in which radio sfafions commercial and public geT Their programs Local Prerecorded SyndicaTed NeTwork 4 The formaT wheel 0 Also known as a hoT clockquot or sound hourquot and looks like The face of a clock 0 CharT ThaT helps radio programmers wiTh The planning and execuTion of sTaTion39s sound schedule 0 Shows where music commercials news sporTs and promoTions are scheduled aT iTs precise inTerval during The programming hour 0 Show info abouT 0 Commercial Time posiTions O PromoTional posiTion 0 Programming music and news Talk segmenTs O Enables programmers To geT a visual image of The invisible quotsoundquot and compare wiTh Their compeTiTors 0 50 music and news is during The oTher sTaTion39s commercial or doesn39T have same maTerial eTc 0 May use differenT clocks for differenT day parTs and scheduling period 0 Varies from weekday To weekend 5 MOST imporTanT radio day parf during The week and during The weekend 0 6 To 10 am on WEEKDAYS MosT imporTanT Time 0 LaTe morning and early afTernoon on WEEKENDS ChapTer 9 0 Movie Packages films ThaT have compeTed Their TheaTrica run and whose video and cable releases are sold To sTaTions 6 The firsT Televised evenTs O Off NeT SyndicaTion Programming originally produced for one 0 John F Kennedy39s assassinaTion of The major neTworks 100 episodes is The magic number EX 0 For 4 days all regular TV programming was suspended Everybody Loves Raymond O 9 in 10 Americans were said To have waTched TV ThaT weekend 0 FirsT Run Programming developed specifically for syndicaTion O InTegraTion of CenTral High School LiTTle Rock like game shows Talk shows and acTion series 0 I Have a Dreamquot speech 10 How affiliaTes may deal wiTh neTwork offerings programs 7 Where neTworks and cable neTworks geT Their programs 0 AffiliaTes may choose To carry a neTwork show or may choose 0 NeTwork Programming Programs creaTed for and disTribuTed by The To refuse Them major TV and cable neTworks Last Greys Anammy 0 If carried by The sTaTion The program is cleared 0 Cable Programming No affiliaTes and programs go righT To The cable 0 If denied by The sTaTions The programs are known as franchises 5pcngebab The Sopranos preempTions O SyndicaTion Programming sold by disTribuTion companies To 11 Technological developmenTs ThaT aided The growTh of neTwork news local TV sTaTions and cable services off neTwork rerunsquot and 0 New communicaTion Technologies firsT run original shows creaTed solely for syndicaTionquot O ElecTronic News GaThering lENGl Basic elemenTs included a 0 Local OriginaTion Programs produced by local TV sTaTions or lighTweighT TV camera and small videoTape recorder MaTerials cable companies for viewers in Their own communiTies could go anywhere and record full evenTs wiTh naTural sound and be ediTed TogeTher fasT and cheaply 8 FuncTions of PBS 0 SaTeIIiTe News GaThering gSNGl Refers To The use of mobile 0 Public BroadcasTing SysTem Trucks mounTed wiTh saTelliTe communicaTions equipmenT SenT 0 Try To TargeT The underserved audience noT The largesT audience picTures and sounds up To saTelliTes which senT The signal back possible and develop specific programs for Them down To oca sTaTions and neTworks To use ObTain ive picTures 0 Charges membership dues To iTs affiliaTes making iT am from anywhere in The world broadcasTing sysTem 0 Do not produce any programs Themselves 125pecific duTies of The various personnel responsible for news and 0 Their affiliaTes decide when To air naTiona programs quotBWSCGSTS 0 News DirecTor 9 Audience flow and various kinds of syndicaTion 0 Overall responsibiliTy for news deparTmenT Solid background in TV Hires new personnel 0 Cable neTworks are The single largesT buyer of syndicaTed programming 0 BarTer syndicaTion is where The syndicaTor provides The program To The EsTainshes news poicy sTaTion free or aT a reduced cosT in reTurn for some free adverTising EvaluaTes newscasTs sloTs on ThaT sTaTion barrer mg Concerned wiTh budgeTs OOOOOO Makes sure news is produced aT a profiT 0 News Producer 0 OOO Responsible of individual newscasTs ConTrols ediTorial conTenT of sTories Prepare lineup and deTermines lengTh Proofreads copy and selecT graphics PresenT in conTrol room during airing for lasT minuTe changes lUniT Producers 0 Assume responsibiliTy for special beaT segmenTs o AssignmenT EdiTor O O DispaTch reporTers and phoTographers To cover new sTories MainTain a fuTure file lLisTing of upcoming news sTories up To 60 90 days in advance lLabeled wiTh upcoming daTes and filled wiTh evenTs for each day lBreaking news makes This difficulT 0 Field Producer 0 O O O O Assigned To prepare for sTories if enough lead Time Prepare research and background informaTion ScouTs locaTions Aids in Tasks wiTh reporTers and phoTographers News direcTor may assign field producer To coordinaTe coverage 0 ReporTers O O O O O o WriTers O O 0 Receive orders from assignmenT desk and begin research SeTup inTerviews and deTermine shooTing locaTions Teamed wiTh phoTographer Can be responsible for shooTing own sTories ConducTs news and addiTional maTerial on The scene lCould possible ediT or help ediT maTerial lCould also make The delivery for The news sTory Help scripT The newscasT Prepare some maTerial for reporTers and anchors Prepare clever lines To inTroduce newscasT or aTTracT audience To reTurn afTer commercial breaks 0 EdiTors O PuTs packages TogeTher lSeparaTe sTories wiTh a newscasT own voice over graphics eTc O EdiTs The maTerial from field reporTers eTc 13 Various programing sTraTegies employed by Television sTaTions 0 Audience Flow 0 Audience Flow is The movemenT of audiences from one sTaTion To anoTher O Idea ThaT audiences will sTay wiTh a sTaTion unTil someThing They dislike shows up Programmer wiTh build and hold an audience from show To show O PuTTing TogeTher programs ThaT generally aTTracT The same audience 0 NeTworks build Their evenings around a core audience 0 CouTerprogramming O Programmer decides To go for an audience differenT Than The audience The compeTing sTaTion or neTworks are Trying To aTTracT 0 Example male orienTed sTaTions when female orienTed shows are being played on oTher channel CBS39s Monday nighT siTcom line up counTer programs ABC39s Monday NgITFaafbaA O Challenging Programming 0 OpposiTe from counTerprogramming O NeTwork or sTaTion goes head To head againsT compeTiTor O Direchy challenges compeTiTor wiTh The same Type of program lCould go afTer The same demographic wiTh a differenT program or audience buT wiTh similar audience appeal lExample Oprah v Jerry Springer ChapTer 10 O PresidenT can influence The FCC poliTical agenda and regulaTory Tone wiTh his appoinTees 14 ScarciTy Theory and The pervasive presence Theory 0 Has own agency specializing in TelecommunicaTions N39IIA O ScarciTy Theory elecTromagneTic specTrum is limiTed and a naTional resource governmenT reserves The righT To impose obligaTions and 18 Influence of Congress on media regulaTion regulaTions on Those allowed To broadcasT TradiTional raTionale 0 Congress I Pervasive Theory TV and radio so pervasive and poTenTially inTrusive O CreaTed The FCC ThaT The public is enTiTled To some proTecTion from unwanTed or 0 Controls purse strings of FCC offensive messages recenT raTionale 0 Can creaTe new egisaTion 0 Can hold public hearings on acTions of FCC 15 Number and Type of commissioners of The Federal CommunicaTions 5011111115510quot FCC 19 Licensing sTaTions before The creaTion of The FCC and afTer The creaTion O 5 Commissioners PresidenTial appoinTed SenaTe confirmed of le Fcc O The 5 commlSSlonerS are SEN3d by The f ll Wlng bureaus 0 before The presenT era of deregulaTion FCC had promulgaTed eXTremely l Consumer and Governmen r Affairs Bureau complex and deTaied Technical and operaTing rules and regulaTions for l EnforcemenT Bureau broadcasTers buT iT also gave licensees greaT aTiTude To deTermine l Wireless TelecommunicaTions Bureau whaT consTiTuTed service in The public inTeresT based on local needs I Wireline CompeTiTion Bureau under iTs AscerTainmenT Policy once a sTaTion was licensed The operaTor l Media Bureau mosT imporTanT oversees FM AM radio was required To moniTor The Technical operaTional and programming broadcasT TV cable and saTelliTe services aspecTs of The sTaTion O The FCC is a major force in The creaTion of elecTronic media policy 0 afTerFCC requires broadcasTers To reporT all convicTions for felonies all serious misdemeanors eTc by 1990 personal 16 Various facTors involved in The regulaTion of The media 0 as well as financial and Technical capabiliTiesaffirmaTive acTion 0 Federal CommunicaTions Commission employmenT plan 0 Congress 0 CourTs 19 CopyrighT and fair use I The WhiTe House 0 mosT celebraTed case involved NapsTer 0 Industry Lobbyists 0 fire sharing conTinued To flourish in 2006 including Tv shows movies 0 The Public 0 State and Local Governments 20 Legal definiTion of whaT is obscene The Marketplace 0 PrurienT Tending To exciTe lusTquot lacking serious arTisTicvaluequot 17 Influence of The presidenT of The UniTed STaTes on The FCC and media 21 H W 1 Plaimiff may Pquot Ve 01 a meme W05 defamamry 0 l im 0quot regulaTion 5quot o The white House I sTaTemenTs defamed caused plainTiff harm loss of wages O PresidenT39s cabineT officers can influence policy 0 can initiate communication egisaTion 22 Difference beTween libel and slander N N N N N 0 Slander spoken words 0 Libel sTaTed in Tangible medium Taken more seriously due To wider circulaTion Difference between negligence and actual malice O negligence Law Failure to exercise the degree of care considered reasonable under the circumstances resulting in an unintended injuw to another party 0 malice Law The intent without just cause or reason to commit a wrongful act that will result in harm to another Journalists and their sources and laws that protect journalists o shield laws privilegesTheir r39ship wiTh a news source qualifies as The same Type of privilege as husband wife communicaTionquot Regulation of deceptive advertising 0 regulaTed Through The FTC Federal Trade Commission I does noT realize There is room for exaggeraTion in adverTising puffery o adverTising is very self regulaTing Court that decides cases concerning broadcasting o FTC more specifically The Supreme courT maybe sTaTe courTs Chapter 11 Various ethical theories and principles 0 Teleological theory measures The rigthess or wrongness of an acTion in Terms of iTs consequences 0 Deontological theory spells ouT duTies ThaT are morally required of all of us 0 Utilitarianism a person should ask in a way ThaT produces The greaTesT possible raTion of good over evil consequences should yield greaTesT good 0 Egoism acT in a way ThaT is besT for you I Categorical imperative acT only on Those principles ThaT you would wanT To become universal law 0 Golden mean idenTify The exTremes Then search To find some balance poinT of mean ThaT lies beTween Them 0 Cultural ethics an individual is shaped by his culTure and our moral judgmenTs are shaped by Those we experienced as we grew up and enTered inTo social environmenTs O Situational ethics TradiTions and norms of socieTy provide inadequaTe guidance because each individual problem is unique and calls for a creaTive soluTion 286roups concerned with the portrayal of minorities and presentation of sex and violence I Citizen39s groups Three prime areas of concern 0 PorTrayal of minoriTies sTay away from sTereoTypes o PresenTaTion of sex and violence 0 CenTer for media and public affairs reporTs Trends on TV violence over Time 0 CenTer for communicaTions policy moniTors violence in neTwork programs 0 American Medical associaTion joined in The campaign To reduce TV violence I ParenTs Television council gaThers info abouT sexual conTenT o MoraliTy in media campaigns againsT obscene maTerial O EffecTs of ciTizens groups on children39s programming 0 Increased sensiTiviTy Towards offensive maTerial resTricT creaTive freedom of wriTers producers have To walk a Thin line beTween alTernaTives N 0 Functions of standards and practices departments 0 STandards and pracTices deparTmenTs have been cuT back reflecTing a more liberal viewing public 0 SocieTal sTandards more ToleranT o The V chip passes some responsibiliTy on To The public 0 TV raTings work wiTh The V chip To furTher place responsibiliTy on The public MA TV14 eTc O NeTwork39s compeTiTive posiTion influences iTs sTandards 0 Fox NeTwork inTroduced conTroversial shows like Married wiTh Children and The Simpsons 0 Cable has more leeway in following sTandards o SouTh Park runs laTe in The evening Study Guide for Exam 2 Chapter 4 1 State of radio in comparison to other media 0 There are more radio stations than any other media 5 times more radio than newspapers 10 times more radio than television 2 Characteristics of AM radio and FM radio AM Station are in local markets rely on local advertising 35 of stations are commercial AM Stations The majority of AM are relatively lowpowered local operations serving small and midsized communities that constitute the essence of llmiddle America FM Station frequently dominate in larger cities combination of national spot and local advertising t accounts for 45 of radio stations Majority of FMs are currently allocated to midsized and large cities Better that AM in clarity 3 Characteristics of the various radio formats know these in great detail The program strategy is known as the radio station s quotformatquot Successful format consistently delivers its target audience to specific advertisers 0 Radio station formats are very structured Formats and music playlists tend to be very tightly controlled by station management Some popular formats include Country News Talk and Sports Adult Contemporary and oldies and contemporary hit radio Popular Ethnic Formats Hispanic Radio Black Urban Contemporary Soft Adult Contemporary Album Rock Modern and Classic Format Country I about 1 in 6 stations play this format Contemporary concentrates on current hits Traditional emphasize country western standards Country about 2000 commercial stations playing country a format that has broad appeal and is successful on both AM and FM 0 It attracts more women than men 0 Most listeners are rather loyal though not cradletograve loyalty Announcers tend to be friendly and helpful involved in community events Stations provide news weather and other information to their listeners 0 Remote broadcasts are common from concerts and fairs to shopping malls and driveins Stations are concentrated in medium and smaller markets in the South and Midwest News Talk and Sports Most popular AM format Helped by nationally syndicated personalities such as Rush Limbaugh A broad radio format available on 1300 commercial radio stations Some radio stations have all news 24 hours usually on AM in large cities while some stations have all talk and some stations hybrids have a mixture with some news talk sports and music Some stations are all sports Talk radio is very popular especially on AM and is gaining popularity on FM Syndicated talk show personalities are as popular at the national level as local talk show hosts are at the local level Adult Contemporary and Oldies Many types of music fall into these categories Tend to attract the audience most in demand by advertisers Adult contemporary AC stations operate on a continuum with some playing current music with a soft lyrical and melodic beat quotsoft hits and some playing soft nonmetallic rockandroll hits from the 1970s to the late 1990s quotoldiesquot AC announcers are generally pleasant friendly innocuous and noncontroversial AC stations are popular because they tend to attract women between the ages of 25 and 54 an audience most in demand by advertisers AC stations are particularly strong in bigger markets and attractive suburbs and this accounts for their large listenership They have declined somewhat due to the popularity of other formats among women but they remain quite popular Contemporary Hit Radio Emphasis is on most current hit music Music tends to be uptempo DJs tend to be assertive and loud Attracts a younger audience than AC Emphasis is on the most current music Disc jockeys DJs are funny assertive and have high energy and gimmickry For a while CHR was in decline however the popularity of new artists has helped to rejuvenate the popularity of CHR The merging of CHR with the sounds of America s inner cities gave rise to two important formats Hispanic and blackurban contemporary Popular Ethnic Formats Hispanic Radio This is a growing format Nearly 700 stations consider themselves Hispanic and garner 10 percent of radio listeningMexican regional Hispanic radio is popular in the Southwest and in the large urban centers of Los Angeles and Denver Spanish contemporary is growing in the MidAtlantic statesThe rise in the Hispanic population in the US and the concomitant need for advertisers to reach this demographic group has boosted the popularity of Hispanic radioThe popularity of the music on Hispanic radio has also boosted the popularity of this format Black Urban Contemporary Popular in America s major cities Black is a misnomer as people of many racial and ethnic backgrounds enjoy the music but is particularly popular among listeners under 35Rap music has emerged as a force in UC There are various variations to the format The format is popular in major cities with large AfricanAmerican populations and gamers about 9 percent of the listening audience Soft Adult Contemporary Also known as lladult standardsquot llbeautiful musicquot andor lleasy listeningquotnitially this format referred to stations that hand quotwalltowallquot quotbackgroundquot or elevator music that was mainly instrumental Today pop music is a feature of this format because the older audience that listens to this format today grew up after the dawning of the age of rockandroll this audience is more likely to relax to pop music The success of this format is measured based on the kinds of people it attracts and their loyalty to particular stations and not the size of the audience Album Rock Modern and Classic Format There are two types of stations Those that attract your males 1234 years old known as alternative modern rock stationsThose that attract aging male baby boomers known as classic rock stations Classic and modern rock stations number more than 500 and represent about 10 percent of all radio listening Other Formats Religious radio stations particularly Christian are plentiful Those targeting black audiences are generally known as gospel stations Religious radio stations are popular with women 35 and above Most Christian radio stations are on the FM dial and contemporary Christian radio stations make up half of all religious FM stations In 2005 there were at least 1800 commercial and noncommercial stations playing some religious format 4 State and characteristics of public radio NEED MORE Public radio CPB qualified radio stations 5 Meaning and nature of consolidation in radio Consolidation Increasingly competitive nature of radio reflects the companies now involved in the medium 0 Advocates of consolidation maintain that group ownership allows for economies of scale more efficient programming better news coverage 0 Critics of consolidation point to sameness in formats from market to market increasing use of voicetracking by group owners 6 Meaning of the technical terms for the classification of radio audiences eg target audience etc 0 Target Audience a specific demographic segment as opposed to a broad audience Radio management targets audience by Age Gender Music preference Lifestyles Target Audience attributes include aggregate size lifestyle preference gender income level habits 7 Impact of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 on radio Telecommunications Act of 1996 shifted the radio landscape 0 Relaxed ownership standards 7 No limit to total number of stations a group can own 0 Set as a maximum that group owners could own up to 8 stations in one marketplace Supergroups of station owners formed Chapter 5 8 Profitability of television stations 9 Chara Commercial TV 78 of all television stations are commercial Commercial stations program information and entertainment in order to attract an audience Stations sell airtime to advertisers based on how large the viewing audience is to make money Ex UHF commercial 44 VHF commercial 34 Noncommercial TV 22 stations are commercial free Most are affiliated with PBS or with a college or educational institutionFCC mandate that they should not sell advertising time Thus they survive strictly through donations from individuals businesses and government Ex UHF educational 15 VHF educational 7 cteristics of independent television stations These are the stations that do not align themselves with a major network These stations are a vanishing breed as they are increasingly becoming aligned with one of the seven networks These stations have to develop their own programming for the entire broadcast day seven days a week Unlike affiliates they do not get a boost from shows with high network ratings and they have to do much promotion in the local market Consequently they are not as profitable as 0ampOs or affiliates Although they can be profitable in major markets where they broadcast on a lowband VHF frequency they generally struggle in smaller markets where they broadcast on highband UHF channels because they are unable to get substantial audiences and advertising support 10 Characteristics of ownedandoperated television stations 0ampOs Owned andoperated 0amp0 stations are owned by the parent companies of the TV networks and are the most profitable They are Located primarily in the VHF band and are considered the flagship stations of their networks 0 Typically situated in large markets 0 They usually boast the call letters of their networks 0 Guaranteed a steady supply of programs 0 Typically local news leaders in their marketplace 11 Characteristics of lowpower television stations LPTV This service was created originally to promote minority ownership in 1982 0 Stations are limited to 7 3000 watts VHF 7 150 kilowatts on UHF 0 About 2000 LPTV are in operation mainly in rural areas 7 Alaska has the most LPTV stations 0 Special Interest and minority programming are likely 12 Ownership of commercial television stations At the top of the rankings of commercial TV stations there are that those that are owned outright by the corporate parents of the 4 established TV networks ABC FOX CBS and NBC 13 Ownership of public television stations Not all TV stations are in it for the money The noncommercial operations are primarily owned by the government organizations universities and school boards and religious organizations which form the backbone of the public television service 14 Differences between cable television and broadcast television DBS services include DirecTV amp Dish The carriage of local television channels Advances in technology and changes in FCC rules has made it possible for DBS to offer viewers local TV channels in addition to national programming services 0 Price DBS tends to be cheaper than cable for comparable services 0 Promotion function The promotion function in cable is a bit broader than on the broadcast side 15 Uses of fiberoptic cable with respect to cable television and cable systems This technology enabled many cable systems in 1990 s to boost well over 100 channels as the number of cable networks exploded It allows telephone companies to provide video service and cable companies to handle telephone calls 16 Cable tiers and services know the kinds of channels under the various tiers and services Channels of TIERS Cable operators package their offering in groups with each succeeding level costing more per month this process is known as tiering Ex Low to high Homes passed consists of households that are in an area served by cable TV They are all homes that could subscribe to a cable system if they wanted to Cable households These are the Homes passed that decide to subscribe to cable TV It s calculated by basic penetration Digital cable is the newest wrinkle in cable programming Because it uses compression technology digital cable can provide many more channels than standard analog cable Pay households Those cable homes that pay an additional fee for pay services HBO Showtime The percentage of pay units began to drop in late 1990s Multipay households The homes that elect to pay more than one service The subscribers pay the biggest bills Payperview These households choose to their pay programming selectively by ordering it as desired from the cable company They require addressable converters These services include may include premium movie channels regional sports networks ondemand etc Multievent payperview also known as impulse PPV Executives expect consumers to purchase many different events each month on a PPV basis Cable Services These include basic cable service pay cable service and specialty services Basic Cable Service There are 2 main types of programming found in basic cable which are Local regional signals ESPNZ The FX network MSNBC Advertisersupported basic cable networks These are program services specifically designed to reach cable audience ABC CBS NBC FOX In addition topping the list is USA and TNT Other Channels include TBS Fox News ESPN CNN CN Nickelodeon Lifetime Channel CMT Disney Channel etc Pay Cable Service Subscribers pay additional fee to receive the service Some of the channels include HBO Cinemax The Movie Channel Encore The Sundance Channel NESN etc Specialty Services The channels include CSPAN regional news channels electronic program guides EPGs local government channels jukeboxstyle music channels local weather etc 17 Cable system ownership Cable business is marked by a concentration of ownership by a large number of multiplesystem operators MSOs 0 Owners of only one system are known as singlesystem operators SSOs or simply cable system operators CSOs Comcast and Time Warner Cable are the biggest and second biggest MSOs Chapter 6 18 Experiments with electronic information know who started the experiments 0 Teletext providing information via electronic network America teletext APRANET 7 CEEFAX A pioneering information service in Great Britain delivered information within the quotblankingquot of the TV signal 7 Videotex Experiments in the US sponsored by newspapers KnightRidder and Times Mirror 0 Videotext France s Minitel provided data services via the national telephone system 0 The Source an early home information utility linked home computers to a central server Von Meister Computer bulletin called llThe Source Some of the pioneering informationbased services available to the general public started in Europe with the use of TV signals or the telephone system 0 BritainCEEFAX 0 French Minitel 19 Role of governments in bringing information services to consumers In US fair and UK 20 Regulation of the Internet NO regulation basically but bodies work together Internet is a cyberspace there is no place it resides It s not owned or managed by any one person or government or company A number of different groups have the responsibility of coordinating the Internet and setting specifications to make it work ex 0 The Internet Society a nonprofit organization that helps promote global connectivity In addition membership is open to everyone 0 The Internet Engineering Task Force IETF support responsible and effective use of the network 0 The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority IANA has overall responsibility for managing Internet Protocol and it delegated responsibilities to regional organizations 0 World Wide Web Consortium develops guidelines and specifications for the Web 21 Meaning of technical terms for transmission of audio or video online eg streaming etc Streaming The act of a file playing before the file has been fully transmitted Unlike downloading is basically getting the file fully downloaded loaded on the computer before viewing it 22 Online communities In a broad concept 0 Communities places where people can congregate chat and share ideas and common interests MySpace Craigslist 7 Discussion forums places to trade ideas 7 Virtual communities communities of websites free email 7 Online games special interactive game sites 23 Characteristics of Internet radio operators Who listens to radio Internet radio does not need to rely on an overtheair signal small internet stations pay lower royalties Young generation listen more to radio Chapter 7 24 Meaning of technical terms for competition in the market eg pure competition etc PURE COMPETITION few market barriers allow many players to enter If a market faces complete competition say a large radio market with more than 25 or more radio signals available it is possible to let the listeners decide which stations will become popular and thereby gain a large share of the advertising dollars This market place is pure competition because the competitive forces within a market make each station try hard to gain a share of the advertising revenue 0 MONOPOLY where there is no practical competition When a medium faces no competition 0 OLIGOPOLY there are a limited number of competitors ex only 3 national commercial TV networks like the US 25 Meaning of technical terms for sharing of ad costs between local retailers and national advertisers eg cooperative advertising etc 0 Cooperative advertising cost ofad is shared between manufacturer and local store In coop arrangement the national firm will share the cost of advertising with the local business The ads are usually produced by national ad agencies and are high in production value Coops allow local retailers to tie their businesses in with a national campaign 26 Meaning of technical terms for the placement of local spots on television eg adjacencies etc 0 Lucrative local spots that are aired next to primetime daytime late night and weekend network programming Those few minutes adjacent to network programs usually command a premium and are very lucrative for affiliated stations 27 Meaning of technical terms for television programs eg firstrun syndicated programs etc 7 First Run syndicated programs New nonnetwork produced programming eg Wheel of Fortune 7 Off Network network reruns eg Will and Grace 28 Source of cable revenues how industry makes money Single Revenue Stream the audience is the product that media delivers to an advertiser 7 Cable charges a monthly subscription fee for receiving the program 29 Meaning of technical terms for gauging the effectiveness of ad placement eg gross rating points GRPs etc 0 Gross Ratings Points evaluates a run ofx number of commercials over a specific time period that has a consistent rating for the target audiences 1 Early radio inventors a James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz i Demonstrated the existence of electromagnetic radiation b Guglielmo Marconi i Experimented with radio transmitters and receivers and developed business around radio c Reginarld Fessenden i Invented the alternator which was needed for the transmission of voice and sound over waves d Lee De Forest i Created the quotaudionquot which amplified weak signals 2 The Role of the Navy During WWI a They tabled patent disputes by taking full control over radio during the wartime b This made it possible for huge improvements to be made c They did not want to give radio back to a foreign company Marconi but they did not want to regulate radio so they worked with GE and got them to buy out American Marconi and called it RCA Radio Corporation of America 3 The role of American Marconi and RCA during and after the war a See 2 b After the war RCA entered into a cross licensing agreement with ATampT Westinghouse and GE 4 Radio Acts a Wireless Ship Act of 1910 i Required all ships traveling over 200 miles off the coast with more than 50 passengers to have a radio on ship ii This did NOT help with the interference problems that radio was having b The Radio Act of 1927 i Made key assumptions individuals could not own frequencies The radio spectrum was a national resource Licenses would have to operate in the public interest Government censorship was forbidden ii Congress established a temporary 5 person commission to regulate broadcasting The FRC Federal Radio Commission c Federal Communications Act of 1934 i Established the FCC Federal Communications Commission a permanent group established to oversee regulation of wired and wireless communication 5 Nature of the Licensing Agreements Reached by Early Radio Companies a GE and 39 U39 would radio b RCA would sell it c ATampT would build transmitters 6 What led to the growth of Radio a Thousands of hobbyists were trained in radio during the war b Technological improvements made during the war gave radio better reception c Business interest began realizing that broadcasting might make money 7 Differences between the Radio Frequencies a Amplitude Modulation AM i Early radio ii Refers to modifying the amplitude of the original sound s wave form iii This changes the original sound wave form into a series of peaks and valleys b Frequency modulation FM i Invented by Edwin Armstrong in 1933 ii Sounds better and has less static than AM iii Refers to modifying the frequency of the original sound wave form iv This changes the number of times the sound wave occurs over a period of time i Shortwave radio refers to the High Frequency portion of the radio spectrum ii Used mostly for international broadcasting 8 The Nature of the Early Broadcasting Networks a Sarnoff created NBC in 1926 b CBS 1927 by William S Paley c 19301948 Radio Network Affiliated increased in a big way 9 Kinds of Early Radio Programs a They were primarily musicveriety programs b Big Bands c Amos n Any was a huge hit in 1929 d Radio news grew in importance during the second world war e Situation comedies f Crime shoes g Programs were an important part of American life 10 Why and How Broadcast Television and Cable Television Started a Broadcast Television TV technology was first demonstrated at the NY World s Fair Idea of TV goes back to the iconoscope and the image dissector TV technology improved during WW2 2 Credited to two inventors Vladimir Zworykin and Philo Farnsworth b Cable Got started because people who lived in areas without good TV reception found a way to get that receptioncables Explosive growth in cable in the 70s 1 HBO 2 The FCC canceled the implementation of its earlier rules and would henceforth encourage competition between cable and traditional TV 11 The role of the government in early cable history a In 1958 the FCC decoded hat it did not have the authority to regular cable because it was not broadcasting and used no spectrum space b But thencable started picking up the signals of distant stations instead ofjust olocal ones Broadcasting asked the FCC for help c In 1972 the FCC established more formal rules 39 Local communities states and the FCC were to regulate cable New systems would have a minimum of 20 channels iquot There would be carriage ofall local stations iv There would be regulations on importing distant signals v Pay cable services would be approved d The Cable Communications Act of 1984 39 Reduced FCC control over cable Made the local community the major force in cable regulation exercised through franchising iquot This meant the end of quotmom and popquot cable systems iv By the late 198s cable became dominated by multiplesystem operators MSOs 12 Differences between Cable MMDS TVRO and DBS a Cable i Connecting systems together from a common antenna system to pick up the TV systems b MMDS multichannel multipoint distribution systems i Wireless cable 1 Transmission of cable signals from a central transmitter to small microwave antennae in homes ii Uses microwave technology to distribute television programming iii About 1 million subscribers today c TVRO satellite television receiveonly earth stations i Popular option for people who could not get cable ii LARGE dishes iii Worked together with Direct to Home satellite d DBS Direct Broadcast Satellite i Took the nation by storm in the mid1990s ii Smallerdish 18inches 13 The Development of the Video Tape Recorder a Started in the mid 1950s with the development of the kinescope recorder Equipped to shoot an image from a television screen soo it wasn t very clear or reliable The VTR video tape recorder came into being in 1956 Broadcast video tape recorders developed in 1956 quicky adopted by TV networks SONY introduced the Betamax VCR in 1975 i There was a huge lawsuit where the supreme court rules that home taping did b c d Ampex Corporation introduced a color VTR e f not violate copyright law 14 What is internet and why was it developed a It all started with the Cuban Missile Crisis which made the US need to prepare for a possible nuclear war with the Soviet Union b They needed a way to communicate in case of a nuclear war c ATampT interconnected the country by 1914 d The SAGE project early warning radar system provided the US with advanced warning against missile attack i Modem and video display terminal were born from the SAGE project e What IS the internet i The global interconnection of computer networks using common communication protocols ii It is NOT the WWW that is just a service available ON the internet f Terms to know about the internet Packet switching provided for small data packets to be sent over distributed communications networks that have many different paths Hyperlinks Bener s Lee proposed them Packets of computer commands within the texts g You should know this 39 NSFNET linked supercomputer centers across the country together The internet was born when NSFNET replaced ARPANET Independent Service Providers ISP allowed everybody to connect to the new network like AOL 15 What you can find on the internet i In the beginning 1 At first the internet was kind ofjust like a bulliten board It started with government issues and soon turned to popular culture and sex and stuff like that 2 ARPANET a Purpose was to build the first interactive computer network 3 Ray Tomlinson develops email in the early 70s 4 USENET extended use of the system to many university researchers started in the research triangle Shout out North Carolina yeahyeahh ii Nowadays 1 Search engines a Archie checked FTPfile transfer protocol sites b Gopher programs were available on publicly accessible networked computers 2 Instant messaging 3 Still using chartrooms and post boards 16 The Nature of Facsimile and Transduction a Facsimile Technology i Representations of original forms of sounds or pictures ii Idea of technological developments come from the search for fidelity or faithfulness to the original in reproduction iii Radio TV and computers use radio waves beams of light and digital bits and bytes b Transduction i The process of changing one form of energy into another ii Getting a sound of picture to your home usually involved atleast 3 or 4 transductions The more transductions the more change of unwanted interference iii The process of Transduction for a radio signal 1 Physical energy the actual sound 2 Mechanical energy sound waves vibrate a coil in the microphone Creates an electrical current 3 Electrical Energy bits stored in recorders memory are converted back to electrical pulses and sent to amplifier 4 Electromagnetic energy amplified sound is superimposed onto the raido wave assigned to a station 5 Physical Energy electromagnetic energy is conducted by the antenna and converted by transduction process inside the radio into the sound waves that are physical energy 17 The Nature of Binary Technology a Digital rather than analog Signals use binary code b Signal is transduced into its digital equivalent using binary code c Only 2 values 0 or 1 d Computers use strings of binary coes called bytes digital words comprised of bits of information to process information e Each sound is a unique sequence of binary numbers f Digital words used for recording audio also comprise information about the frequency pitch and the amplitude loudness of each sound in recording 18 The steps in signal processing a 1 Signal Generation Begins when a person speaks and the sound waves are picked up by a microphone Begins when an image is captured by a camera iquot Signal is transmitted using analog or digital b 2 Amplification and Processing c 3 Transmission d 4 Reception e 5 Storage and retrieval 19 Material differences between microphones and cables a Mircrophones i Dynamic Microphones Chapter 6 The Internet and New Media Today A Brief History a Teletextcable service that offers text and graphics displayed on the screen i The first systems were launched by American newspaper publishers that experimented with electronic communication systems ii Britain s early system was called CEEFAX and it was a oneway system that sent data to a TV by encoding information within the television signal 1 It was slow and had limited graphics capability iii Videotex an information service designed to serve as electronic newspapers via telephone 1 Not much interest amongst readers so services were soon shut down b Minitel i French telephone company introduced in 1980 the Minitel videotext system that connected terminals via telephone so it s a two directional system ii Initially all they offered was phone directory but then services began to grow into takeout ordering train tickets email etc c Hometown America Gets WiredSlowly i Commercial development of info services occurred differently in America 1 CEEFAX and Minitel were subsidized and supported heavily by government unlike in America where private entrepreneurs were more innovative ii In 1978 William Von Meister created a computer bulletin board called llThe Source which became the first home computer network and provided news and financial info but it was soon taken over by Reader s Digest iii HampR Block bought CompuServe with the intention to combine tax services with information servicesthis never really happened 1 CompuServe continued to provide discussion areas for business commerce and technology in 1980 it became the first online service to offer chat 2 Owned by AOL today d New Markets New Entrants Prodigy and America Online i Prodigy began in 1985 and was designed to serve as an online magazine with a flat price for unlimited access and email ii Unlike The Source and CompuServe it provided unique content specifically for its users and tried to make computer networking a massmarket service iii AOL previously Quantum Computer Services offered chat rooms which was revolutionary at the time iv Internet Service Providers met with opposition from some home owners because dial up access numbers were limited to large urban areas and modem speeds were too slow to download graphics etc 1 After the breakup of ATampT the price of long distance calls dropped 2 Also more powerful computers and faster modems were invented e SPs Grow and the Web Emerges i Email became widespread and it became possible to send email to locations around the globe between different commercial providers The development of the world wide web Tim BernersLee and the Mosaic browser also spurred the growth of ISPs so that they became increasingly local and regional eliminating the need for long distance dialup connections 1 This growth challenged the strongholds of AOL Prodigy and CompuServe 2 Print media began putting content online f The Growth of the World Wide Web and What Came After 39 After the creation of Mosaic as the first browser and the creation of HTML there was a boom in the area of webpages and new domain names were being added constantly with personal webpages businesses media and universities Search engines became popular and quotweb crawlers II The Internet Basics Who Owns the Web a The internet is intellectual property managed by a number ofdifferent groups 39 Internet Society a nonprofit organization that promotes global connectivity Internet Engineering Task Force supports responsible and effective use of the net iquot Internet Assigned Numbers Authority manages Internet protocol and delegates responsibilities to regional organizations iv World Wide Web Consortium headed by Tim BernersLee provides guidance for work on web architecture b How Standards and Protocols Make the Web Work i A uniform resource Iocator URL retrieves the correct information and delivers it to the requesting party s address with each URL in hierarchical order like www or ftp ii Next is a secondary domain name and then the primary domain name 1 Secondary is usually the company or institutional name 2 Primary is the dot com or the dot org that provide a unique address c EMail Browsers Downloading and Messaging i The most popular services are email IM and file sharing ii Browsers allow us to communicate with public websites and follow standards defined by the WWW Consortium d PlugIns i An HTML page may contain different types of files that display unique graphics pics music or animations ii A plugin is the llhelper application that will handle the specific file the software can usually be downloaded for free 1 Examples are Quicktime and Media Player e Pulling an Elephant Through a Straw Downloading the New Media i Newspapers and TV networks started sites to lure Web surfers ii Long download speeds deterred people for downloading but modems are faster iii Also there are new video codecs that reduce the size of media files used by Media Player and Quicktime so watching videos is easier f Portals i Starting places like Google or Yahoo home pages are portals they have a bunch of links and recommendations for other websites to visit and news chatting email and search functions etc 1 They are important because its where people start their quotcyberjourneyquot g Communities Come and Go i Virtual community is the place where people can congregate to share ideas and chat about common interests 1 Different communities exist like MySpace or Craigslist h Electronic and Interactive Gaming i Spacewar 1962 started it all and then came Adventure PacMan and Pong ii Millions play on computers and cell phones but the gaming consoles drive the industry first was Magnavox and Atari but Nintendo was the winner that revolutionized gaming with the use of a controller iii The home game industry then developed actionadventure games like Zelda Resident Evil Grand Theft Auto etc iv Now there are new consoles with superior graphics with a 40 saturation in US v Wireless gaming HD compatibility and online connectivity is the future of gaming i The Bottom Line i The web is different from other media because of the variety of ways to make money unlike traditional media that can only rely on advertising and subscription 1 you can sell connection to the Web as an ISP or Portals can sell space and sponsorship for ads on their pages or goods can be sold online ii Revenues from internet are growing 1 Initially people charged perhour rates for internet service competition has forced most to adopt the flat fee initiated by Prodigy III Napster and iPods Icons and New Industrial Models a Napster was started by a college freshman and it was a program that let users share files and search for music and transfer files from the host computer to the user s i Then courts made Napster shut down because of copyright infringement in 2001 b After Napster came LimeWire and Morpheus programs that did not use the central directory program that got Napster into trouble Then in 2001 iPods were made available but initially they were too expensive and not Squot windows compatible so their sales were only mediocre i Once iTunes Music Store allowed legal downloads and there was PC compatible software and the players were modestly priced sales skyrocketed The World Wide Web Electronic Media and the Promise of Mobility i The Internet is now connected with TV and radio and the growth rate of the internet 53 does not seem to be letting up so it is a great opportunity for new advertisers 5 Evolving Radio and Webcasting Streaming and Royalty Rights i Radio has survived by constantly evolving after it lost its shows to television in the fifties it turned to music ii iPods Walkmans etc are alternative music sources but there is still talk radio Chapter 8 1 Most plentiful radio programming Syndicatedprereccorded music 2 Methods of radio format evaluation 3 Ways in which radio stations commercial and public get their programs Playlist Local Live empoy own announcers locally play their own music Live Assist local announcersDJs with some syndicated programming Semiautomation mostly computerrun syndicated music schedule with occasional live personalities Turnkey Automation satellite dish amp control board 7 all computerrun 4 The format wheel 5 Most important radio daypart during the week and during the weekend Week early morningmorning drive 610AM Weekend 102PM Chapter 9 6 The rst televised events JFK assassination first man on moon civil rights movement Vietnam War 7 Where networks and cable networks get their programs Network programming made by CW CBS WB ABC CBS FOX NBC Cable straight to system Syndication programs sold to local networkscable cos local origination 8 Functions ofPBS Serves as channel for program producers to get there programs out 9 Audience ow and various kinds of syndication Movie packagesFilms not in theaters who s ownership is sold to cable Offnet Syndicated Audience ow hold an audience from one show to the next on a station 10 How affiliates may deal with network offerings programs Af liated programs don t have to show everything the network gives them not owned and operated 11 Technological developments that aided the growth of network news Electrionic News Gathering portable cameras Satelite NG transmit live on van bring back and edit 12 Speci c duties of the various personnel responsible for news and newscasts Field Producer prep research scout locations Reporter initial ressearch sets up interviews editing supervisor Writer writes for dumb attractive people Editor 13 Various programing strategies employed by television stations Counter programming get a dif demographic Challenge programming get same deomographic Chapter 10 14 Scarcity theory and the pervasive presence theory Electromagnetic spectrum is a limited resource PPT 15 Number and type of commissioners of the Federal Communications Commission FCC 5 members of congress on FCC no more than 3 from one party 16 Various factors involved in the regulation of the media Radio act of 1927 17 In uence of the president of the United States on the FCC and media regulation Pres has power over fcc can make any of them chair must have only 3 from each party can veto unfavorable comm laws passed by congress regulates FCC 18 In uence of Congress on media regulation 2 in charge of FCC Department of congress 18 Licensing stations before the creation of the FCC and after the creation of the FCC Noone Marconi FRC FCC 19 Copyright and fair use 20 Legal definition of what is obscene 21 How a plaintilT may prove that a statement was defamatory to him or her 22 Difference between libel and slander


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