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by: Dean Ortiz


Dean Ortiz
GPA 3.74


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Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dean Ortiz on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PATH 3010 at University of Georgia taught by Gold in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see /class/202410/path-3010-university-of-georgia in Pathology at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Place of the Fungi Lecture l Prokarytes 9 Bacteria and Archea Eukaryotes 9 Chromista fungi metazoan plantea protista Fungi more similar to animals now mushrooms molds yeasts rusts smuts bracket stinkhoms puffballs mildews oomycota chytrid potato famine FUNG I Eukaryotic nonvascular digest then ingest produce exoenzymes for external digestion sexual and asexual reproduction not motile except Chytridiomycota alternations of generations unicellular or hypae microsopic threads roots Cell walls are chitin heterotrophic other feeding store food as glycogen have egosterol instead of cholesterol small nuclei little repetitive DNA mitosis doesn t need the disappearance of nulear envelope Hyphae septate or aseptate Hyphae comprise the mycelium body of a fungus Mycelia usually grow submerged and out of the sight in a substrate Visible only when they form their reproductive structures Hyphae capable of indeterminate growth if food is available and environmental conditions are favorable can grow on any carbon source Fungi are Hetertophs Saprobes make all necessary amino acids if provided with only an organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen source Parasites Mutualists Fungi sportulate with different spores S EXUAL Ascospores ascomycetes Basidiospores Basidiomycetes Zgospores Zygomycetes Oospores Oomycetes AS EXUAL Sporangiospores Zoopspores Conidiospores Arthrospores Conditions for GROWTH found in all habitats carbon source WATER Terrestrial aquatic Food source saprobes parasites mutualists Temp Most mesophiles 2025 thermophiles psychrophiles Oxygen obligate aerobes Ph 56 Light not required for growth but for reproduction Domain Dumb Kingdom Kings Phylum Play Basidiomycota Ascomycota Zygomycota Chytridiomycota Oomycota Glomermycta Class Cards Order On Family Fat Genus Green Species Stools Important Decomposers recycle nutrients decay of plant materials wood wood has cellulose and lignin two most renewable resources on earth Protecting FOOD exclusion of fungi drying food protecting food from moisture refrigeration of food addition of preservatives to food FUNGUS OF THE DAY l Humongous Fungus armillaria gallica FUNGAL ECOLOGY Lecture 2 Fungus of the day 2 Geomyces destrutcans white nose bat syndrome ring of fungal growth around the muzzles and on the wings of many affected animals spread to New york and other new york caves fungus belongs in ascomycota Fungal Ecology how fungi relate to other organisms their environment and each other Dr Eugene Odum Father of Modern Ecology Flemming pencillian Fungi Alga Lichens Dual organisms 95 fungus Fungus obtains water and minerals builds complex thallus produces sexual and asexual reproductive structures alga live within fungal thallus supply energy rich compounds to entire organism grow inon extreme environments grow slowly produce many biochemicals that serve many purposes Mycorrhiza fungus root plant fungus symbiosis important component of soil life 2 kinds Endomycorrhizae most common enter root cortex cells Glomeromycota Ectomycorrihizae fungus grow around root and bw cortical cells never penetrates cells Basidiomycota negative autoriphism roots don t touch each other wood rots caused primarily by basidiomycestes Brown rot fungi softwood breakdown cell wall leaves lignin unaffected rotten wood brown cracking crumbly White rot fungi hardwoods decompose all wood components rotten wood light spongy mass Chytrids infective to frogs and tadpoles grow in keratinized epidermis of skin no mitochondria multi agellete zoospores symptoms lethargy lack of appetite skin discoloration loss of re exes death largests s of threatened species Latin America Habitat threat and chytridiomycosis arthrobotris construct nematodes intomophs y eating fungi Leaf cutter ants gardening ants of new world atta seXdans most economically important and studied only animals that take fresh plant matter and grow their own food eat fungus not leaves central and south America basidio Fungi and Termites fungus carried by queen to new colonies termite mounds eat the wood and plant debris on the spot fungus gardens are made from faecal material cellulose to break down wood what the get from fungi build termite mounds and eat their food on the spot Lobster Mushroom ascomycete parasitizes the fruiting body basidio its not edible till its paraitizes hypomyces lactifourm Phototropic mechanisms designed to direct spores away from adjacent dung Increase efficiency of despositing spores on nearby vegetation eaten by animals Fungi serve numerous ecological roles function as mutualists with ants termites plants and algae function as parasites and pathogens of plants and animals and other fungi function in the decay of dead plant materials especially wood cause problems for humans Mycotoxins Lecture 3 truf es helps street children in London and catholic charities There is no evidence for food borne mycotoxin induced disease in humans in the usa or western Europe and in most other developed countries human exposure to mycotoxins in developed countires is low because of diverse diets and secure food supplies ergo alkaloids major mycotoxins of interest ergotism st anthony s life holy life historically affected the poor because they ate more rye bread oldest recognized mycotoixcosis of humans Ergot causes vasoconstriction burning sensation hallucinations Salem witchcraft thought to be the result of an outbreak of ergotism Fescue foot in cattle Endophytes symbiotic fungi living w in plant tissues typically in intercellular spaces all levels of plant tissue can be infected typically cause little or no diease to the host plant often mutualistic association long term often seed transmitted Economic Impact tall fescue is most important cool season grass in Us established pastures often have high levels of endophyte infection endophyte produces a variety of secondary metablities Ergot alkaloids lead to fescue toxicosis A atoxin Asperigllus avus aspergillus parasiticus cause of farm animal disease worldwide and human disease in subsistence farmers reduced weight gain and production problems are most common in farm animals Hepatotoxic in all species testes Liver carcinogen in rodents trout humans 0 most carcinogenic natural compound known liver carinogenictiy in humans is greatly enhanced by hepatitis B or C virus A atoxicosis Kenya 2004 homegrown maize outbreak severe drought starvation improper storage of maize Marker of tainted dog food to pay 31 M 23 dog deaths due to liver failure btw Dec 2005 and early 2006 Soy sauce miso sake rice made by fermentation of soybeans with aspergillus oryzea Fumonisins in maiz often initiated by insect damage cause species specific animal diseases risk factor for neural tube defects in humans USA is number 1 consumed corn place most corn used for animls exported food commodities worth over 100 billion are susceptible to mycotoxin contamination grown and exported from every major world region contamination is sporadic and uneven can affect international trade at any time in any place regulatory limits for mycotoxins 20 ppb a atoxin 2 ppm furonisin Environmental conditions will determine which mycotoixns ar present in commodities for any population of ppl the level of mycotoxins in the commodities will be greatr in stressed environments exposure will be greatest in ppl who consume one commodity in large amounts regardless of the level of contamination lack of food security will force the poorest to consume large amounts of heavlily contaminated food A atoxin in dry dog food manufactured Melamine problem widespread in China first it was infant formula Contamination of milk products Phyla Lecture 4 Chytridiomyc etes true fungi agellate cells zoospores free water environments sabrobes and parasites asexual and sexual Zygomycota non motile chitin in walls aseptate all zygospores are the sexual spores very fast growers that sporulate prolifically mucorales are most common Glomeromycota obligate mutalistic symbionts that form arbuscualr mycorrhizal associations non septate Ascomycota sac fungi lichens ascus sac 3 subgroups ascomycota crosiers and Basidio clampconnections asexual yeast hypal or dimorphic produce conidia sexual structure ascoma apothecium cleistothecium perithecium Basidiomycota familiar mushrooms terrestrial areas critical role in carbon cycle produce basidia long lived dikaryon clamp connections 3 classes rusts smuts mushrooms Chestnut LECTURE 5 Chestnut was common in many north Georgia counties many harvested in southern Appalachians has many uses and strong staple for and ppl and wildlife recreational uses Chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica first found on American chestnut trees growing in the new york zoological park 0 chestnut blight infection necrotrophic killing tissue with oxalic acid infection forms a sunken canker eventually girdling the tree 0 spread south from new york city at the rate of 20 miles per year 0 caused massive destruction in the southern Appalachians o chestunuts re sprout from surviving root systems Approaches to combating chestnut blight old and new fungicidies and pruning buffer cuts natural resistance within the species mutation bredding hypovirulence breeding with resistant asian species in vitro propagation genetic engineering 0 O O O O O O The American chestnut foundation s backcross breeding program with chineses chestnut the Chinese chestnut is blight resistant In vitro GA has its own chapter the Georgia Sprout propagation Microprogation axillary shoot culture Organogensis adventitious shoots Somatic embryogenesis structures resembling seed embryos are produced asexually These somatic embryos can be germinated like seeds to produce seedling like plantlets performed in a sterile bench provide means of making transgenic American chestnut trees without fungal genes each nut contains 12 to 21 seeds all but one usually abort during maturation establishment takes 5 months with a 2 success rate embryogenic American chestnut cultures can produce thousands of propagules but they are often fused so they are easily damaged when separated SOLUTION suspention culture size fractionationplating for embryo production helps singularize embryos cold treatment and activated charcoal improve germination activated charcoal prevents root darkening and promotes lateral root production cryopresevation long term storage in liquid nitrogen 9 cultures must be transferred to fresh medium every 3 week GATACF cooperators provide control pollinated American chestnuts for culturing Nalgene Mr frosty freezy containers after removal from nitrogen liquid takes a few weeks to show growth again Altnerative approcach to convential breeding engineering disease resistance genes into American chestnut trees crown gall disease is caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens a natural genetic engineer FUNgus of the day 4 Cryphonectria parasitica cause of chestnut blight American chestnut tree castaneta dentate once covered all of eastern united states however due to chestnut blight large trees are no longer found in the natural range of chestnut picture tom with tree in Wisconsin state record American chestnut tree it is on a farm of ron bockenhaurer Fungus might be brought from asian because they are resistant to this fungus but not American trees


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