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by: Dean Ortiz


Dean Ortiz
GPA 3.74


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Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dean Ortiz on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PATH 3010 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/202412/path-3010-university-of-georgia in Pathology at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Place of the Fungi 817 3 domains of life 0 Eukaryota S kingdoms Chromista kelps diatoms haptophytes Fungi Metazoa Animals Plantae Protista o Bacteria o Archaea Fungi characteristics o eukaryotic nonvascular reproduce by means of spores both sexual and asexual spores may be produced depending on the species and environmental conditions typically not motile often have alternations of generations vegetative body may be unicellular or composed of microscopic threads called hyphae cell walls contain chitin heterotrophic digest then ingest most fungi store food energy as glycogen o fungal cell membranes have a unique sterol egosterol which replaces cholesterol Additional Characteristics of Fungi o l Hyphae I septate or aseptate o 2 Heterotrophs I may be saprobes parasites or mutualists o 3 sporulate with several types of spores I sexual spores I ascospores 9 Ascomycetes J pro ka ryotes OOOOOOOOOO I basidiospores 9 Basidiomycetes I oospores 9 Oomycetes I asexual spores I sporangiospores I zoospores I conidiaconidiospores I arthrospores o 4 hyphae comprise the mycelium o S fungi can grow on almost any carbon source Important Factors Influencing Fungal Growth 0 water 0 food source 0 temperature I most are mesophiles 2025 degC 0 oxygen I most are obligate aerobes 0 pH 56 for most species 0 light I not required for growth of most fungi but may be required for reproduction Fungi Most Important as Decomposers o recycle nutrients 0 most important in the decay of plant materials especially wood Fungal Ecology 825 fungal ecology how fungi relate to other organisms their environment and each other fungi algae lichens 0 dual organisms o 95 fungus almost all lichens 0 types of lichens 9 crustose foliose fruticose squamulose leprose fungi and plants o mycorrhiza 9 fungus root I plantfungussymbiosis I gt90 ofall higher plants are mycorrhizal termed photobionts I 2 kinds of mycorrhiza I endomycorrhizae 0 most common I ectomycorrhizae o diseases I Irish Potato Famine I 18451850 Phytoph thora infestans I N1 million people died I 1S million people emigrated I downy mildew of French grape vines I 1865 Plasmopara viticoa I 1882 Pierre Millardet Bordeaux s mixture I chestnut blight Cryphonectria parasitica I removed American Chestnut from eastern North American forests diseased nursery stock from Japan I first report 1904 in NYC I American elms Dutch elm disease I Ophiostoma umi I vectored by elm bark beetle I post harvest rots fungi and wood 0 wood rots caused primarily by Basidiomycetes o brown rot fungi I softwoods conifers I breaks down cellulose NOT lignin I rotten wood brown cracking crumbly 0 white rot fungi I hardwoods deciduous trees I decompose all wood components cellulose and lignin I rotten wood light spongy mass fungi and animals 0 rumen fungi o chytridiomycosischytrids o nematodetrappingfungi fungi and insects o leafcutter ants o termites fungi and fungi o antifungal fungi 9 parasitism I lobster mushroom fungi and dung o coprophilous fungi Five Phyla 97 Classification of Fungi Kingdom 9 Fungi o Phylum I Basidiomycota I Ascomycota I Glomeromycota I Zygomycota I Chytridiomycota I Oomycota pseudo fungi Phylum Chytridiomycota 00000 O 1000 species described true fungi flagellate cells only true fungi with zoospores free water environments saprobes and parasites both asexual and sexual reproduction Phylum Zygomycota O O O O O 1000 species described nonmotile cells chitin in walls aseptate walls zygospores are the sexual spores Phylum Glomeromycota O O 0 VA mycorrhizal fungi 150 species described obligate mutualistic symbionts that form arbuscular mycorrhizal AM associations intracellularly within the roots of the vast majority of herbaceous plants and tropical trees nonsepate hyphae Phylum Ascomycota O O O O O 0 45000 species described sac fungi sac ascus accounts for 75 of all described fungi septate hyphae form croziers asexual and sexual reproduction Phylum Basidiomycota O O O O 0 000 30000 species include mushrooms yeasts found in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems as well as freshwater and marine habitats degrade most wood and leaf litter involved in symbioses I mutualisticectomycorhizzae I leafcutter ant partnership I parasitism of the plant infecting rust species of the Urediniomycetes unicellular or multicellular sexual or asexual terrestrial or aquatic production of basidia which are the cells on which sexual spores are produced form clamp connections Spore Dispersal 914 2step process of spore dispersal O O l spore discharge or release 2 dispersal away from the parent solutions for dispersal O O passive mechanisms I wind I giant puffball I water I spores are carried along on the surface of the water like little boats I water in the form of raindrops can disperse spores o puffballs and earthstars o bird s nest fungi I animals I truffles I stinkhorns active mechanisms I bursting cell I Piobous I rounding off cannonball fungus I ballistosporedischarge o Coprinus selfdigestion Wild Edible Fungi 921 myths about edible fungi 0 There is a foolproof test for distinguishing edible from poisonous mushrooms NO Most mushrooms are poisonous NO only about 60 known species are poisonous There are a large number of people that die from mushroom poisoning each year NO Poisonous mushrooms must taste bad NO You can be poisoned by touching a poisonous mushroom NO Collecting mushrooms for consumption is unsafe and even experts have died from picking the wrong mushrooms NO Species determined to be edible are always safe to eat NO 0 Mushrooms are of no nutritional value NO good protein source what to look for when identifying mushrooms 0 substrate size shape and color of cap nature of the stalk presence or absence of ringvolva color changes when bruisedbroken production of quotlatex material details relating to gillsspores o spore color Truffles 0 most commercial production comes from Italy France and Spain 0 found in North America I Oregon mainly o mycorrhizal fungi I live in association with roots of trees 0 Phylum Ascomycota Hunting for Truffles 0 areas with host trees 0 found below ground 16 in deep or up to 1 ft 0 traditionally pigs were trained to pick up scent of truffles but today dogs are typically used Georgia Pecan Truffles 0 found in late summer to autumn August November in the pecan growing areas of South Georgia 0 discovered in the mid1980s growing in the soil around pecan trees in commercial orchards in south Georgia 0 same genus as white truffle and black truffle but has a unique flavor 0 characteristics I enclosed brown fruiting bodies I resemble small potatoes I round to oval or irregular in shape I NZ across with a smooth surface I vary from light brown to dark reddishbrown in color 000000 0 O O O O O Morels o obtain nutrients from woody substrate 0 phylum Ascomycota 0 thick stalk 0 cap or pileus is spongelike 0 can be found in early spring in moist wooded areas or less commonly in grassy areas Chanterelles o basidiomycete o gills run from cap to stalk Matsutake mushroom o mycorrhizal 0 found partly buried around oak or pine 0 big business in Oregon 0 popular in Japan where they are used for food and flavoring in soups Meadow Mushroom 0 Agaricus 0 button mushroom small white cap meadows fields roadside 0 all over N America Oyster Mushroom 0 white tasty usually clustered on stumps logs or trunks of deciduous trees 0 all over North America Shaggy Mane Mushroom 0 Coprinus comatus o gray cap shaggy scales 0 roadsides lawns urban o in N America 0 most tasty when young Wood Blewit o bluishlilac color 0 spore color buffpinkish 0 found in rings or arches in open meadows gardens or organic debris 0 all over N America Chickenofthewoods o Laetiporus sulphureus o bracket fungus no stem 0 polypore pores instead of gills 0 round margin 0 O OO lemon yellow to orange stumps or logs Poisonous and Hallucinogenic Mushrooms 104 Medical Mycology o 4 types of mycotic diseases I hypersensitivig an allergic reaction to molds and spores indoor air pollution I mycotoxicose poisoning of man and animals by feeds and food products contaminated by fungi which produce toxins from the grain substrate I mycetismu the ingestion of preformed toxin mushroom poisoning infection mycoses Mycetismus o 2 types of mushroom poisoning I purposeful poisonings hallucinogenic mushrooms I accidental poisonings eating mushrooms mostly for food and becoming ill Types of Mushrooms Poisons Group 1 Amanitin Poisoning I two major groups of toxins I phallotoxins phalloidins deadly if injected but nearly harmless when eaten I amatoxins these toxins are the active component of amanita poisonings most important is alpha amanitin I Meixner test allows detection of amatoxins I alphaamanitin poisoning I long latent period 648 hours I death in 5090 of cases I treatment Bastien treatment 0 Group 2 Monomethylhydrazine Poisoning I monomethylhydrazine is used in rocket fuel I MMH can be removed through repeated boiling I considered a carcinogen I each individual has a unique threshold to MMH 0 Group 3 Orellanine Poisoning I found in several Cortinarius species I 1957 Poland 132 people poisoned 19 died I causes delayed kidney failure symptoms appear 317 days after consumption 0 Group 4 Coprine Poisoning I Coprinus I only toxic if eaten and alcohol consumed 0 Group 5 Muscarine Poisoning I PSL perspiration salivation lachrymation I Amanita muscaria Clitocybe Inocybe 0 Group 6 botenic Acid Muscimol Poisoning I Amanita muscaria I ibotenic acid is converted to muscimol I Amanita muscaria used historically as a sacred and recreational treatment I Soma hymns Rig Veda Siberians 0 Group 7 PsiocybinPsilocin quotPoisoningquot I magic mushrooms I illegal to possess Psiocybian spores in Georgia California and Idaho I Psiocin similar to serotonin I most commonly cultivated magic mushroom P cubensis 0 Group 8 Gastrointestinal Irritants I symptoms occur 3090 min after consumption I symptoms clear after 34 hours Fungi for Food 1012 Mushrooms as food 0 good source of protein 0 low in cholesterol and saturated fat 0 good sources of various vitamins 0 various medical benefits Substrates for mushroom growth 0 logs sawdust woodchips wheat straw leaves 0 materials either used directly or composted Commercial production ongaricus bisporus o began in 1650s near Paris France 0 7 steps I spore germination not used routinely I spawn growing I composting of substrate I filling and sweating out I spawning I casing I harvesting and marketing Problems related to growth ongaricus bad odors associated with composting 0 disease problems 0 disposal of waste compost 0 competition from foreign growers Lentinua edodes Shiitake mushroom o indigenous to Japan China and other Asian countries 0 good taste good nutritional value 0 many medicinal uses Fungi in food formulation Western restricted primarily to beer bread and cheese 0 Eastern in addition to alcoholic beverages and eavened bread used heavily with soybean and rice Fungi and cheese producton Med 0 two types of cheese involve the use of fungi bleu cheese Roquefort etc soft cheese Brie Camembert etc 0 Discovery of Cheese I dates back about 4000 yea rs I Arabian merchant carrying his milk with him in a pouch made from the stomach of a sheep I sheep s stomach contains rennet the enzyme that makes milk curdle I merchant drank the whey and ate the curd discovered cheese 0 origins of fungal cheeses France I shepherdcave story I caves in Roquefort I fungus that generates Roquefort cheese Penicilium roqueforti I sheep s milk used exclusively 0 many other bleu cheeses made worldwide I use of cow s milk ewe s milk goat s milk Fungal Diseases of Plants 1020 plant pathology the study of plant diseases Causes of plant disease 0 abiotic I environmental I above ground I below ground I toxicants I animals 0 biotic I fungi I proka ryotes I viruses I nematodes Symptom vs Sign o symptom the visible indications ofa disease on a plant 0 sign the pathogen or its parts or products seen on a host plant Stem rust of wheat o Puccinia graminis o Robigalia Ergot of Rye Holy Fire or St Anthony s Fire 0 ergotism epidemics Late Blight of Potato 0 Irish Potato Famine 0 mass emigration starving death resistant varieg possessing properties that prevent or impede disease development susceptible varieg prone to develop disease when infected by a particular pathogen monoculture single species of a crop Management 0 planting certified resistant seed 0 crop rotation o burying or composting leftover cull piles Control 0 different potato varieties I high level of resistance to pathogen I evolutionary arms race cinal Fungi 1028 Maitake Grifoa frondosa o hen of the woods dancing mushroom sheepshead o parasitic on hardwoods and conifers o basidiomycete Reishi Ganoderma lucidum o Lingzhi China 0 shelf fungi on decaying logsstumps o polypore o brown spores Shiitake Lentinua edodes 0 white rot fungus 0 white spores o gilled 0 second most commonly cultivated mushroom o meaty texture Enoki Fammuina veutipes o aliases winter mushroom enokitaki velvet stem velvet foot grows in North America on dead elms or live hardwoods o r g x O u 0 Caterpillar Fungus used by Chinese emperors for longevity and energy 0 Lion s Mane I healer of gastric diseases 0 Blushing Wood Mushroom I reduces anemia improves animal cancer 0 Turkey Tail I Asian treatment for cancer 0 Snow Fungus o Poria cocos Mycorrhizae 119 What are mycorrhizal fungi 0 form close symbiotic typically mutualistic relationships with roots and absorptive tissues fo plants categories endomycorrhizae and ectomycorrhizae Endomycorrhizae 0 most of the fungus in direct contact with the plant is inside the plant root cells 0 three main types I arbuscular mycorrhizae AM I hosts tropical trees herbaceous plants I fungi Glomeromycota I orchid mycorrhizae I hosts orchids I fungi mostly basidiomycete Rhizoctonia I 20000 species of orchids have been identified I ericoid mycorrhizae I hosts members of the Ericaceae family of plants such as blueberries cranberries azaleas I fungus a few ascomycete species I thin roots hair roots Ectomycorrhizae 0 characterized by a sheath of hyphae that surrounds the root tip and an intercellular network of hyphae Hartig Net 0 plant partners include many trees in the cooler parts of the world pines spruces firs oaks birches in N Hemisphere and eucalypts in Australia Mycelial Cords conglomerization of hyphae that scavenge for nutrients in soil leaf litter Mycorrhizal Associations of the Ericales 0 among vascular plant families Erocaceae is unique for the number ofdistinct mycorrhizal types that have evolved within it Ericoid Arbutoid and Monotropoid I Ericoid Mycorrhizae I endomycorrhizal association I plantsfamilyErocaceae I fungi a few ascomycete species Hymenoscyphus ericae I interaction results in delicate thin hair roots I Arbutoid Mycorrhizae I structurally similar to Ectomycorrhizae o fungal sheathmantle Hartig net stubby root appearance I penetrate the walls of root epidermal cells to form branching hyphal complexes inside the cell I host Arbustus and Arctostaphyos I fungi both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that form ectomycorrhizae on other species conifers I Arbutoid mycorrhizae may play critical roles in the process of reforestation following forest fires I Monotropoid Mycorrhizae I quot quotquot plants I use mycorrhizal associations to obtain minerals and nutrients from the soil AND carbon supplies from nearby trees I have a simply body plan producing quotscapesquot a long leafless flowering stalk coming directly from a simple root structure Lichens 1116 Important facts about lichens 0 do not constitute a natural taxonomic group 0 symbiotic association involving three kingdoms o mutualism vs controlled parasitism What are lichens o symbiotic organisms mycobiont photobiont The Mycobiont o fungi are heterotrophic they cannot synthesize their own food 0 most of the lichen forming fungi are Ascomycetes o a few are Basidiomycetes 0 most lichenforming fungi are ecologically obligated depending on the photobiont for food 0 the names of the lichens are those of the mycobiont The Photobiont o photosynthesize and supply some of the fixed carbon to the mycobiont 0 most photobionts are facultative o cyanobacteria also fix atmospheric nitrogen in special cells called heterocysts The Morphology 0 determined primarily by the mycobiont 0 two thallus organizations stratified and nonstratified thallus o lichens classified into three main groups according to their grown habit I tightly attached to the substrate I foliose I partially attached to the substrate I fruticose I partially attached to the substrate but with erect or pendulous bushy structure 0 rhizines compacted strands of hyphae originated from the lower cortex that anchored the thallus to the substrate 0 cilj various hairlike extensions from the margins of thallus loves o cyphelae and pseudocyphellae pores found on either cortical layer thought to facilitate gas diffusion Reproduction o mycobionts can reproduce both sexually and asexually o photobionts almost always reproduce asexually 0 problem fungal spores need to meet the proper photobiont after germinating to reestablish the symbiosis Sexual reproduction 0 most mycobionts form apothecia or perithecia Symbiotic propagules o lichenized structures composed of both mycobiont and photobiont allow the asexual reproduction of the whole lichen no need for quotrelichenization soredia few photobiont cells enveloped by a loose mantle of hyphae OOO o M fingerlike outgrowth of the upper cortex and photobiont layer similar to soredia isidia can act as asexual reproductive structures The Lichen Relationship 0 allows both partners to colonize habitats where separately they would be rare or nonexistent o mycobiont might provide an environment where the photobiont is protected from excessive light exposure 0 mycobiont might also protect the photobiont from predators Occurrence 0 can occur on many different substrates I on bark corticolous lichens I on wood lignicious I inside rocks endolitic I on soil terricolous I insects Ecosystem roles 0 main primary producers in arctic and subarctic ecosystems where they are main winter food for caribou reindeer and moose 0 soil formation pedogenesis o nitrogen fixation cya nobacterial photobionts Reindeer lichens o erroneously known as reindeer moss 0 poor in protein but abundant in carbohydrates Pedogenesis 0 first organisms to colonize bare rock or lava 0 slow weathering of rocks by I mechanical penetration of hyphae I secretion ofacids that solubilize the minerals o weathering leads to soil formation primary succession the series of community changes which occur on an entirely new habitat which has never been colonized before Nitrogen fixation o Lobaria oregano Lichens and humans 0 medicine 0 dyes for staining fabrics and wool o perfume industry 0 air pollution indicators 0 dating rocks lichenometry Lichen acids 0 produced by the mycobiont o deposited externally on the hyphae of the cortex andor medulla Applications to pharmacology 0 many compounds isolated from lichens have antibiotic properties 0 several compounds are known to have antitumor properties 0 Cetraria islandica is widely used in Sweden and is claimed to be effective against diabetes lung diseases and catarrh Usnic acid 0 broad spectrum antibiotic o commercialized as a salve called quotUsnoquot in Japan 0 more effective than penicillin salves in treating external wounds 0 extracted from several species of Usnea old man s beard lichen o Seminole Indians of Florida and the Chinese commonly use it as an expectorant Perfume industry 0 one of the most prominent uses of lichens today 0 harvested in south France Morocco and former Yugoslavia o a concentrate rich in lichen substances is extracted from the lichen and the tree bark o the sweet quotmossyquot smell is used in perfumes to ensure persistence on the skin Lichens in dyeing 0 use can be dated back to the Greeks o widely used in medieval times to dye wool and silk I Rocela and Ochroechia o baskets of Klamoth and Yurok Indians were dyed with yellow dye extracted from Letharia vupine 0 common acidbase indicator litmus is a dye extracted from Roccela Air pollution 0 not equally sensitive to all air pollutants o extremely sensitive to air pollutants including 502 acid rain nitrous oxides ozone 0 high sensitivity related to their biology I lack of stomata I lack of impermeable cuticle I no deciduous parts Lichenometry o lichen radial growth rates might be used to date rocks 0 must exhibit predictable growth behavior 0 Rhizocarpon is the common genus used Medical Mycology 122 Four types of mycotic disease 0 Hypersensitivity an allergic reaction to molds and spores I fungi in the home I bedding borne fungi I sick house syndrome Stachybotrys chartarum o Mycotoxicoses o Mycetismus 0 Infection Mycoses I clinical classification of the mycoses I superficial mycoses o fungal diseases that are confined to the outer layers of the skin nail or hair 0 fungi involved called dermatophytes I subcutaneous mycoses o confined to the subcutaneous tissue and only rarely spread systemically 0 usually form deep ulcerated skin lesions or fungating masses most commonly involving the lower extremities o causative organisms are soil saprophytes I systemic mycoses 0 may involve deep viscera and become widely disseminated 0 each fungus type has its own predilection for various organs I opportunistic mycoses 0 caused by ubiquitous saprophytes and occasional pathogens that invade the tissues of those patients who have I predisposing disease diabetes cancer leukemia etc I predisposing conditions agammaglobulinemia steroid or antibiotic therapy 0 Candidiasis spaghetti and meatballs I fungi involved in mycoses I yeast 0 Candida and Cryptococcus yeast infections I filamentous fungi o primarily opportunistic pathogens I mucormycosis o Rhizopus Mucor Absidia I Aspergillosis o Aspergilusfumigates A niger A flavus I dimorphic fungi fungi that spend part of their lives as filamentous forms and part of it as yeast forms 0 function as filaments in soil and yeasts in infected tissue 0 4 types I Blastomycosis I Histoplasmosis I Coccidioidomycosis I valley fever


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