INTRO COUNS & HDS
INTRO COUNS & HDS ECHD 3020
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zaria Flatley V on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECHD 3020 at University of Georgia taught by Moore in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/202419/echd-3020-university-of-georgia in Human Development at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Listening Skills With skilled listening we have the opportunity to help people understand their feelings and give them the caring support to solve their own problems and make their own decisions We start from the perspective that people own their problems and they own their solutions They must make their own decisions if they are to learn anything that will generalize to other areas of their lives This non directive philosophy however does not limit your ability to be of substantial help to people in need We talk about listening but active listening demands more skills than a willing ear Active listening combined with a problemsolving model helps us to develop our own interaction skills that make us effective in crisis resolution or simple requests for information Our framework of helping includes important cornerstones we all must integrate into our communication style We must suspend judgment convey respect and acceptance and allow the people we help to express themselves freely We must establish empathy 7 the tie that creates successful rapport These elements allow the client to open up to talk to us It helps us to establish a bond It ultimately allows us to help the client make meaningful change This guide will help you to learn the basic techniques of interaction including the components of active listening and problemsolving But before doing so we want to review the barriers to effective communication We all have bad habits when we interact with others Let s look at these misdemeanors of communication As you read evaluate your own current areas for improvement Can We Talk The Dirty Dozen Barriers to Communication There are three basic categories of road blocks that all of us use in some way when we communicate with others Whether it s our employer best friend or family member our habits of communication can be marred y the Dirty Dozen To make you aware of these common patterns of interaction they are presented in three categories Each of the categories represents an attitude we convey when we use these communication blockers They are 1 Judging 2 Sending Solutions 3 Avoiding Other s Concerns All of these categories send the message I don t want to hear what you re saying Read on for the sad details Category One Judg39ng l Criticizing Obviously a barrier even though for some people it is a way of life Responding to a client s statement with Gee that s stupid has obvious consequences Keep criticisms to yourself And be aware of the criticism your tone of voice may carry even though your words may not be critical in nature 2 Name calling Names attach a stigma to people which generate negative overtones A person becomes a type ie crazy jerk whiner brat Although you ll encounter the behaviors remember the individual always deserves our respect There are no exceptions Diagnosing A person can play emotional detective probing for hidden motives and trying to categorize individuals with appropriate labels Diagnosis is often important for the purpose of insurance reimbursement and it can even help you formulate your treatment plan but remember that your client is more than just a diagnosis Praise evaluatively What Praise can be bad LA 4 Yes it s true Praise can inhibit the ow of communication How When praise becomes manipulative especially when it is used to get people to change their behavior according to your guidelines Positive evaluation can produce negative results People often defend themselves against praise as if they were protecting themselves against a threat An example Client I m having serious trouble in a math class I m unking out I can t believe this is happening I ve always been a good student I don t understand what my problem is I don t know what to do Helper What class is it Client Calculus I can t believe how hard it is It s going to ruin my GPA My parents will kill me Ihave to do something Helper Oh don t worry You sound very intelligent to me You re a smart girl you know it and Iknow it You have what it takes to get through i Client Yeah okay What s wrong with this picture Why was praise unhelpful In this example the helper used praise but to what effect The helper seemed nice and did not appear to be manipulating the client But the helper created a barrier that ended the discussion The praise undermined or at least failed to acknowledge the client s feelings The helper shut down the client s concerns without a solution A better response would be Helper You re anxious about the problems with this math class Tell me more about the situation Maybe we can talk about it together and come up with some ideas that might help This time the helper didn t try to make the person feel good about themselves with empty assurances The helper didn t give out the message I don t want to discuss it In the first example the helper never said those words either but the message was conveyed Category Two Sending Solutions The following are ways that we try to tell people what to do We re all guilty giving out solutions to others problems is a common human trait But it is unfair to our clients We don t have to live out the consequences to our solutions But more importantly we send the implied message that we don t believe they re capable of resolving their own situations We also take away the client s ability to talk freely to us Let s look closer at how we send solutions and in doing so build a barrier to rapport UI ON 1 00 Ordering This is a solution that is sent coercively and usually backed by force It implies that the other s judgment is unsound The extreme consequence of this type of repeated interaction is a person who becomes submissive and overly compliant It sets the stage for learned helplessness Threatening This is a solution sent with an emphasis on punishment if the solution is not implemented It breaks down rapport and is essentially useless You have no way to back up any threats you make Moralizing You can identify this bad habit by the number of shoulds and oughts that punctuate the conversation We don t have the luxury of moralizing we would lose 34 of our clients We don t ask you to give up your values we ask you not to force them on a client Advising As stated before we all do it But in giving out advice we send powerful silent messages I don t have the confidence that you re able to solve this problem I question your abilities to handle this situation I know what is right I have all the answers I don t trust your judgment You know that no one has all the answers When working as a helper you may learn that you don t even know all the questions Don t fall into the trap of becoming a healer to all even when clients ask you to direct their lives It is an admirable goal but an impossible one And it will hurt your effectiveness in reaching out to others Category Three Avoiding the Other s Concerns This is how we distract talkers We are in the business of talking and the business of listening These habits interfere with both 9 Inappropriate Questioning A true conversation stopper We are addicted to questioning An example Client I m so mad at my mother She s driving me crazy and I could just kill her Helper Have you talked to her about it Client Well no Helper Why not Don t you think you should Is it fair to your mom to leave her out of it Client Wait You don t understand my Helper What don t I understand You Your mother What could your mother tell me about you Isn t she suffering to some extent Client I don t know Ijust Helper How long have these problems been going on What been the major difficulty in the last five years Okay an overstated example But think about what went wrong Did the helper get the full story Do you think the client would have felt understood What could have been done differently Clearly our tendency to throw out questions actually impedes the ow of information It turns people off ithey can t tell you they can only answer what YOU want to know To be effective questions must allow the client to talk not simply answer We ll talk about questioning techniques later 10 Diverting Have you ever been talking to someone about your personal problems and they switch the conversation to themselves Oh yeah I ve had problems with my mother Let me tell you what I went through for years Someone s talking but it isn t the client Sometimes people unconsciously use this tactic when they re not comfortable with the topic at hand or the confidences being shared Watch out for this common method of avoidance Logical Argument Here facts are the main focus and feelings are typically avoided People are kept at a safe emotional distance Example If you hadn t quit your job you d have money for those bills that are making you anxious You may be quite correct but that type of remark is not a rapport builder The elements of moralization often lurk in this territory adding to the negative method that ends conversations and possibly the helping relationship Reassurance Again a good idea that can in fact avoid the client s problem Reassurance can be viewed as a form of emotional withdrawal We block conversation with phrases such as N It ll work out Ijust know it You don t mean that Your husband loves you very much Talk to your boss Everything will work out fine Don t worry these feeling will go away We ve all said statements like those at some point to some person We can t use these statements as helpers We don t KNOW anything Platitudes are not enough Reassurance even though it can spring from kindness can be a deadly sin Now that we ve reviewed some bad habits write down the bad habits you think you use most often Be honest everyone uses these communication blockers It s important to know the habits you ll have to work on logical argument I It is natural after having been introduced to the dirty dozen to feel guilt We all have these barriers in our repertoire of communication skills Occasional usage rarely does harm More frequent usage has a higher potential for creating distances in relationships As we go on to learn more remember these barriers and work to eliminate the ones you use most Basic Communication Tools for Beginning Helpers Active Listenin There are several components to active listening and we will take a look at each Listening is a difficult skill to master you will need to practice Listening is a skill that takes maturity hard work and experience to master Don t underestimate the value of these basic tools And don t think it will be easy Taking concepts and translating them into your own interactions style is a tough job But the personal benefits will be rewarding WM 1 Definition of the problem a Re ection i Labeling feelings and content b Openended questions c Summative re ection Setting the goal Generating alternatives a Personal resources b Community resources c Supportive resources 4 Evaluating alternatives 5 Selecting a solution LAN VV This structure is a uid process you cannot expect to use them in the same order every time This structure can help keep a conversation on track This of it as amap of sorts The journey itself is defined by you and the client The Role of Empathy ApathyEmpathySympathy I don t care that I understand that you re You poor sad thing you re sad feeling sa Emotional reactions can be viewed on the above continuum with varying degrees of response We obviously don t advocate apathy and its presence should be a signal that burnout may be creeping into interactions We also don t advocate sympathy Although sympathy can seem to spring from well intentioned responses it can be a damaging signal sent out to an individual Sympathy may reinforce the helplessness that smothers the individual s ability to change a situation Empathy creates the feeling that you are accurately identifying the individual s feelings and needs Communicating empathy helps to establish rapport the building block of successful interactions 5 C 39 39 quot for me thir I istenina 1 Remember that your major goal is to view the other s world as the client sees it and to communicate that understating to the client 2 Try to put thoughts about yourself out of your mind 3 Keep the discussion focused on the other Offer something about yourself if you think it would be helpful but keep it brief and return to the client Work at remembering what the other is saying Construct in your mind a visual image of the world that the other person is describing Concentrate Imagine that you are inside with the client What does the world look like from there How does it feel How can you respond to let the client know you understand Ask yourself as you listen What does it mean to be this client instead of automatically thinking of what it all means to m Concentrate on and respond to the client s meaning Listen for affective cues words which express or describe feelings Respond to those restate paraphrase encourage the client to explore his or her feelings 8 An occasional perception check might be helpful letting the client know you understand so far If the client talks about a problem concentrate on understanding its meaning to the client Don t immediately try to solve it That s not your responsibility Avoid giving advice or telling the client what they should do 10 Don t evaluate orjudge it isn t necessary or helpful 11 You can be helpful by offering responses that keep the process of selfexploration moving for the client With your accurate understanding he or she will discover new insight The client s world will become clearer and he or she will be better able to take charge of it 12 Retain some detachment from the client s world the as if quality keeping a clear distinction between your world and the client s Overidentification is not empathy If you overidentify the client s anger will make you angry the client s depression will make you depressed 4 V39 0 gt1 gt0 The Art of Re ection Let s take a look at re ection a specific communication tool that can assist you in establishing empathy Successful incorporation into your personal style can be highly effective in your interactions with clients There are two components to re ection They can be summed up as follows Re ection of feeling Re ection of content Re ection of meaning In essence you give back to the individual the feelings he or she is expressing and the content or facts about the situation reformatted in such a way that you are saying the same things in different words Why use re ection There are many reasons why this tool works It is used as an ongoing clarification guide for your assessment needs You are constantly verifying what you think you hear Re ection is also a powerful way to initiate a positive communication line By feeding back to the individual the essence of what he or she is saying you establish that you re listening that you hear what is being said And you do hear re ection helps you focus on the feelings of the client Re ection can exert a calming in uence as well especially in emotionally charged situations Angry people stop shouting They know that you hear them and they don t need to shout By re ecting you also refrain from snap judgments a urry of questions criticisms etc You are allowing the person to tell you all about it and they structure the conversation You also learn more about the situation than if you asked simple yesno questions Finally and most importantly re ection allows clients to talk Individuals open up they feel free to tell you the problem and their reactions Re ection communicates empathy which is crucial to the work that you do We have often heard beginning helpers complain that this method is phony or fake Some believe at first that we are trying to trick the client by using stupid techniques that will make the helper feel silly But we can assure you that once these skills are practiced enough they become a part of you because you incorporate them into your own unique style Your own style is never fake We can also tell you that we don t trick clients These skills only let the client know that we really do want to hear what s going on But we know that some of you will not truly see the value until you start working with clients Let s look at the underlying skill required in re ection The rst step is Labelin Feelin 5 To give back our impression accurately we learn to label emotions You must learn to name these feelings in your mind so that you can begin to feed back re ect the feelings and content of the client s message You lea1n to listen for cues The specific cues are probably ones you already utilize but have never labeled They are 1 Finding synonyms 2 Using situational cues 3 Using universal cues 4 Using nonverbals M A good working vocabulary of feeling words that you are comfortable with is an indispensable aid to smooth interactions Use a thesaurus if you need to look up synonyms You ll be amazed at how many words there are that describe the same or similar emotions Why do we need a vocabulary for feelings Here s an example Client shouting I m so damn mad Helper You re really mad Client I just said that Palroting The dreaded antithesis of successful re ection You can t say the same thing the client said At best you ll be met with frustration Re ection means to paraphrase restate 7 label the emotions with synonyms A better response to the client might be Helper I hear your anger tell me what s going on To get you thinking about emotions write down synonyms for these feelings Depressed sad hopeless down Confused bewildered ba led puzzled Worried concerned upset troubled Content happy satisfied comfortable Hopeful J Pxnectant nntimi tic 2 Situational Cues Many times our clients are unable to articulate or express their emotions in words It is then that we must look at their situation and our reactions to it You have to reach back into your own experiences in similar never the same situations Drawing upon your emotional responses you may offer insight into the client s internal state In offering these labels a tentative style is appropriate because we are not sure we re correctly identifying the response Here are some communication leads to help you format your responses These phrases are useful when you trust your perceptions are accurate and the person is receptive to your communications You feel From your point of view It seems to you In your experiences From where you stand As you see it You think What I hear you saying You seem identify the feeling for example angry sad etc I m picking up that you I really hear you saying that Where you re coming from You figure You mean Phrases that are useful when you are having some difficulty perceiving clearly or it seems that the person might not be receptive to your communications Could it be that 8 I wonder if I m not sure if I m with you but Correct me ifI m wrong but Is it possible that Does it sound reasonable that you From where I stand you This is what Ithink Ihear you saying You appear to be feeling It appears you Perhaps you re feeling I somehow sense that you may feel Do you feel a little Maybe this is a long shot but I m not sure if I m with you do you mean In labeling feelings the first step of re ection we ve reviewed two methods of identifying emotions synonyms and situational cues A third method is 3 Universal Response There are many situations that can evoke a universal response that is situations that evoke similar reactions The statement My son died calls out to all of us that the speaker would be feeling sad grief stricken or moumful even if we have not lost a son However a word of warning Although we may assign these labels that s no guarantee that the person actually feels that way For example if the son died after a long painful illness the person might feel relieved that the son is no longer suffering Your skills at re ection can be enhanced by drawing upon your own responses to universal situations Loss is loss whether you son has died or if you ve endured a divorce Paying attention to your reactions can help you accurately re ect your feelings to others Name some of the feelings a person might have in the following situations 1 The client stole makeup from a department store and got caught Feelings iregreti iworriedi iconfusedi 2 A daughter is considering telling her parents about a lesbian relationship Feelings iworriedi ihopefuli iexpectanti 3 A tenyearold s puppy has been hit and killed by a car Feelings idepressedi isadi idistraughti 4 An elderly woman had found out she has stomach cancer Feelings idepressedi imoumfuli igriefi Synonyms situational and universal cues help you label feelings Our fourth cue depends upon tonal in ections and our listening skills 4 Nonverbals Nonverbals consist of messages that are sent but not directly stated Nonverbals can actually be a better indicator of emotion than verbal language In fact during a conversation more information is communicated through nonverbals than through verbal communication Nonverbals fall into two categories in ectional cues and body language In ectional cues include the tone of the client s voice the rate of speech loudness pauses in speaking sighing and emphasis In ectional cues will help you qualify the client s feelings discover the intensity of feeling and nd the most accurate names for the feelings Say to yourself the following phrase in ways that would convey that you were 1 relieved 2 happy 3 depressed 4 angry 5 disappointed I got a C on that test Practice saying the phrase until you are satisfied that you can accurately convey each of the feelings Finding a speaker s meaning by attending to in ectional cues comes so naturally that you don t realize that you re doing it Here are some generalizations about in ectional cues but you will have to learn the subtleties by experience 1 People who are excited angry anxious or afraid may talk FASTER than usual 2 Someone who is disappointed dejected depressed lonely or hurt may talk SLOWER than usual 3 People feeling angry happy proud or frustrated may talk LOUDER than usual 4 People who feel depressed hurt or lonely may talk SOFTER than usual 5 Someone who is unsure of what they want to say is shy or is embarrassed may PAUSE and HESITATE a lot Body language includes behaviors posture and gestures It can also include facial expressions Sometimes body language is an intentional means of communicating something without saying it but other times we don t realize we are doing it One of the most powerful kinds of body language is crossing your arms It can indicate that a client is putting up an unconscious barrier between the two of you especially if the person is also leaning away from you Consistent eye contact is a good indicator of engagement while limited eye contact can mean lack of engagement or nervousness Be careful though Body language can differ greatly by culture If the client comes from a different culture you need to be explicit and find out what the body language means without making assumptions We ve spent the last few pages talking about labeling feelings which is an important component of re ection We ll now take a look at the skill of re ection in more detail Re ection of Feelings and Content Re ecting feelings is feeding back to the client precise clear descriptions of the emotions they are expressing either overtly or implicitly You are feeling frustrated Re ecting content is feeding back the source situation event or person of the client s feelings You ve lost yourjob 10 Re ection of feelings and content are usually done together to create fuller meaning You feel about or because What are the client s feelings in the following situation Remember to use synonyms not the same words Client My wife left a week ago I ache all over It s so lonely without her What am I going to do Try to list four or five feelings that the client is experiencing isadi confused idepressed worried lost Now fill in this model with your responses to this client Helper You re feeling sad and worried because you are feeling alone without your wife you are missing her company and security she provided you with Your task as a listener is to try to understand what the clients are feeling or what their messages mean Then you put your understanding into your own words and feed it back re ect it for the client s yerification You do not send a message of your own such as eyaluation opinion advice or a question remember the Dirty Dozen Feed back only what you think the client s message meant If you are re ecting the essence of the messages their stories will unfold before you You will hear exactly how they feel and what is causing them to feel that way As you re ect the meanings they give you they will begin to have a better understanding of themselves and their problems They will be glad they ve found someone who really listens and who understands what they re going through Here is an example Client My parents and I don t see eye to eye on anything Every time I go home we argue I m sick of it Helper You re really frustrated by all the fights you ve been haying with your parents Client Yes I am so tired of it Let me tell you what it s like to Once the client realizes that you re attending carefully to what they say the client can talk freely and openly about what s troubling them Since you re not offering opinions or advice not putting them down or judging them they need not be afraid to be honest with you and themselves Here is an example or re ection of feelings and content Client 0000 my sister makes me so mad She s always getting into my stuff and messing everything up Helper You re really angry with your sister because she won t leave things alone 11 Client Yeah yesterday she scratched up my favorite CD and now I m pissed at her Helper You re furious with her today because she ruined something that s important to you Client I ve tried to tell her how important my stuff is to me but she never listens She really bugs me Helper You re really frustrated because she doesn t pay any attention to your feelings about how you value your possessions Now that you ve seen an example see if you can re ect this next client s statements Remember not to parrot the client s words but to re ect the meaning of her messages Try this one yourself Client I m having trouble in my courses this semester I m unking one of them and I m doing poorly in another one Helper Respond here You re feeling upset because despite your efforts you haven t been able to learn the material Client This has really got me down I just can t seem to learn the material Helper You re feeling sad because you don t know why you can t understand the material when others have been able to Client I m doing okay in my other subjects I just don t understand why biology and chemistry are so hard Helper You re confused because other subjects have been easier for vou unlike these but you aren t alone in your feelings Well what did you think Did re ection seem artificial to you Did it seem stilted or unnatural compared to your own style of communication If you ve answered yes you share the feelings of the majority of people who have had to learn to master this technique It does get easier In fact when you incorporate it into your style of communication it will come as easily as breathing Don t believe it Trust us Naturally re ection is not the only tool you ll use with clients But it is an important basic that will serve you well Did you find yourself in the above example wanting to ask questions to the client Asking questions is part of what we do but we have a format that is used in order to open the client up 7 to gain as much information as possible We use the openended question technique OpenEnded Questions Openended questions are questions that generally can t be answered with a yesno answer or a short reply The question is literally openended as in Can you tell me more about the situation 12 You re asking the client to talk not to provide answers Does that make sense We have an example of closeended questions that might make things easier Closeended vs open ended questions A closeended question asks for speci c information from the client and can be answered in a word or a phrase Here is an example in which the listener asks too many closeended questions Client My parent s are really mad Helper What did they do Client They grounded me for two weeks Helper Why are they doing it Client I didn t get home when they expected Helper When was that Client Three days ago Asking closeended questions as this helper did produces a pattern of questionanswer that gets at what the listener wants to know but it takes the responsibility for the disclosure away from the client It is dif cult to break out of this pattern and get the client to think about solving the problem You should avoid making closeended questions except in the initial intake interview or in emergencies when you need speci c information to assess the seriousness of the situation Asking openended questions encourages the client to say more without directing the conversation It keeps the door open and gives the client some responsibility allowing them to unravel the events and their feelings in their own way It will be much easier to engage the clients in solving their own problems later in the process if they carry the ball during the initial exploratory phase The same conversation using openended questions sounds something like this Client My parent s are really mad Helper Would you like to tell me more Client Well three days ago I got in 15 minutes late from a meeting at school My dad exploded because he expected me to be back sooner So now I m grounded for two weeks It s really not fair Helper You re angry with your parents because of their punishment The openended question at the beginning actually gave you more information than the more traditional closeended questioning 13 W You ve reviewed re ection and openended questioning techniques now we add another helpful communication skill Summative re ection is an attempt to review condense or clarify what the client has said It is similar to re ection of feelings and content except that it covers a longer period of time or a larger amount of client input An effective summary ties together a number of recent comments or highlights feelings andor issues by concisely recapping them A summary helps the client gain an integrated picture of what they have been saying The following situations may call for a summative re ection or response 1 The client s utterances are lengthy and confusing 2 When the client has apparently expressed everything they wanted on a particular topic 3 When mutual assessment and agreement are needed before moving on in the conversation especially helpful in setting a goal 4 At the end of the session when the listener wants to emphasize what has transpired and has been learned from it Look back at the conversation regarding the problem with the client s sister Here is a summative re ection that includes feelings and content You are furious with your sister because she ruins your most valuable things and won t listen when you try to tell her how much you treasure them Here is a summery of the client who was having trouble in biology and chemistry You re really depressed about failing biology It is hard for you to understand why it is so much more difficult than your other subjects Write down a summative response for the following situations I don t know what to do My roommate and Iused to get along fine but lately she s been spending so much time with her boyfriend that I hardly see her anymore We never do anything but argue with each other Respond here You re confused because your s priorities have changed and now the onlv thing that happens between vou is arguing quotMy parents fight a lot especially at night It wakes me up and scares my little brother It goes on for hours and we can t get back to sleep because it s so noisy and upsets us so much Respond here You re upset because you are confused about whv vour parents are fighting so much and why they are letting it scare you and your little brother 14 I What type of counseling groups HIV abuse rape AA I Value of group work give hope care acceptance negate feeling of being alone opportunity to gain feedback from others effective for problems that are social or personal in nature often more affordable sample of reality I Common fears judgment embarrassed privacy standing out hesitant to sharing emotions vulnerability failure accountability about goals I Types of groups 0 Differ I Goals techniques used role of the leader training requirements and people involved a recovered addict may be the leader 0 StructuredPsychoeducational I Educational focus I Prevention I Coping skills I Structured exercises I Curriculum used 0 Counseling I Focuses on interpersonal processes I Problemsolving strategies I Attends to thoughts feelings and behavior I Here and now focus I Amy needs structured Chloe needs counseling I Five stages ofa group 0 Pregroup 0 Initial 0 Transition 0 Working 0 Final Termination I Planning 0 Most important step to ensure a productive group 0 Includes I Screening for appropriate members I Anticipate dynamics I Identify objectives I Set rules time place group size usually 10 members I Open vs Closed 0 KNOW HOW TO PLAN A GROUP FOR THE EXAM I Effective Groups 0 Trust among members and with the leader normalize their decision support them and they will warm up 0 Goals and rules are clear and determined by both the members and the leader talk about group goals are when you start a group talk about group rules and themes at the beginning of every session 0 Communication among members is open and direct 0 There is a feeling of inclusion encourage participation 0 Participants feel free to initiate and contribute to discussion shared leadership and responsibility confront unhealthy allies 0 There is a willingness to disclose and share personal and meaningful material I Effective group process 0 On PowerPoint Role ofValues I Instead of making judgments take it away from your personal values and ask the client how that thing is meeting their needs in their life I Ifyour values are causing problems with their values and you are of a disservice refer the client to someone else I Values blind you can t be values blind because ifyou are you are discounting them as a person and the world they come from Know Thyself I Iohari window different views of self I Knowing thyselfmeans 0 Separate your own issues and concerns 0 quotWho am 1 Why do I operate the way I do 0 Learn how to use your own experience and knowledge to help others 0 Understand your values and beliefs I Countertransference the client triggered a response in the counselor about their own problems so the counselor talks about their own problems instead of dealing with the client s I Transference when the counselor triggers something in the client to talk about how they feel the counselor wears something that reminds the client about their mother so they start talking and dealing with those problems I Ask yourself 0 How has your past experiences made you who you are today 0 What do you value 0 What are your core beliefs about people About people wanting to change Your theory of change The change process 0 Where did your beliefs and values come from I SelfRe ection o How might your values impact you as a listener o Are there beliefs you hold that you would like to challenge 0 Do you have con icts that you haven t worked through that may in uence your listening skills Active listening Communication strengths listening unbiased approachable Communication weaknesses interrupting not actively listening Go in with the mindset that people are basically good in nature Have to re ect ifyou really feel that everyone is created equal OOOOO o Recognize the roots ofpeople s problems Have to learn to respect people who are making a living in ways that may seem dishonorable to you 0 Know what irritates you 1 Principle Do No Harm to the client 0 Concerns of Beginning Helpers Issues Faced by Beginning Helpers o How long will this take Can I really help them Need to appear confident need to be genuine Achieving a sense of balance and well being Managing difficult or unsatisfying relationships with clients Developing healthy helping relationships with clients 0 Selfconsciousness age experience knowledge confidence Transference o Is often unconscious 0 Projection of past attitudes and beliefs onto the helper o Often a repetition of past con icts or relationship patterns I Process with the client why they felt the way they do Forms of Transference o Client s who make you into something that you re not 0 Clients who see you as a superperson 0 Clients who make unrealistic demands on you 0 Clients who are not able to accept boundaries 0 Clients who easily fall in love with you Countertransference o The helper s reaction to the client 0 Unrealistic or exaggerated o Interferes with your objectivity 0 Can make the client defensive Understanding countertransference 0 quotLet me help you 0 quotI hope heshe cancels 0 quotYou remind me of someone I know 0 quotYou are too much like me 0 My own reactions are getting in the way Resistance 0 Client s reluctance to work on threatening material 0 Avoiding exploration of personal con ict or painful feelings o Coping strategy Common forms of resistance 0 Healthy resistance 0 Resistance motivated by a clienthelper mismatch 0 Resistance created by fear of discomfort 0 Resistance due to secondary gain expectations will be placed on them 000 0 Resistance motivated by fear of success The Helping Process I Before you help someone you have to do an assessment what their needs are their social history Assessment consists of evaluating the relevant factors in a client s life to identify themes for further exploration DSMIV diagnostic manual for psychological disorders Confirmatory bias seeing only the things that confirm your existing belief system Managed care driven by money because the insurance company is paying for the sessions very limiting shortterm temporary behavioral change instead ofpermanent behavior change doesn t focus on prevention how to cope so you don t develop anxiety disorder or the like Impact of the insurance industry Session limits brief interventions Emphasis on prevention Shift away from professional judgment because Helpers usually want to make sure they get paid 0 Escalating costs 0 Time consuming lots ofpaperwork that s why most clinicians won t take insurance I Biofeedbacklets you know if you re stressed and teaches you how to calm yourself down I Primary Questions 0 What are my main problems or concerns 0 What do I need or want Change 0 What do I have to do to get what I need or want Motivation 0 How can I get results I Stages of the Helping Process 0 Stage 1 Establish a working relationship I Educate clients and obtain informed consent I Create a relationship that allows clients to tell their story I Create a climate for change I Establish the therapeutic relationship I Begin to explore goals 0 Stage 2 Identifying clients problems I Gather insight into strengths weaknesses wants needs and struggles I Strive to understand the social and cultural context of the client s problem I Conduct an initial assessment I Identify expectations to their problems 0 quotHow long have you had this problem What triggers the problem 0 O O O 0 Used strengthbased approach to help them fix their problems use what they are good at 0 Ask what their culture is like 0 Stage 3 helping clients create goals I Help clients gain a focus narrow the task I Collaborate to set goals I Establish and refine goals together 0 Stage 4 Encouraging clients exploration and taking action I Confront clients with care and respect challenging clients is a way of demonstrating your involvement I Make use of appropriate selfdisclosure Identify alternatives and potential actions Carry out an action program 0 Homework is encouraged 0 Stage 5 Termination I Help clients bring closure to their work and consolidate their learning Assist clients in developing a plan for continuing the change process on their own 0 Give them empowerment about what they can do to prevent relapse ideas for continued homework I Things to Remember 0 You don t have to be a natural to be an effective helper o The helping process may seem overwhelming at first 0 Helping can be as much an art as it is a science it takes practice 0 Don t make assumptions Theory and Practice I Counseling is o Psychotherapy is first and foremost a human endeavor It is messy It is not solely a scientific endeavor not can it be reduced meaningfully to a technical mechanistic enterprise I Carol Goodheart former APA President I Importance of Theories 0 There are many diverse theories that are embraced by psychologists 0 Different theories may focus on feelings insight thoughts or behaviors 0 Theoretical orientations I Guide your work roadmap I Help you organize information you get about a client and evaluate outcomes I Provide a general framework that enables you to make sense of the many facets of the helping process I Basis for Theories 0 Most ifnot all theories can be traced to one or more philosophers o Psychological theory can be viewed as the clinical and empirical application ofa philosophy 0 Many of the quotfoundersquot wrote about how philosophical readings helped them to solve personal problems Theories 0 Common Themes Client s personal factors motivation theory of personalitypsychopathology Therapist s personal factors empathy orientation Interventions 0 1959 36 systems ofpsychotherapy to 2008 more than 400 0 In psychotherapy a theory is a consistence perspective on human behavior psychopathology and Major Movements o Behaviorism o Psychoanalysis o ExistentialHumanist o Multicultural Psychoanalytic 0 Goal is to make the unconscious conscious raising insight 0 Focus on developmental quotcon ictsquot and their impact on personality 0 Explore interpret and analyze childhood experiences Psychodynamic o Adlerian quotBirth order quotlifestylequot quotinferiority complex Emphasis is more on consciousness Belief that people are primarily social beings in uences and motivated by societal forces Stressed the individual s positive capacities to live fully in society Therapeutic Relationship Techniques 0 Push button fantasy 0 Bibliotherapy o Anamnesis earliest memory 0 Dream analysis 0 Catching oneself cookie jar Challenging assumptions ExistentialHumanistic o Existential We define ourselves by our choices we are ultimately the authors of our lives Emphasis on choice freedom and meaning We constantly redefine the significance of our existence Emphasis on anxiety ofliving aging and dying 0 Person Authenticity Inauthenticity leads to anxiety Therapeutic relationship 0 Collaborative relationship 0 Helping clients gain awareness about their strengths centered Emphasizes the client s abilities to gain self0awareness and resolve blocks to personal growth quotactualizing tendencyquot Client guides the therapeutic process Emphasis is on the clienttherapist relationship quotUnconditional positive regard Founded by Carl Rogers in the 1940s as a reaction against psychoanalytic therapy Therapeutic relationship Client feels safe Difficult to measure effectiveness Specific techniques are secondary o Gestalt o Behavi Individuals and their behavior must be understood in the context of their environment Focus on immediate experience not interpretation of past experiences Bringing unfinished business from the past into the present reexp eriencing Fritz Perls Focus on the here and now Techniques Setting up dialogue Empty chair Reliving painful memories Attention to the therapist s reaction to the client Attention to client s mannerisms CognitiveB ehavi oral or therapy Believe people are shaped by both learning and sociocultural environments Focus on current behavior not past causes or therapeutic relationship Replace maladaptive behaviors with adaptive behaviors Techniques extinction reinforcement modeling and teaching 0 Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy emphasis on rational thought Illogical beliefs in uence our feelings which then in uence behavior I How we interpret an event is more important than the event itself I Focus on current repeating irrational and illogical beliefs not on past I Similar to Beck s Cognitive Therapy 0 Aaron Beck 0 Cognitions are the major determinant to how we think or act 0 Basis for therapy I Change emotions by challenging cognitions I Reinforcement I Punishment 0 Systematic Desensitization I Mainly for anxieties I Progressive Relationship I Dysfunctional Thought Record I Classical Conditioning 0 Pavlov I Family Systems 0 Shift from the individual to a focus on family dynamics I Perspective sheds light on the individual s and the family s development over time 0 Family systems perspective views the family as a functioning unit and as an entity unto itself that adds up to more than the sum of its members I Multiculturalism 0 Recognition that counseling takes place between individuals from different cultural backgrounds 0 Reaction to eurocentric theories 0 Multicultural movement began in the 1960s 0 Originally focused on working with quotminoritiesquot Diversity I Multicultural competence evolves around awareness knowledge and skills Stereotypes Prejudice amp Discrimination I When you act on a stereotype it is then prejudice I Acting on prejudice with one s power to create unequal treatment 0 Prejudice power discrimination I Know the difference between the 3 different types of microaggressions Microassault describing someone as oriental because foods and objects are oriental microinsult implying that a black person must have gotten a job because ofa connection instead of skill and ability microinvalidation being mistreated but someone else tells them to not worry about it because it s nothing minimizing an experience
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