New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Spencer Smitham


Spencer Smitham
GPA 3.97


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Smitham on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3980 at University of Georgia taught by Amlung in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/202430/psyc-3980-university-of-georgia in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/15
9 Summanzm data sets 9 Central tendency Extreme Scares Positive Skew Extreme Scares Negative Skew 0 Standard deviation A measure representing the average difference between the scores and the mean of a distribution 0 Variance Standard deviation of a distribution squared gt Inferential Statistics 9 Hypotheses 0 Null Hypothesis Goal is to reject the null hypothesis Hypotheses that an effect or relationship does not exist in the population opposite direction of alternative hypothesis Alpha level cutoff probability level that will allow you to reject the null hypothesis p value probability value that indicates likelihood of obtaining the data in a study when the null hypothesis is true If pga reject null hypothesis test is significant If pgta retain null hypothesis test is not significant Type and Type II Error Type I error reject the null hypothesis and shouldn39t have Type II error accept the null hypothesis and shouldn39t have 0 Alternative Hypothesis Hypothesis that an effect or relationship exists in the population 0 Onetailed vs twotailed Onetailed only one direction of an effect or relationship is predicted in the alternative hypothesis of the test ex In the population older individuals39 memory scores are lower than younger individuals39 scores Twotailed both directions of an effect or relationship are considered in the alternative hypothesis of the test ex In the population older individuals39 memory scores are not the same as younger individuals39 scores Chapter 9 Survey Research gt Dillman39s recommendations for conducting survey research 9 How the survey is presented can influence whether a participant chooses to complete the survey 9 Contacting participants multiple times will increase completion rates 9 Including an incentive will encourage completion gt Constructing survey questions 9 Openended 0 Participants respond to survey questions in any manner they feel is appropriate for the question ex how do you feel today participants may respond with a single word or may write something longer 9 Closedended 0 Participants respond to survey questions according to the response options provided by the researcher ex question above with the following choices happy sad excited anxious frustrated gt Validity 9 Construct validity 0 Indicates that a survey measures the behavior it is designed to measure 9 Criterionrelated validity 0 Determining the validity of the scores of a survey by examining the relationship between the survey scores and other established measures of the behavior of interest ex SAT and ACT used because criterionrelated validity of the scores on these tests has been tested with academic achievement in college gt Testretest reliability 9 Indicates that the scores on a survey will be similar when participants complete the survey more than once gt Reverse scored items 9 Some items on Adult Consumer Form A and Adult Consumer Form B are worded such that a given response eg never represents a desirable or positive response for one question but a less desirable response for another gt Multidimensionality 9 Aspects that vary continuously are called dimensions and aspects that vary in allornone fashion are called features For example sounds vary continuously in loudness so loudness is a dimension of sound Animals either have or do not have wings so wings is a feature of animals gt Social desirability bias 9 Bias created in survey responses from respondents39 desire to be viewed more favorably by others typically resulting in overreporting of positive behaviors and underreporting of negative behaviors Chapter 10 Correlational Studies Nuts and Bolts gt Experimentation 9 Casual 9 Experimental control 9 Manipulate amp Observe 9 Grou differences v39 iiiiii quotii M quot quot 39 will will i l ex an example of a correlational study designed to describe the relationship between weather mood and cognitive abilities Positive relationship a relationship between variables characterized by coupled increases in the two variables ex a positive relationship was shown for people who spent more time outside that day meaning that as temperature increased so did mood for those participants Negative Relationship a relationship between variables characterized by an increase in one variable that occurs with a decrease in the other variable ex a negative relationship was shown for people who spent less time outside that day meaning that as temperature increased mood decreased for these participants 7quotquot139 1 t ex researchers interested in predicting expressed emotion in families from specific family characteristics to allow predictions of family dynamics from family characteristics Expressed emotion is a measure that indicates how family members feel about one another Predictor variable the dependent variable in a correlational study that is used to predict the score of another variable Outcome variable the dependent variable in a correlational stud that is bein redicted b the redictor variable 7 it Hi 39 Jl39l L g 9 Correlation coefficient Pearson39s r 0 10 to 10 0 no correlation 0 or is perfect correlation H in Chapter 11 Experimental Research Nuts and Bolts gt Quasiexperiment a type of research design where a comparison is made as in an experiment but no random assignment of subjects to groups occurs 9 ex wanted to compare the behavior for older or younger adults You can39t randomly assign individuals to be of a specific age so age cannot be a manipulated variable If younger and older adults differ on the measured behavior age may have caused the difference or something that varies with age like technology 9 Internal validity the degree to which a study provides casual information about behavior 9 External validity the degree to which the results of a study apply to individuals and realistic behaviors outside the stud BETWEEN SUBJECTS DESIGN A quot 1 x L WITHIN SUBJECT DESIGN REFEATED M ASURES 1 n m W39qu yi W I nSIWg v w V a o 23 1234 12345 12 2143 23514 1212313412 35421 312 4321 41253 54132 9 Textbook experiment examples Cognitive example cognitive psychology includes the study of basic processing of information from the world around us Cognitive psychologists study memoly perception language processes and decision makin Biological example biological psychology or neuropsychology ifit involves brain function investigates the role of biological factors in behavior Experiments are often employed in this area to determine casual relationships between biology and behavior Social example the implicit association test IAT is an example of systematic observation where word associations are manipulated and the participants39 speed at reacting to the words is measured 0 Developmental example Many studies in developmental psychology are quasiexperiments because of the inclusion of age as a subject variable Some developmental psychologists are also interested in exploring how casual relationships change across age groups thus some researchers conduct experiments that contain a true ind endent variable and a e as a subject variable ML 7 W1 7 lllllug illlil w w w OHM iliiiiii Mir 39lni jl mit gt Examle for our experiment on studying 9 IVA Practice type cramming vs spaced 9 IVB Exam type multiple choice vs essay IVA Practice Type Spaced A1 Massed A2 IVB Test 39 Type Multiple Choice 3931 A B c D Essay B2 Essay 0 Main effect 0 of Practice Type A Spaced A1 mean vs Massed A2 mean columns mean 0 of Test Type B Multiple choice B1 mean vs Essay B2 mean rows mean 0 Interaction effect 0 How do variables interact to affect DV 0 Effect of one IV A is not the same at all levels of the other IV B 5 ex spaced practice A1 is better for multiple choice B1 but mass practice A2 is better for essay B2 Interaction AXB A1 A2 MNMW BszK 0 compare effect of A across levels of 9 ex Helpseeking behaviors quasiexperiment to investigate at what age gender differences appear in helpseeking behaviors Quasiindependent variables QIVA Gender male female QIVB Age 3y 6y QIVC Socioeconomic status high low Results Girls asked for help faster than boys Younger kids asked for help faster than older Low SES asked for help faster than high SES None of these factors could be manipulated as independent variables a researcher could not randomly assign participants to different age groups therefore couldn39t conclude that any of these factors caused the group differences found 9 9 9 Control Experimental Control Experimental Control Experimental Set 1 Control Experimental Set 2 Control Experimental Percent I 95 confidence interval 20 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Interrupted time series design no control A time series design where the treatment is an independent event such as a historical event ex events such as war passage of a new law or other historical events are considered treatments in many cases researchers are unable to predict the occurrence of the event Treatmentindependent event that researchers cannot control Noninterrupted time series design controlled a time series design where the treatment is implemented by the researcher ex interest in the effect of a new therapy on depression the participants39 depression symptoms would be measured over a period of time before they began the new therapy Treatmentimplemented by researcher Limitations Extraneous variables ex history effects Lack of control over treatment event Archival data may not be available Statistical analysis is more complicated 9 Chapter 13 Developmental Designs gt Developmental research designs 9 Change over time 9 Age is treated as a quasiindependent variable 0 Withinsubjects 0 Betweensubjects 9 Longitudinal design 0 A developmental design where a single sample of participants is followed over time and tested at different ages Same sample of participants are tested at different ages Agewithinsubjects variable ex little boy time 1 1yr old time 2 4 yrs old time 3 7 yrs old 9 Crosssectional design 0 Adevelopmental design where multiple samples of participants of different ages are tested once 0 Different samples of participants are tested at different ages 9 rallwzlcrrl up of 2 years later 2 years later 2 years later Other example 1 55 60 65 70 2 60 65 70 75 3 65 70 75 80 4 70 75 80 85 5 75 80 85 90 l39lfll l 1 wflllil llla l5 9 Time 51Lgv393 Concept Maps gt Surveys gggcwipliulpnliclm to shock Junmama skews 09cm 30nd 5h PlVan39aWy Mm39jions 5mesLhrlu J0PM m ion SDNL 39 4 TadMM Mm 3am p ltislon NASHMina e u nq rihon Social Jumbl y 5M Holhdimensional Wits Correla n39on gt C0 r re lationa l Research Emmiquot 55mm mum quot1 quotws l uw rum quotWP WM mum w nsu if mt he II M htlequ t Myquot i 2 39 39 P blan emWAM gt Experiments de 9 39 m up 6amp5 35 M9M n 5Pka wardmi b m Test Ionic ckds Fm 900k di u mw gt Factorial k o k 4 W CAN 9 N mu oVNa kmhk Wm quots u MWquot Y ob to oA 4n mmm has Wm rm 4 wtk 3 JM WV Mk 2 4f cit8i ms m MM 1 W AW 993M406 NINA New mm mm wwawmu arm n n u gt Statistics Sinksth GM 7 SHE 01 7 7 57t lquot 4 h W3 V 93Mch yr msej g InCermhaxt 9M3 g r arm OatIr Aw W TgK bmb h Iaquot NM mamas M 5 p R a D L 1an S nnflum KW Merl nTWSO I m 39 anunte Wig35 FIPS fl SW 9min d Mod alt1n Comm A bum VFW 7 Jr Ewan Rum 7 ERRORS JAI llyfo nws PSYC3980 Amlung Spring 2011 PSYC 3980 Research Design in Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide The following study guide is intended to provide you with a road map as you prepare for the Exam 2 The concepts and material listed below is drawn from lecture and the textbook chapters 7 913 You should also pay close attention to the sections of the lecture notes that direct you to speci c parts of the text There is a considerable amount of material for this exam so as a general guide I would focus on the big picture ideas and concepts that we covered The gritty details are less important that understanding the fundamental guiding principles for the different types of designs If you have questions about any part of this study guide please talk with me after class or via email I ll be happy to clarify any confusing material or to point you to the relevant sections of the textbook The material from the APA style lectures will M be included on Exam 2 The material from chapter 8 will also M be on the exam Note about exam format Exam 1 is worth 100 points The exam will consist of a variety of question formats including multiple choice frllintheblank matching and short answer The short answer questions will involve approximately 34 sentences to answer There will not be any essay long response format questions on this exam Chapter 7 Statistics Remember this is not a course in statistics so the material I expect you to know from this chapter will be very conceptual and big picture I will not ask you about the gritty details about statistics Instead you should have a good idea of the topics that were stressed in lecture and during in class activities Descriptive statistics mean median mode Effect of extreme scores outliers Variability Distributions normal distribution positive negative skew Inferential statistics testing hypotheses Alpha levels p values Type I Type II Errors which one is more costly for research Chapter 9 Survey Research You should be familiar with the concepts and key terminology presented in the survey research inclass activity Some of these terms are presented below Also be sure to check the announcements tab on eLC for a list of guiding questions for the textbook chapter Dillman s recommendations for conducting survey research see text Constructing survey questions openended closedended Validity construct criterionrelated Testretest reliability Reverse scored items Multidimensionality Social desirability bias PSYC3980 Amlung Spring 2011 Chapter 10 Correlational Research The most important thing to understand with correlational research is how it differs from experimental research ie What makes correlation unique What can can t you do with correlation Why is it still a useful approach Differences between correlational and experimental research Descriptive vs predictive questions predictors outcomes Correlation and causation Directionality problem Third variable problem You should understand these issues to the point that you could identify potential directionality or third variable problems in an example Chapter 11 Experimental Research This is perhaps the most important chapter for this half of the course since the majority of research in psychology uses experimental methods The details are perhaps a bit more important here relative to other chapters Basic principles causality independent variables levels of an IV dependent variables Control group issues placebo effects Types of designs betweensubjects withinsubjects How participants are assigned to IV levels in each case ie which conditions are they exposed to Experimental control what do we need to control Confounds extraneous variables Participant characteristics which design is most affected Random assignment Matched designs Testing effects order effects which design is most affected Full counterbalancing vs latin square Factorial designs Definition Design matrix Main effects and interactions Chapter 12 Quasi Experiments Focus on what makes a quasiexperiment unique the different types of designs and the potential limitations disadvantages of these designs In terms of the pretestposttest variations focus on the general concept behind each variation and what makes each variation unique ie why would you use a twopretest design Basic principles Pretestposttest designs simple version and its variations Solomon four groups design why use it History effects Testing effects Time series designs Interrupted vs noninterrupted designs Limitations of time series designs


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.