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by: Spencer Smitham


Spencer Smitham
GPA 3.97


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Smitham on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2101 at University of Georgia taught by Morelen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/202435/psyc-2101-university-of-georgia in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
PSYC 2101 Love and Friendship Close relationships 7 are important interdependent 8L long lasting muse positive passion concern caring and negative rage jealousy despair feelings o This is referredto as the paradox of close relationships Family Friendships Work relationships Romantic relationships Marriage Initial encounteis 0 Attraction 7 initial desire to form a relationship 0 Pr im39ty 7 more likely to become involved with people we39re geographically or spatially close to O Mere exposure effect positive feelings toward a new stimulus or e n are increased the more often we are exposed to it or them I Ifthe initial exposure is negative increased exposure will intensify dis 1 0 Physical attractiveness I P ays a key role in facetoface romantic relationships 8L friendships I Crossculturally not the most important factor for both males 8L females ImportantTraits in Romaritl a ner Ranking Men Women 1 Intelligence Humor 2 Good looks Intelligence 3 Humor Honesty 4 Honesty Kindness 5 Attractive face Values 6 Kindness Communication skills 7 Values Dependability 8 Communication skills Good looks 9 Dependability Attractive face What makes someone 11llractiv 9e Amb39llon 0 Facial features 0 omen babyfacedquot features large eyes small nose combined with mature features prominentcheek ones 0 Men a strongjaw 8L broad forehead o Physique 0 Women average weight an hourglass gure and mediumsized breasts 0 Men broad shoulders and a slim waist o Expressive traits 0 Grooming qualities 0 Makeup Matching up on looks 0 Matching hypothesis people of similar levels of physical attractiveness gravitate toward each other 0 Supported by research on attractiveness of married couples 0 Some think this only happens bc people are rejected by more attractive partners Attractiveness and resource exchange 0 In contrast the resource exchange is an evolutionbased theory proposing that in heterosexual dating males trade39 occupational status for physical attractiveness in femalesquot 0 David Buss mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest in terms of survival 0 Men reproductive opportunities are the most important so they show more interest in sexual activity and physical attractiveness 0 Parental investment theory a species39 mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest time energy and survival risk I Women choose mates that will supply resources needed to support offspring for many years 3 factors affect viability of relationships 0 Reciprocal liking refers to liking those who show that they like youquot 0 Similarity we are drawn to those with similar qualities 0 This is true in friendships and romantic relationships regardless of sexual orientation 0 Similar attitudes play a key role 0 Desirable personality characteristics 0 For future spouses or life partners personal qualities are more important than physical traits 0 Most desirable personality traits were warmth good sense of humor and social assertiveness Established relationships 0 Relationship maintenance 0 Actions 8L activities used to sustain the desired quality of a relationship 0 Relationship Maintenance is an active and ongoing process which involves continuing mutual selfdisclosure and maintaining relationshipenhancing beliefs and attributions about one39s partner 0 Minding involves 0 Using good listening skills 0 Knowing partner39s opinions Making positive attributions about partner39s behavior Expressing feelings of trust and commitment Recognizing partner39s support amp effort Having optimistic view of future of the relationship 0000 What determines whether we stay in a relationship or get out o Interdependence or social exchange theo o The decision is based on a costbenefitquot analysis of the relationship39s outcome If the rewards outweigh the costs we stay 0 Relationship commitment is determined by 2 factors 0 The comparison level for alternatives or one39s estimation of the available outcomes from alternative relationshipsquot I We tend to stay in unsatisfying relationships until a better one comes along 0 The investments or things that people contribute to a relationship that they can39t get back if the relationship endsquot I Thus putting investments into a relationship strengthens our commitment to it Romantic Love 0 Sexual orientation refers to a person39s preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same gender the other gender or either genderquot 0 Most studies of romantic love suffer from heterosexism or the assumption that all individuals and relationships are heterosexualquot 0 Gender differences 0 Research shows that men are more romantic 8L fall in love more easily than women 0 Women are also more selective when choosing a partner I Supports the parental investment theoryquot of attraction Sternberg39s triangular theory of love 0 All loving relationships are comprised of a combo of 3 components 0 Intimacy warmth closeness sharin o Passion intense feelings including sexual desire 0 Commitment decision and intent to maintain a relationship in spite of dif culties that may arise o The ultimate type of love is consummate love 0 Each of the 3 components is present 0 Nonlove none ofthe 3 are present Romantic love as attachment 0 Attachment Style typical ways of interacting in close relationships 0 Secure adults 55 of participants I Trusts others comfortable w mutual dependence longerlasting relationships I Have more committed satisfying interdependent 8L welladjusted relationships Seek and provide support when under stress Have better mental health o Avoidant adults 25 of participants I Fear closeness maintain emotional distance I Withdraw from partners 0 Anxiousambivalent adults 20 of participants I Obsessive about relationships jealous fears of abandonment I Shorter relationships I May exhibit hostility o Bartholomew and Horowitz39s 1991 model of adult attachment styles is based on two factors 0 Attachment anxiety or how much a person worries that a partner will not be available when needed 0 Attachment avoidant the degree to which a person distrusts a partner39s good will and their tendencies to maintain emotional and behavioral distance from a partner 0 Bartholomew and Horowitz 1991 fourcategory model of adult attachment styles 0 Secure o Preoccupied o Avoidantdismissing o Avoidantfearful Why relationships end 0 Premature commitment Ineffective communication 8L con ict management skills Becoming bored Availability of a more attractive relationship Low levels of satisfaction Helping relationships last 0 Take plenty of time to get to know the other person before making a longterm commitment o Emphasize the positive qualities in your partner and relationship 0 Find ways to bring novelty to longterm relationships 0 Develop effective con ict management skills Culture and relationships 0 Cultures vary in emphasis on romantic love as a basis for marriage 0 Individualistic cultures marriage for lovequot 0 Collectivist cultures families more likely to arrange marriages Internet relationships 0 As intimate as traditional relationships 0 Anonymity may facilitate closeness o Gives stigmatized groups opportunities for social support 0 Romances that begin online seem to be just as stable over 2 years as traditional relationships 0 Internet may also help maintain relationships


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