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by: Spencer Smitham


Spencer Smitham
GPA 3.97


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Smitham on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Cyterski in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/202439/psyc-1101-university-of-georgia in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter 3 Biological Functions How are genes transferred from one generation to the next gt Inheritance and gene expression gt Behavioral Genetics study of how genes and environment and how they interactto form personality and traits gt Human Genome Project coordination to map the entire structure of human genetic material First step was to identify the precise order of molecules that make up each ofthe thousands of genes on each of the 23 pairs of chromosomes gt Just because you have a gene does not mean it is expressed gt There is no specific gene for something like alcoholism Genetic Basis of Psychological Science gt Genetics refers to how characteristics are passed along and the processes in which genes are turned on and off How environment affects our genes how they are expressed gt Every cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes structures within the cell body that are made up of genes Half of each pair comes from parent gt The genome is the master blueprint Genes are eitherturned on or off influenced by environment gt Gene unit of heredity that determines a particular characteristic in an organism Provide instructions for making proteins Chromosnme Genes gt Dominant Gene gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is present gt Recessive Gene gene that is expressed only when it is matched with a similar gene from the other parent gt Genotype genetic constitution determined at the moment of conception gt Phenotype observable physical characteristics that result from both genetic and environmental influences gt Polygenic Effects influenced by many genes as well as environment Skin color gt Rich variety of skin colors phenotype or product of a single dominant gene paring Heritability statistical estimate ofthe variation caused by differences in heredity in a trait within a population Within a group of people such as American Women how much do members vary in one trait such as height Refers to population not individuals If you have a 6 heritability for height within a population that means 60 of heath variation between individuals and is genetic 1 Researchers measured the tendency toward criminal behavicln Results Those who had the gene for as children The effects of martreelment h h I No maltreatment I Probable maltreatment Convicted 4 3 I Severe mallrealmem of violent offenses 20 Low MAO activity High MAO activity Conclusion Nature and nulure can work tcgether to affect human behavlon 39 Scienti c Method Caspl s Study of the Influence of Psychological Sclencel 3rd Edlll an Environment and Genes bottom Cumrigquot 2009w w Nellun sea parry Good Example of how nature and nurture together affect behavior Help explain how gene and social contexts interact to affect the phenotype Early environments influence young children but the children39s genes influence the experiences the receive ie exposed to the same environment but react in different ways Phrenology Franz Gall suggested the bumps on the head represented mental abilities Terminal branches of axon form junctions with other cells Drendrltes receive messages a I 7 from other cells 7 39 39 V Axon 7 passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons 1 s Cell body the oell39sli fe 5 support center muscles or gland Myelin sheath covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed 39 39 Neural impulse neural impulses j electrical signal traveling down the axon Neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system it operates through electrical impulses which communicate with other neurons through chemical signals Neurons receive integrate and transmit information in the nervous system They take in information from neighboring neurons integrate the signals and pass signals to other neurons Structure of a neuron gt Dendrites branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons gt Cell Body in the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and processed gt Terminal Buttons small nodules at the ends of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron to the synapse also called axon terminals gt Synapse the site for chemical communication between neurons which contains extracellular fluid gt Myelin Sheath a fatty material made up of glial cells that insulates the axon and allow for the rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon gt Nodes of Ranvier small gaps of exposed axon between the segments of myelin sheath where action potentials are transmitted Neurons are for communicating Resting neuron potential The electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active The ratio of negative to positive ions is greater inside the neuron than outside The electrical charge is therefore slightly more negative inside the neuron The neuron at rest is polarized Sodium and potassium ions contribute to a neuron s resting membrane potential See page 94 Action Potential the neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons When a signal comes from a nearby neuron It comes in two types excitatory depolarize the cell membrane increases the likelihood that the neuron will fire Inhibitory signals that hyperbolize the cell and decrease the likelihood that the neuron will fire If the total amount of excitatory input from other neurons surpasses the receiving neurons threshold then the neuron will fire What happens when a neuron fires Sodium gets in the cell membrane open allowing sodium ions to rush into the neuron This influx of sodium causes the inside of the neuron to become slightly more positively charged than the outside Potassium channels open up and allow potassium ions from the inside of the cell to rush out Change from a negative charge to a positive charge inside the neuron is the basis of action potential Both channels close goes through natural restoration goes back to its negative state AllorNone Response When the depolarizing current exceeds the threshold a neuron will fire If the depolarizing current fails to exceed the threshold a neuron will notfire Cannot partially fire O Neurons do not touch 0 They release chemicals neurotransmitters into the synapse O Neurotransmitters bind with the receptors of postsynaptic neurons thus changing the charge In those neurons 0 Stressinduced analgesia Undertime of stress when the sympathetic nervous system is activated we may experience less pain or even no pain Here the explorer David Livingstone recounts being attacked by a lion Sending Vesicles neuron containing I neurotranslt ACttIOnt l mitters p0 en la Synaptic v 7 gap k 39 Neuro transmitter 39 39 f39 moiecule Receptor Waving neuron sites Synapse a junction between the axon tIp of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body ofthe receiving neuron ThIs tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft Reuptake Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action Neurotransmitter Functions acetylcholine Motor control over muscles Learning memory sleeping and dreaming epinephrine Energy norepinephrine Arousal and vigilance serotonin Emotional states and Impulsiveness Dreaming dopamine Reward and motivation Motor control over voluntary movement GABA gammaaminobutyric acid Inhibition of action potentials Anxiety and Intoxication glutamate Enhances action potentlals Learning and memory endorphins Pain reduction R ard substance P Pain perception Mood and anxiety TABLE 31 Common Neurotransmitters and Their Major Functions 535355 3151133733 How do Drugs work gt Drugs and toxins can influence neurotransmitters in several ways 0 Drugs that enhance NT are called agonist any drug that enhances the actions of a specific neurotransmitter 0 Drugs that inhibit the action of a specific neurotransmitter is an antagonist Agonists and antagonists Students are frequently interested in hearing how various drugs work Here are some popular drugs and their mechanism of action Note that most drugs are complex and researchers are not completely clear on how many work Julien 2008 Chudler E 2008 Note that drugs are discussed further in chapter 4 Alcohol GABA norepinephrine and dopamine agonist Acetylcholine antagonist Agarres Agonlst drugs can Drug Increase ha y moieeuie transmitters They can block the rsuplake of D neurotransmitters G39 0 They can mimic a panicular neurotransmitter binding to posxeyhepuc receptors and either nclvvnnng them or increasing the naumlransmiuer s effects PS Ch 0 i 6 SEEquot y r l D FIGURE 317 How Drugs Work left 939 C9 3 3 Edquot quot Copy ng e nooa w w Noun A Calvxpnny Amman AnlaEunlsl drugs can mock um Nleaau a quoteuro tmnamlrlars r Dru maluculn Trmy can mm a panlculur naum ruvmmluan wan In Duntsynauxi recumom enough r9 block naurn39ranamurlsr bincllng FIGURE 317 How Drugs Work ner SSRI Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are a class of compounds typically used as ntidepressants in the treatment ofdepression anxieg disorders and some personaliy disorders extracellular level ofthe neurotransmitter serotonin by inhibiting its reuptake into the presynaptic cell increasingthe level of serotonin available to bind to the postsynaptic receptor Endorphins have to do with painreward Brain Stem houses the basic programs for survival Top ofthe spinal cord forms the brainstem Involved in breathing walking general arousal Hippocampus brain structure important forthe formation of certain types of memory Hypothalamus is the brains master regulatow structure Thalamus the gateway to the cortex l I 39 39 I n FIGU RE 327 The Structures of the Brain Sglcal SC me am Ed 39 n Bram lntsnor iC Subcortlca Ioga 3 Basarr iiil Thalan us Hypoihalarnus r HIDPOcamDus Amygclala s Erannslem Remqu cblongala formalin Brain region W neramd runman quotThought planning pp Memory Hypocharamus Regulates body runcnon Rellcnlar formation sleep and amusa Thalamus Sensory gateway c a 2009 w w Nonon s Cum Cerbal Cortex the outer layer of brain tissue which forms the convoluted surface ofthe brain 0 The lobes ofthe cortex each play specific roles o F POT O Frontal Planning and movement Motor cortex Prefrontal cortex Prefrontal cortex and the teenage brain brain develops outwards and forwards Teenagers do not have a fully developed prefrontal cortex that is responsible for decision making


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