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by: Spencer Smitham


Spencer Smitham
GPA 3.97


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Smitham on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Cyterski in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/202439/psyc-1101-university-of-georgia in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter 2 The scientific method 4 goals gt Describe what gt Predict when gt Control what causes gt Explain why HOMER Present the acronym HOMER as a mnemonic to help students remember the steps of the scientific method Hypothesis Operationalize Measure Evaluate and ReplicateReviseReport Researchers report that at the end of the Research Methods course students remembered approximately 4 out of 5 steps mean of 417 When instructors mentioned it more frequently not surprisingly students were more likely to remember more steps Lakin Giesler Morris amp Vosmik 2007 There is reason to think it would be just as effective in the lntro course Consider these questions What is the evidence Where did the evidence come from How was the research done Theory model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events A good theory allows for a variety of predictions Interpretation of Dreams from Freud was not a Good theory because it was untestable could not really know what people were dreaming and then if wish fulfillment was connected to those dreams Hypothesis a specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct Research scientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection of data Data objective observations or measurements Replication repetition of an experiment to confirm the results Can also have unexpected findings result of serendipity when researches unexpecdly find things Variable anything that can be measured and can vary Researches must variables in precise ways that reflect the methods used to asses them Use operational definitions which identify and quantify variables so they can be measured For example how would you quantify and identify how intimate you are in your relationship Use a scale 1 the most intimate or 10 the least Allows other researches to know what is being measured so it can be replicated Types of Studies in Psychological Research Descriptive Studies sometimes called observational studies Involve observing and classifying behavior either with no intervention by the observer naturalistic observation or with intervention and participation by the observer participant observation F Advantages valuable in early stages of research like formulating hypothesis to see if a phenomenon exists Takes place in a real world setting gt Disadvantages errors in observation can occur because of an observer s expectations observer bias Observers presence can change the behavior being witnessed reactivity gt We can learn valuable information about what happens around us by observing but need careful research to determine the CAUSES of these observations gt John Gottman used natural observations to research relationships Longitudinal Studies involve observing and classifying developmental changes that occur in the same people over time either with not intervention or intervention by the observer gt Advantages provides information about effects of aging on the same people to see development changes gt Disadvantages expensive takes time may lose participants gt Example What strategies do women use to cope with breast cancer Researchers did a crosssectional study on Israeli women who had been diagnosed The crosssection was stage of the disease stage I and II vs stage III and IV but the researchers also looked at coping strategies emotion focused and problem focused and coping resources internal resources namely personal attributes eg age and education and informal social support They then measured psychological distress They found that women who used an emotionfocused coping strategy experienced more psychological distress As social support increased psychological distress decreased The higher the level of education the less likely they were to use an emotionfocused coping strategy Perhaps most interesting stage of the disease had a very small effect on psychological distress Gilbar 2005 Cross Sectional Studies gt comparing different groups to make inferences about both gt Example Does a program designed to help adolescents from divorced families have lasting effects years later The New Beginnings Program helped improve the relationships between mothers and their children Six years later researchers checked back in with the mothers and children to see how they were doing Helping mothers develop effective discipline resulted in higher grade point averages six years later Helping mothers and their children improve the quality of their relationship reduced the number of mental health problems in the children who were at high risk Zhou Sandler Millsap Wolchik amp DawsonMcClure 2008 Case Studies intensive exam of individual lives and organizations gt Kitty Genovese bystander effect gt Useful in examining unusual cases but can be subjective Surveys Wording effect Changing the wording of a survey can affect the answers See slides for example Correlation Studies research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world without any attempt by the researcher to alter them Rely on naturally occurring relationships Might compare how many hours women worked correlating to how much each woman wanted to have fun There is a directionality problem researchers find a relationship between two variables in a correlation study they cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable For example A and B are correlated Does A cause b or B cause A Third variable problem when the experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable and therefore cannot be confident that another unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the dependent variable For example A is correlated to B but there is also a C So does C cause A or B or both Can not automatically conclude that A caused B See page 42 for in depth example Illusionary Correlation correlating situations it always rains when I wash my car that are not always true Maybe someone says Gosh it always rains when I wash my car and then you only remember times that you have washed your car and it rained forgetting the times it did not rain so you believe it is true Remember Correlations do not provide complete explanations for situations Correlations near 1 and l are strong correlations a a a Perfect hegatlve Medium negatlve No correlation Medium ositlve c relation Iation correlation e x axis FIGURE 22 Correlations ewv m lt H uut w N NQAQL39 em39 39un39l Manipulating Conditions gt Researcher manipulates one variable and only 1 variable to examine the variables effect on a second variable aka experiment or treatment group gt Control the comparison group in a study that receives no intervention or an intervention that is different from the one being studied gt Independent variable the condition that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on the dependent variable gt Dependent variable the measure that is affected by the manipulation of the independent variable Depends on the independent variable for its outcome gt Confound anything that affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study For studying violence in sports you may suggest football and golf If the study were conducted using football and golf and those who watched football were indeed more aggressive we would not know if the aggression was caused by the violence or by an increased level of excitement To eliminate this confound video clips of two sports that are identical in as many respects as possible differing only in violence is needed gt In an experiment choosing people is very important gt Experiments need to go beyond the individual and generalize or the population or everyone in the group the experimenter is interested in gt A sample is a subset of the population gt Sampling is the process by which people from the population are selected for the sample The best method is random sampling gt Large samples provide more data than small samples Flip of the coin When you flip it 100xs then you will probably get 5050 Flip it four times and get less accurate results


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