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by: Spencer Smitham


Spencer Smitham
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Smitham on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4200 at University of Georgia taught by Gentile in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/202451/psyc-4200-university-of-georgia in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Introduction to Social Psychology Sociology amp Social Psychology 39 The two fields once had a lot of overlap Both started about 100 years ago 39 Two introductory text books Sociologist Edward Ross 1908 Psychologist William McDougall 1908 39 Psychological Social Psychology amp Sociological Social Psychology Topdown vs bottom up approach Macro vs Micro Now they are considered largely separate fields What is Social Psychology 39 The self in the social situation 39 The scientific study of the feelings thoughts behaviors of individuals in social situationsquot Gilovich Keltner amp Nisbett 2005 39 Social situationsquot includes Groups Institutions Culture Society What happened 39 1920 s1930 s the two remained close 39 Sociologists and social psychologists worked together through VWVII on studies of military and civilian behavior After VWVII interdisciplinaly programs failed researchers had to identify as one or the ot er Social psychology began to identify more with psychology as a whole 39 Pressured to be more cognitive and behavioral 39 1960 s1970 s demand for laboratOIy experiments 39 Specialized journals What happened Crisis in social psychologyquot ofthe 1970 s Social psychology was accused of being too narrow trivial and disconnected 39om real life not generalizable to outside the lab of little social relevance and overly reductionist 39 To some extent this has not been resolved 39 Cultural psychology More interdisciplinary research Oishi Kesebir amp Snyder 2009 PSPR article Social psychology is tied to the experimental methodology Zimbardo 1999 Sociologists asked the big questions but never quite had good u h answers whereas It became evident that psychologists were asking low level questions but were good at methodology and analysisquot p 143 Micro Perspective 39 More social psychological Focuses on the importance of norms and types of social interactions 39 Emphasizes the collective forces of socialization social interactions and the power of groups and institutions Family 39 Play groups 39 Work groups Macro Perspective 39 More sociological Concerns social structures and the collective Institutions large socialcultural structures and other collective phenomena are the key objects of stud Em phasizes the power of society over individuals Collective tendencies have a life of their own or sui generisquot Durkeim 18971951 Predicts much more flexible psychological outcomes Where do they diverge 39 Levels of analysis Social psychology Concerned with variables at the individual level or the individuals immediate social context Measure individual thoughts feelings and actions with selfreport or some behavioral measure eg reaction time Sociology 39 Concerned with large groups eg social classes organizations Measure aggregated feelings thoughts and actions and collective actions Where do they diverge 39 Basic assumptions Social Psychology Modeled on natural sciences lmplies psychological laws should be true regardless of time or place 39 Sociology Never aligned with the natural sciences or humanities More flexible interpretations of behavior Where do they diverge 39 Areas of Research Social Psychology Specific life domains eg relationships group influence Sociology Broad life domains eg art sports Domains that affect people daily eg economy education health care law mass media science technology Work Where do they diverge 39 Methods Social psychology Experimental method is dominant Theorydriven hypothesis testing Sociology Experimental and explanatory More explanatoryinterpretive sociologists downplay hypothesistesting in favor of participant obsenation ethnography or interviewing What does social psychology study Main social psychology themes We actively construe our social worlds We perceive comprehend and interpret the world around us and the behavior of others in specific ways that sometimes differ from reality 39 Our attitudes beliefs and behaviors are shaped by external factors Culture individualism vs collectivism 39 Regional differences 39 Groups Time Main social psychology themes 39 Behavior is affected by internal factors 39 Personality Attitudes Values Beliefs 0 Social behavior is linked to biology 39 Evolutionary psychology 39 Social neuroscience Too obvious 39 Hindsight bias Once you know the outcome of an event it seems obvious AKA the I knew it all alongquot phenomenon 39 Examples 39 Hurricane Katrina Economic Collapse of 2008 Social Psychology Over Time 39 Social psychology is an evolving discipline 39 Follows the culture 39 Social psychology often goes through phases of research based on what s going on in society 39 Examples Methodology 39 Field research Research done in natural settings O Lab research 39 Research done in a controlled lab 39 Correlational 39 Can tell you how one variable is related to another but says nothing about causality O Experimental 0 Allows you to make conclusions about cause and effect relationships Conformity and Obedience Conformity A change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure Three Types of Conformity 0 Compliance publicly acting in accord with an impliedexplicit request while privately disagreeing Foot in the door 0 Obedience acting in accord with a direct order or command 0 Acceptance both acting and believing in accord with social pressure Norm Formation 0 Autokinetic Phenomenon the illusion that a stationary point of light in the dark is moving 0 Sherif 1935 1937 0 When alone they estimated 26 inches 0 Next group asked to agree on an estimate of how far the light had moved 0 Estimates were made out loud 0 Participants tended to adjust beliefs toward consensus Persistence of Norms 0 Jacobs amp Campbell 1961 0 Had a confederate give an inflated estimate of how far the light had moved 0 The illusion persisted for five generations Social Contagion 0 Laughing is contagious 0 Provine 2005 0 When watching a 5 min video of a man yawn 55 of participants yawned Compared to 21 in smiling video Mostly triggered by eyes and head motion Chameleon Effect 0 Chartrand amp Bargh 1999 0 Study 1 0 While they did so they experimenter would touch their face or wiggle their foot 0 Study 2 0 For V2 of participants the experimenter sat in a relaxed position 0 For the other half the experimenter mimicked the participant s movements and mannerisms 0 Study 3 0 Results those high on empathy were more likely to mimic them Mass Suggestibility 0 The Werther Effect after book was written suicides jumped 0 Suicides auto accidents and private airplane crashes increase after a highly publicized suicide because it taps into an already vulnerable state Asch s Line Study Obedience to Authority 0 Burger 2009 redid the study with a lot of changes 0 70 of participants went to the 150 volt level at which they were stopped Factors that elicit obedience 0 Victims emotional distance 0 Proximity of the authority figure 0 Legitimacy of institution What predicts Conformity Group Size 0 Milgram 1969 0 Had 1 2 3 5 10 or 15 people pause in NY and look up Unanimity 0 As we have seen it is not easy to be the odd man out However doing so can break conformity 0 Asch Line Study 0 In some conditions a confederate dissented from the group 0 Nemeth amp Chiles 1988 0 A confederate misjudged a blue stimuli as green 0 After observing this participants were more likely to give the correct answer 76 of the time 0 Control participants who weren t exposed to the dissenter conformed 70 of the time Cohesion 0 Cohesiveness the extent to which members of a group are bound together Status 0 Higher status people are more likely to influence others to conform 0 Mullen et al 1990 jaywalkers Public Response and Prior Commitment 0 Announcing your decision makes you accountable 0 Prior Commitment 0 saying becomes believing Once judgesreferees make a decision it is rarely changed 0 Ex Online petitions Why do we conform 0 Normative influence conformity based on a person s desire to fulfill others expectations or gain acceptance 0 Informational influence conformity that occurs when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people 0 Either because we don t know or we are unsure of the answer or correct course of action Normative influence 0 Cialdini 2005 Influencing energy saving behaviors in hotel guests 0 HELP SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT 0 PARTNER WITH US TO HELP SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT 0 JOIN YOUR FELLOW GUESTS IN HELPING TO SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT 0 WE39RE DOING OUR PART FOR THE ENVIRONMENT CAN WE COUNT ON YOU 0 Darley amp Latane 1968 Participants were seated in a room filling out questionnaires when smoke started to come in through a vent in the wall Comparing Normative Influence Informational Influence Driven by our concern for our social image Driven by the desire to be correct Likely when people Likely when people Make their response public Feel incompetent Care about being seen as lldoing the rightquot The task is difficult Thing Care about being right Want to be liked or accepted Who is likely to conform 0 Personality 0 Culture 0 Socioeconomic status SES 0 Time Social Roles 0 By taking on different social roles we may conform to those norms 0 Zimbardo Prison Experiment 0 We are not always aware of the shift in our behavior until we remove ourselves from the role 0 Ex Moving back in with your parents 0 Role reversal can promote empathy 0 llWalking a mile in another s shoes The desire to be different 0 Reactance a motive to protect or restore one s sense of freedom 0 When we feel our freedom of action is threatened Blatant social pressure will often result in anticonformity 0 Boomerang Effec attempts to restrict a person s freedom often produce an anti conformity effect 0 Berger amp Heath 2008 0 Livestrong bands Need for Uniqueness 0 Snyder 1980 0 Those told they weren t unique were least likely to conform in a subsequent conformity task 0 People with a high need for uniqueness are least susceptible to group influence Chapter 7 Persuasion 0 The process by which a message induces change in 0 Beliefs Attitudes Behaviors 0 Propaganda vs Education 0 Information intended to influence vs impartially provided information Central route to persuasion 0 When people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts 0 Occurs when 0 People are motivated 0 Able to devote cognitive resources to thinking about the issue 0 The focus is on the arguments 0 If strong and compelling 9 persuasion is likely 0 If weak 9 people will be able to come up with counterarguments easily and won t be persuaded Peripheral route to persuasion 0 When people are influenced by incidental cues 0 Attractiveness credibility of source catchiness of message the way the message is delivered 0 Occurs when 0 Not motivatedable to think carefully We are not involved or are distracted 0 Does not have to do with the content of the actual message What results from each Central Route Peripheral Route Changes to explicit attitudes Creates implicit attitudes Formation of resilient attitudes Formation of weak attitudes Lasting attitude change Temporary attitude change Motivates people to think about the message People use heuristics to make decisions Do I believe in this candidate s policies Do I like this candidate Does he speak well Elements of Persuasion What makes a great communicator 0 Credibility how believable the person is Makes us think heshe is an expert and can be trusted 0 The effect of credibility on persuasion can diminish if we lose the connection between the persuasive message and the source 0 It helps to speak confidently and clearly Sleeper Effect 0 The delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective We remember the message but not our reason for discounting it Perceived Trustworthiness 0 We trust people who Have good eye contact We don t perceive as trying to persuade us 0 Walster amp Festinger 1962 0 Undergrads eavesdropped on grad students conversations 0 We also perceive people to be more trustworthy if they argue against their own selfinterest 0 Eagly Wood 84 Chaiken 1978 0 Student were presented with a speech attacking a company s pollution of a river 0 Sample 1 Presented by a political candidate with a business background OR to an audience of company supporters people were more likely to believe this one 0 Sample 2 Presented by a proenvironmental politician OR to a group of environmentalists Communicator attractiveness 0 Why does attractiveness matter Can trigger central or peripheral route of persuasion 0 What attracts 0 Physicalattractiveness 0 Similarity 0 When does similarity matter 0 Judgments of personal taste vs Judgments of fact Message Content 0 Reason vs Emotion 0 Welleducated analytical people are responsive to rational appeals via the central route 0 Uninterested audiences are more affected by liking via the peripheral route 0 How attitudes are initially formed affects which appeals are more influential later Better to be loved or feared 0 Good feelings can enhance persuasion 0 By enhancing positive thinking By linking the good feelings with the message 0 Happy vs unhappy people 0 Who is more likely to be affected by each persuasion route 0 Fear arousing messages can be effective in decreasing or abstaining from a negative behavior 0 Too much fear occurs when a person is not told how to avoid the danger 0 Not effective when trying to prevent a pleasurable activity This leads to denial Discrepancy 0 When there is a discrepancy between you and the communicator you will perceive them as being less persuasive 0 However when they are also credible this can result in behavior change 0 Aronson Turner amp Carlsmith 1963 0 TS Eliot vs Agnes Stearns 1 vs 2 sided appeals 0 Hovland et al 1949 0 Created two radio broadcasts arguing that the war with Japan would continue for 2 more years 0 One sided appeal was most effective with those who already agreed 0 Two sided presentation is more persuasive and enduring if people are aware of opposing arguments 0 2sided arguments are also more effective if you are aware of the counterarguments already Order Effects 0 Primacy effect Information presented first usually has the most influence 0 Asch 1946 0 John is intelligent industrious impulsive stubborn and envious 0 John is envious stubborn impulsive industrious and intelligent 0 Recency effect information presented last can sometimes have the most influence 0 Less common than primacy effects 0 Miller amp Campbell 1959 0 But students who read one at time 1 and the other a week later and who were then asked to give their opinions immediately afterward sided with the second one 0 Primacy effect when 0 The messages are presented backtoback There is a time gap before the decision is made 0 Recency effect when 0 Messages are presented separately A long time gap separates the two messages A decision is made immediately following the second message Channel of Communication 0 The way a message is delivered Facetoface written film etc 0 Does the message have to be actively experienced 0 Consider 0 More people buy advertised brands than generic brands Whether a political candidate gets elected depends heavily on the amount of exposure heshe gets Mere exposure Mere repetition The more importantfamiliar the topic the more difficult it will be to persuade The persistence of false information 0 People rate trivial statements as more truthful if they heard them the week before 0 Believable lies can displace hard truths 0 And sometimes not so believable The repetition of them makes them seem true Even correct information given can fail to discount misinformation Making it personal 0 Facetoface persuasion can often be the most effective 0 Eldersveld amp Dodge 1954 0 Among those intending not to vote for a revision of a city charter 0 Mass media exposed group 19 Mailings group 45Visited and personally given an appeal 75 The audience 0 Age differences in political attitudes 0 Life cycle explanation People become more conservative as they age 0 Generational explanation People hold on to the attitudes they formed when they were young 0 Less susceptible to persuasion if 0 You know someone is going to try to persuade you Can come up with counterarguments beforehand 0 More susceptible to persuasion if 0 You re distracted especially if the message is simple Although this may also inhibit processing 0 Level of Involvement 0 High need for cognition motivation to think and analyze 9 central route 0 Stimulating thinking makes strong messages more persuasive and weak messages less persuasive Cults A group characterized by 0 Distinctive rituals and beliefs related to its devotion to God or a person who usually claims to be the embodiment of God A charismatic leader Isolation from the surrounding culture Often the leader has special privileges and rights above other members or secret knowledge Exploits members for money or sex 0 Heaven s Gate Cult 1997 0 Marshall Applewhite convinced 39 followers to commit suicide in order to reach an alien spacecraft trailing the HaleBop comet 0 Believed that Earth was about to be quotrecycledquot and the only chance to survive was for the cult members to shed their earthly bodies which they considered mere quotvesselsquot 0 The People s Temple 1978 0 Jim Jones recruited followers from San Francisco in late 1970s and moved them to Guyana to create Jonestown 0 Lived in obscurity until congressman Leo Ryan visited to investigate the cult and was murdered when attempting to leave 0 Convinced that this would bring an end to the Temple Jim Jones ordered a mass suicide 0 After the first cult member went forward and drank the poison the majority of the other 909 people did so in a calm orderly fashion Why 0 Compliance 0 Through rituals recruitment and fundraising people are made to feel involved in the cult Beliefs change to justify behavior 0 Footinthedoor phenomenon 0 Increasing absorption into the cult Monetary contributions Apocalypse Soon 0 Festinger Reicken amp Schachter 1964 0 Infiltrated a doomsday cult in 1960s Chicago 0 A 30 member cult lead by quotDr Armstrong and quotMrs Keech 0 Keech had begun to receive messages from so called quotGuardiansquot who were located on other planets 0 Messages flowed through Mrs Keech s hand via quotautomatic writing 0 A flood was prophesied to engulf the world 0 Believers would survive by being whisked away in a flying saucer 0 Rehearsed passwords and removed all metal from their clothes 0 In the weeks prior to the flood 0 Commitment was very high Quitjob Separated from families Gave away personal belongings Avoided recruitmentpublicity 0 When the quotsaucermenquot failed to arrive at midnight the group appeared devastated at first 0 At 445 am Mrs Keech quotreceivedquot two messages 0 What s going on here 0 Encroaching uncertainty 0 Sunk Cost 0 Recruitment became the only means of survival Persuasive Elements 0 The communicator Charismatic leader 0 The Message Generally evoking warmth and acceptance 0 The audience Recruits are often young under 25 Varying educational levels At turning points in their lives facing personal crisis or are away from home Most feel lost unsatisfied with traditional religion are lonely and looking for answers The Psychology of the Group 0 Social Implosion 0 Cult members separate from their social support systems and become isolated with the cult Removes counterarguments The reality of the group becomes the only reality Resisting Persuasion 0 Public commitment 0 Mild challenge to beliefs 0 Attitude inoculation exposing people to weak attacks so that when stronger attacks come they will have ready counterarguments 0 Shouldn t overwhelm the person s defenses 0 Poison parasite 0 Strong counterarguments retrieval cues Chapter 8 Group Influence Group 0 Two or more people who Interact with each other Influence one anotherAspects of a Group Social Facilitation 0 Mere presence 0 Social facilitation 0 Originally The tendency of people to perform simplewelllearned tasks better when others are present 0 Currently The strengthening of the dominant response when others are present 0 Triplett 1898 0 Cyclists were 3x faster when they raced together that when each one raced apart 0 Consider also 0 People solve math problems faster Better at simple motor tasks Also works with animals But Wait 0 Gates amp Allee 1933 0 Taught cockroaches to learn a maze in which they could escape a light by running into a dark bottle 0 Learned it alone in groups of 2 or in groups of 3 Resolution 0 Robert Zajonc 1965 0 Arousal facilitates the dominant response Makes easy tasks easier and hard tasks harder 0 Zajonc Heingartner amp Herman 1969 0 Two mazes constructed out of clear tubing 0 Straight run simple Maze complex 0 Conditions 0 Cockroach alone Cockroach running in front ofa quotcockroach grandstand with spectator roaches 0 Had to run from the light runmaze to a dark goal box Crowding 0 The effect of others presence increases with their numbers 0 When performing infront ofa crowd arousal and selfconsciousness can interfere with a well learned behavior if the pressure to perform is high choking 0 However being in a crowd can also intensify emotion 0 Being in a crowd enhances arousal higher blood pressure pulse rates which in turn facilitate the dominant response Why arousal 0 Evaluation apprehension concern over how others are evaluating us 0 The enhancement of the dominant response is strongest when people think they are being evaluated People perform best when their coactor is slightly superior Social facilitation is greatest when others are unfamiliar 0 Arousal lessens when a highstatus group contains a lot of people whose opinions are not important to us 0 Distraction 0 When we wonder how we are being perceived or how others are doing we become distracted 0 Conflict between paying attention to others and paying attention to the task overloads the system 9 arousal 0 Mere presence 0 According to Zajonc just the mere presence of others causes arousal even without evaluation apprehension or distraction 0 Animal studies Social Loafing 0 The tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their effects toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable 0 Ringelmann 0 Collective effort of tugofwar teams was half the sum of individual efforts 0 ngham 1974 0 Blindfolded participants pulled 18 harder when they thought they were alone 0 Latane Williams amp Harkins 1979 0 Blindfolded 6 people and sat them in a semicircle 0 Had headphones with the sound of people shouting or clapping so they couldn t hear themselves or others 0 They were told to shoutclap alone or with the group 0 Free riders people who benefit from the group but don t contribute Why does it work 0 Individuals believed they were evaluated only when acting alone 0 Decreased evaluation apprehension 0 When individuals are not individually accountable in a group you get diffusion of responsibility Diminishing Loafing 0 People loaf less when 0 The task is challenging appealing or engaging 0 Other group members are perceived as being unreliable 0 The group is working toward a common goal or striving toward high standards When the group members are convinced that high efforts will be rewarded 0 When groups are small Deindividuation 0 Loss of self and 39 39 39 39 occurring in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms 0 Arousal diffusion of responsibility 9 decrease in normal inhibition Factors that are operating 0 Group size Larger the group the more deindividuation occurs 0 Mann 1981 0 small groups did not generally bait the person to jump but larger groups did 0 The focus is on the situation not the self 0 ArousingDistracting activities 0 Shouting chanting clapping etc get people physiologically aroused reducing self consciousness Anonymity 0 Zimbardo 1970 0 Compared to women who were unconcealed and had large name tags the concealed women pressed the shock button twice as long on average 0 Ellison et al 1995 0 Those with car tops up honked sooner more often and for longer 0 Diener 1976 0 Children in groups were 2x as likely to take extra candy as children trickor treating alone Children were less likely to take extra if they were asked for their names and addresses or if a mirror was placed behind the candy bowl 0 Masked people commit more vandalism violent attacks on others 0 Johnson amp Downing 1979 0 Those wearing nursing uniforms gave fewer less severe shocks compared to the other groups 0 Environment 0 What are the norms in that situation 0 Broken Windows Theory Areas with visible signs of disorder and vandalism broken windows graffiti perpetuate crime 0 Zimbardo 1969 0 Placed a 1959 Oldsmobile across from the Bronx campus of NYU and one in Palo Alto near Stanford with the license plate removed and top let down Correcting for deindividuation 0 We can correct for this with selfawareness 0 Selfaware people exhibit more selfcontrol 0 People made to feel selfconscious exhibit greater consistency between their attitudes and behavior 0 Selfawareness increases with 0 Mirrorscameras small towns welllighted areas name tags quiet Risky Shift 0 Stoner 1961 0 Wanted to investigate the common belief that groups are more cautious than individuals 0 Gave participants a series of dilemmas in which they had to advise the character how much risk to take 0 quotHelen is a writer who is said to have considerable creative talent but so far has been earning a comfortable living by writing cheap westerns Recently she has come up with an idea for a potentially significant novelquot 0 Group decisions were generally riskier than individual decisions Not so Risky Shift Risky shift worked When the group had to reach a consensus When individuals made their own decisions after a group discussion 0 However it did not work in all cases For some scenarios groups became more cautious 0 Helen vs Roger a man with two kids a lowpaying job and no savings deciding whether to sell his lifeinsurance policy to invest in a risky stock Group Polarization 0 Group polarization groupproduced enhancement of member s preexisting tendencies 0 Imagine you were considering the pros and cons of going to grad school Where do we see group polarization in the real world 0 Gender groups Bipartisan Politics quotAccentuation effectquot among college students CommunitiesRegions of the US Internet forumsgroupsblogs Terrorist organizations 0 Individuals are usually expatriates Individuals are isolated from other belief systems Over time their views become increasingly extreme What causes group polarization 0 Informational influence conformity that occurs when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people 0 We don t know the answer or the correct course of action 0 Normative influence conformity based on a person s desire to fulfill others expectations or gain acceptance Informational Influence 0 Applied to group polarization 0 Group discussion elicits ideas and the dominant viewpoints are generally favored 0 Group members may suggest things the others haven t considered 0 Polarization may occur via persuasive arguments Active participation produces more attitude change than passive listening Thinking about or expecting to discuss an issue can also cause polarization Normative Influence 0 Normative influence acts on group polarization through social comparison 0 Social comparison evaluating one s opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others 0 If the group is shifting in one direction individuals may seek acceptance by moving further in that direction 0 We are most persuaded by people in our quotreference groups 0 We may express stronger opinions after finding out that others share our views 0 Pluralistic ignorance a false 39 r 39 of what most other people are thinking feeling or how they are responding 0 Hines Saris amp ThrockmortonBelzer 2002 0 Participants showed a tendency to misperceive other students as feeling more comfortable with healthrelated risk behaviors than themselves 0 The illusion of public support creates campus social norms surrounding the behavior and increases the likelihood that students will engage in these behaviors 0 Individuals don t realize how much others support the socially preferred tendency 0 Pluralistic ignorance 0 Asking for help 0 Miller amp McFarland 1987 0 Participants read an incomprehensible article and were told to ask for help if they didn t understand it They didn t seek help possibly due to feeling embarrassed However they assumed others would not be similarly restrained and since they didn t ask for help they must not need any 0 Exposure to others positions 0 Leads to comparisonbased polarization 0 Salganik et al 2006 0 Participants were exposed to others download choices 0 Popular songs became more popular unpopular songs became more unpopular 0 Whereas persuasive arguments dominate on issues that have a factual element informational influence social comparison sways responses on value judgments Groupthink 0 Group decisionmaking that is not optimal and can sometimes be disastrous because the group s primary goal is consensus instead of accuracy 0 They seem to have a greater desire to get along and agree with one another than to generate and critically evaluate alternative viewpoints and positions 0 Dissent is suppressed in the interest of group harmony leading to poor decisionmaking 0 Ex Pearl Harbor Bay of Pigs 0 Groupthink the mode of thinking that individuals engage in when concurrenceseeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive ingroup that it overrides any realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action 0 To get groupthink you need 0 An amiable cohesive group Isolation from dissenting opinions A directive leader who gives their pointofview Symptoms of Groupthink 0 1 The group over estimates their might and right 0 An illusion of invulnerability excessive optimism and a blindness to warnings 0 Unquestioned belief in the group s morality 0 2 Group members become closeminded 0 Group members engage in rationalization to discount challenges and justify their decisions 0 Holding a stereotyped view of the opponent weak stupid evil 0 3 Pressures toward uniformity 0 Conformity pressure those who raise doubts are rebuffed or ridiculed 0 Self censorship disagreements are uncomfortable so group members withhold their misgivings 0 Illusions of unanimity everyone keeps quite seems like everyone is unanimous like pluralistic ignorance 0 Mindguards some members withhold information from the group that would call into question the effectiveness or morality of the decision Preventing Groupthink 0 Be impartial don t endorse any one position 0 Encourage critical evaluation play the devil s advocate 0 Subdivide the group 0 Encourage and welcome criticisms from outside experts 0 Before implementing call a secondchance meeting to address any lingering doubts Group Problem solving 0 Under some conditions groups can make better decisions that individuals alone 0 However there are a number of factors that can interfere 0 Production blocking


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