ELEM PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 1101
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Date Created: 09/12/15
The History and Scope of Psychology 1132011 92600 PM Psychology s Roots o Aristotle o 384 322 BC 0 Not technically a psychologist o Theorized about learning and memory motivation and emotion perception and personality 0 His answers are a bit silly but he was definitely asking the right questions Psychological Science 0 Wundt o 1832 1920 o Seen as starting psych science with his lab Created a machine that measured the lag between when people heard a ball hit a platform and when they pressed a telegraph key Asked people two things a Press the button when you hear it o Took about 110 second a Or when you were aware of perceiving a sound a Took about 210 second This is considered by many to be psychology s first experiment o Ivan Pavlov o Pioneered study of learning 0 Russian physiologist o William James 0 1842 1910 0 Author of an important 1890 textbook 0 American philosopher o Mary Calkins 0 Student of James 0 Studied psychology at Harvard and excelled 0 Could not graduate with a degree because she was a female 0 Harvard offered her a degree from their sister school Radcliffe College but Calkins declined o Became American Psychological Association s first female president in 1905 Sigmund Freud o 1856 1939 o Developed influential theory of personality 0 Austrian physician Jean Piaget o The 20th century s most influential observer of children 0 Swiss biologist Margaret Floy Washburn 0 First woman to receive psychology PhD 0 In 1921 became APA s 2nd female president Behaviorists Lasted from 1920 1960 The view that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behavior without reference to mental processes Most research psychologists agree with 1 but not 2 John B Watson 0 1878 1958 0 Little Albert study B F Skinner o 1904 1990 Humanistic Focuses on observable but also takes into account thought and feelings potential for individual growth and need for love and acceptance Maslow o 1908 1970 Rogers 0 1902 1987 Psychology Today Cognitive Revolution o The scientific study of behavior what we do and mental processes inner thoughts and feelings o Why do we need Psychology 0 Intuition and common sense may provide some information but they are not free of error Hindsight bias and overconfidence lead us to overestimate the accuracy of our intuition 0 Instead of guessing we need to conduct actual scientific research Hindsight Bias o The Iknewitallalong phenomenon o After learning the outcome of an event many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome Overconfidence o Believing you can do something better than you actually can Nature versus Nurture o Which one affects us more o Most psychologists believe it is a mixture of both Three Main Levels of Analysis o Biopsychosocial approach integrated approach that incorporates biological psychosocial and socialcultural levels of analysis o Each perspective is helpful but by itself fails to reveal the whole picture 0 Biological influences genetic predispositions genetic mutations natural selection of adaptive physiology and behaviors genes responding to the environment Psychological in uences I learned fears and other learned expectations emotional responses cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations Behavior or mental process Socialcultural in uences 0 presence of others 0 cultural societal and family expectations peer and other group influences 39 compelling models such as the media Psychology s Current Perspectives Neuroscience How the body and brain enable emotions Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one s genes Behavior Genetics How much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts Behavioral How we learn observable responses Cognitive How we encode process store and retrieve information Socialcultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures Two Types of Research Basic Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Applied Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems Psychology s Subfields Research Biological Explore the links between brain and mind Developmental study changing abilities from womb to tomb Cognitive Study how we perceive think and solve problems Personality Investigate our persistent traits Social explore how we view and affect one another Psychology s Subfields Applied Clinical Studies assesses and treats people with psychological disorders Counseling Helps people cope with academic vocational and marital challenges Educational Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings IndustrialOrganizational Studies and advises on behavior in the workplace Clinical Psychology vs Psychiatry SQ3R CP Branch of psychology that studies assesses and treats people with psychological disorders P Branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders 0 Practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy Survey Look at the big picture what each section covers Question Form questions to answer as you read Read Actively search for the answer to your question Rehearse Repeat the information you have just read in your own words Review Read over notes and important info Research Strategies How Psychologists Ask amp Answer Questions 1132011 92600 PM Thinking Critically with Psychological Science o What About Intuition and Common Sense 0 O O O 0 We operate on two levels conscious and unconscious We fly mostly on autopilot Hindsight and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition Scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion Hindsight Bias The tendency to believe after learning an outcome that we would have foreseen it Found in various cultures both genders and among people of all ages Common sense can be said to more easily describe what has happened than what will happen Judgmental Overconfidence Humans tend to think we know more than we do We are often more confident than correct Knowing the answer to a problem tends to make us more confident in our ability to have solved it o Scientific Attitude O O Composed of curiosity passion for exploration skepticism doubting and questioning and humility ability to accept responsibility when wrong Critical Thinking Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions Rather it examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions The Scientific Method o Constructing Theories O O 0 Theory An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events Hypothesis A testable prediction often implied by a theory Operational Definition A statement of the procedures used to define research variables For example human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures 0 Replication Repeating the essence of a study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances 0 Good theories explain by Organizing and linking observed facts Implying hypotheses that offer testable predictions and sometimes practical applications 0 Methods Descriptive Describe behaviors often using case studies surveys or naturalistic observations Correlational Associate different factors Experimental Manipulate factors to discover their effects o Description 0 The Case Study A case study examines one individual in depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all Individual cases may be misleading if the subject happens to be atypical in the area being studied 0 The Survey Survey a technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group Wording Effects n Even subtle changes in the order or wording of questions can have major effects a Positive wording is more likely to get approval not allowing is more likable than forbidding Random Sampling a Population all the cases in a group being studied from which samples may be drawn Except for national studies this does not refer to a country s whole population Random sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Large representative samples are better than small ones but small representative samples are better than large unrepresentative samples 0 Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Does not explain behavior only describes Does not control for factors that may influence behavior Can provide data for correlational research 0 Correlation Correlation the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well a factor predicts the other a The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship ranging from 1 to 1 correlation indicates a direct relationship meaning the two things increase or decrease together 1 correlation indicates an inverse relationship as one increases the other decreases Correlation and causation n 1 Correlations point us towards often imperfect predictions Does this mean thing one causes the other No o No matter how strong the relationship correlation never proves causation o It merely indicates the possibility of a causeeffect relationship Illusory correlations n IC the perception of a relationship where none exists c When we believe there is a relationship between two things we are likely to notice and recall instances that seemingly confirm our belief Perceiving order in random events a Random sequences often don t look random n Some happenings seem so extraordinary that we feel we must find an explanation a With a large enough sample any outrageous thing is likely to happen Experimentation o Controlling statistically removing differences not everything can be controlled for 0 Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors independent variables to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process dependent variable By random assignment of participants the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors 0 Random Assignment RA assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups Experimental group the group that is exposed to the treatment to one version of the independent variable Control group the group not exposed to the treatment a Contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment Doubleblind procedure both the research participants and staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo Placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which the recipient assumes is an active agent 0 Independent and Dependent Variables IV the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied DV the outcome factor the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV Not all proposed experiments are ethical n We can not force children to be raised by abusive parents we can only survey the results of such abuse if it occurred naturally Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology o An experiment s purpose is not to recreate the exact behaviors of everyday life but to test theoretical principles 0 It is the resulting principles not the specific findings that help explain everyday behaviors o Culture the enduring behaviors ideas attitudes and traditions shared by a groups of people transmitted from one generation to the next 0 Culture shapes our behavior influences standards etc o Experimenters must be aware of these differences 0 However certain things remain constant regardless of culture such as a reading disorder o Gender also matters but men and women are very similar in many regards o International ethical principles to guide investigators 0 Obtain potential participants informed consent 0 Protect participants from harm and discomfort 0 Keep information about individual participants confidential 0 Fully explain the research afterwards o Psychology is not valuefree 0 Researchers choose topics based on values 0 Values can bias observations In Class 1 Theories Example Low selfesteem feeds depression generate or refine 3 Research and Observath s ample Administer 27H 3m ifa aw score on one xlamllalle People predicts a high score 39 an the ether lead to depression scale 0 Measures of Central Tendency 0 Mode The most frequently occurring score in a distribution 0 Mean The arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores that were added together 0 Median The middle score in a rank ordered distribution 0 Measures of Variation 0 Range The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution 0 Standard Deviation A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean 0 Normal Curve 0 A symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data normal distribution Most scores fall near the mean 0 Research Ethics 0 Informed consent 0 Minimize discomfort 0 Keep data confidential o If deception is necessary debriefing must occur 0 Must be approved by an Institutional Review Board Neural and Hormonal Systems 1132011 92600 PM Neural Communication o Neurons o Nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous system 0 Composed of Cell body The cell s lifesupport center Dendrites Receive messages from other cells Axon Passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons muscles or glands Terminal Branches of Axon Form junctions with other cells Myelin Sheath Covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses Neural Impulse Electrical signal traveling down the axon n Speed of travel varies but always slower than that of electricity through a wire Two types of signals excitatory and inhibitory u If the number of excitatory inhibitory signals exceeds a minimum level of stimulation the combined signals create an action potential Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse o How Neurons Communicate 0 Information passed between neurons via action potential APs are fired when a neuron is stimulated All or nothing either it is completely sent or not at all Whether it is sent or not is based on the balance of inhibitor and receptor neurons 0 Synapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft o Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons When released by the sending neuron neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse Neurotransmitter unlocks tiny channels at the receiving site Electrically charged atoms flow in exciting or inhibiting the receiving neuron s readiness to fire Reuptake the sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters o How Neurotransmitters Influence Us 0 Acetylcholine messenger at every junction between a motor neuron which carries info from the brain and spinal cord to the body s tissues and skeletal muscles Enables muscle action learning and memory When released to muscle cell receptors the muscle contracts If transmission is blocked the muscles can t contract and we are paralyzed n This happens during some kinds of anesthesia Dopamine influences movement learning attention and emotion Serotonin affects mood hunger sleep and arousal Norepinephrine helps control alertness and arousal Endorphins lessen pain and boost mood Short for endogenous morphine Agonist drugs that are similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to the receptor and mimic its effects Antagonist binds to receptors and blocks the neurotransmitter s effects The Nervous System o Nervous System body s speedy electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems 0 Nerves bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the CNS to the rest of the body 0 O O O O Sensory carry incoming info from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord Motor carry outgoing info from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands Interneurons within brain and spinal cord communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs o The Peripheral Nervous System 0 Sensory and motor neurons responsible for gathering info and transmitting CNS decisions to other body parts 0 Two components Somatic division of peripheral nervous system that controls body s skeletal muscles Also called the skeletal nervous system a Enables voluntary control of skeletal muscles Autonomic control glands and muscles of internal organs n Its sympathetic division arouses its parasympathetic division calms Work together to keep you in a steady internal state a System can be consciously overridden but usually autonomous o The Central Nervous System 0 Made up of brain and spinal cord Neural networks clusters of brain neurons Spinal cord information highway connecting PNS Reflex simple automatic response to sensory stimulus such as the kneejerk response governed by neural pathways in spinal cord Reflexes are so fast they often kick in before you know what s going on n Ex hand touches flame hand moves before you feel the burn a If spinal cord is severed reflexes may still work depends on severitylocation of separation O O O Endocrine System Endocrine system body s slow chemical communication system a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream Hormones chemical messengers manufactured by endocrine glands travel through bloodstream and affect other tissues 0 Influence interest in sex food and aggression Messages tend to outlast the effects of neural messages 0 Ex feeling of anger even after the cause has passed Adrenal glands endocrine glands that sit just atop the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress 0 Epinephrine and norepinephrine Pituitary gland most influential gland of ES Under influence of hypothalamus the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands 0 Master gland who serves under hypothalamus The Brain 1132011 92600 PM Older Brain Structures The Brainstem o Brainstem oldest part and central core of the brain beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull responsible for automatic survival functions 0 Medulla base of the brainstem controls heartbeat and breathing Pons right above medulla helps coordinate movements Brainstem is crossover point where nerves connect to opposite sides of body The Thaamus o Thaamus brain s sensory switchboard located on top of the brainstem directs messages to sensory receiving areas in cortex and transmits replies to cerebellum and medulla o Receives messages from all sense except smell and routes them to proper higher brain regions 0 Also receives some of the higher brain s replies The Reticuar Formation 0 RF nerve network in brainstem that plays important role in controlling arousal The Cerebellum o Cerebellum little brain at rear end of brainstem functions include some nonverbal learning processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance The Limbic System 0 Limbic system neural system located below cerebral hemispheres associated with emotions and drives Contains hippocampus amygdala and hypothalamus Hippocampus processes memory The Amygdala Amygdala two lima beansized neural clusters in limbic system linked to emotion Rage and fear 0 The Hypothalamus Hypothalamus lies below thalamus directs several maintenance activities eating drinking body 0 O O O O temperature helps govern endocrine system via pituitary gland and is linked to emotion and reward Reward centers parts of brain that when triggered give off a pleasurable sensation Reward deficiency syndrome genetically disposed deficiency in natural brain systems for pleasure and wellbeing that leads people to crave whatever provides the missing pleasure or relieves negative feelings The Cerebral Cortex o Cerebrum 2 large hemispheres that contribute 85 of the brain s weight o Cerebral Cortex covers cerebrum intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells body s ultimate control and informationprocessing center 0 Expands more the more advanced an animal is o Structure of the Cortex o Wrinkles allow for a larger cortex within less area 0 4 lobes in each hemisphere Frontal lies just behind forehead involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments Parietal top of head and toward the rear receives sensory input for touch and body position Occipital lies at back of head includes areas that receive info from visual fields Temporal roughly above the ears includes auditory areas each receiving info primarily from opposite ear o Functions of the Cortex 0 Motor Functions Motor cortex area at rear of frontal lobes that controls voluntary movement 0 Mapping the Motor Cortex Many experiments done to find out what part of MC controls what Helped open door for advanced prosthetics o Sensory Functions Sensory cortex front of parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations The more sensitive the area the more SC devoted to it Visual cortex in occipital lobes Auditory cortex temporal lobes 0 Association Areas AA areas of cerebral cortex that aren t involved in primary motor or sensory functions rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering thinking speaking and integrating info Not triggered by electrical probing About 3 of cerebral cortex 0 Language Specialization and Integration Aphasia impairment of language usually caused by lefthemisphere damage to Broca s area impairing speaking or to Wernicke s area impairing understanding a Can impair one use of language while leaving others fine ex speaking vs comprehension Broca s area controls language expression area of frontal lobe usually in left hemisphere that directs muscle movements involved in speech a Damage disrupts speaking Wernicke s area controls language reception brain area usually in left temporal lobe that is involved in language comprehension and expression a Damage disrupts understanding Angular gyrus transforms visual representations into an auditory code involved in reading aloud n Damage disrupts ability to read o The Brian s Plasticity o Plasticity brain s ability to change especially during childhood by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience 0 Neurogenesis formation of new neurons Our Divided Brain Hemispheric specialization Iateralization the brain s 2 sides serve differing functions Splitting the Brain 0 Corpus callosum large band of neural fibers connecting the 2 brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them 0 Split brain condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers mainly those of the corpus callosum connecting them RightLeft Differences in the Intact Brain 0 Perceptual tasks go to right hemisphere 0 Left hemisphere involved in speaking and calculating Behavior Genetics amp Evolutionary Psychology1132011 92600 PM Behavior Genetics Predicting Individual Differences o Behavior genetics study of relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior o Environment every nongenetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us o Genes Our Codes for Life 0 Chromosome threadlike structure made of DNA molecules that contain genes 0 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid a complex molecule containing the genetic info that makes up the chromosomes 0 Genes biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein Environmental events turn on genes When turned on genes provide the code for creating protein molecules the building blocks of physical development c Twin and Adoption Studies 0 Identical Versus Fraternal Twins Identical twins develop from single fertilized egg that splits in two creating two genetically identical organisms n More similar in behavior as well Fraternal twins develop from separate fertilized eggs genetically no closer than normal brothers and sisters but they share a fetal environment 0 Separated Twins Often strikingly similar to each other Shows importance of nature 0 Biological Versus Adoptive Relatives People who grow up together do not often resemble each other in personality But parenting does still affect a child s development c Temperament Heredity and Personality o Temperament a person s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity 0 Three baby temperaments Easy cheerful relaxed and predictable in feeding and sleeping Difficult irritable intense and unpredictable Slowtowarmup tend to resist or withdraw from new people and situations o GeneEnvironmentInteractions 0 Nature and nurture work together 0 Genes are selfregulating they react to situations Evolutionary Psychology Understanding Human Nature o EP the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection o Natural selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations o Natural Selection and Adaptation 0 NS allows a species to adapt to its surroundings o Mutation a random error in gene replication that leads to a change Evolutionary Success Helps Explain Similarities 0 Our Genetic Legacy Genes that aid in survival are passed on o Evolutionary Psychology Today Based on Darwin s theory of evolution An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality 0 Gender Differences in Sexuality Men almost always more into sex 0 Natural Selection and Mating Preferences Men spread their genes hence attraction to multiple partners Women stuck with one kid at a time want one man who can support them Men attracted to younger women or those in their sexual peak In Class o Genotype the genetic makeup of a cell an organism or an individual ie the specific allele makeup of the individual o Phenotype any observable characteristic or trait of an organism such as its morphology development biochemical or physiological properties o Endophenotype a psychiatric concept and a special kind of biomarker The purpose of the concept is to divide behavioral symptoms into more stable phenotypes with a clear genetic connection o Gene Environment Correlation when exposure to environmental conditions depends on an individual39s genotype 0 Passive rGE the association between the genotype a child inherits from her parents and the environment in which the child is raised For example because parents who have histories of antisocial behavior which is moderately heritable are at elevated risk of abusing their children a case can be made for saying that maltreatment may be a marker for genetic risk that parents transmit to children rather than a causal risk factor for children s conduct problems 0 Active rGE when an individual possesses a heritable propensity to select environmental exposure For example individuals who are characteristically extroverted may seek out very different social environments than those who are shy and withdrawn 0 Evocative rGE when an individual39s heritable behavior evokes an environmental response For example the association between marital conflict and depression may reflect the tensions that arise when engaging with a depressed spouse rather than a causal effect of marital conflict on risk for depression Separated Twins Personality Intelligence Abilities Attitudes Interests Fears Brain Waves Heart Rate Parenting Influences Child ren s Attitudes Values Manners Beliefs Faith Politics Environmental Influences 1132011 92600 PM Parents and Peers o Parents and Early Experiences 0 Experience and Brain Development People must be stimulated for proper brain growth This includes social interactions and handling of infants Not using a sense at a young age will prevent you from being able to use it fully later 0 How Much Credit or Blame Do Parents Deserve Parenting affects development Most obvious when dealing with extremes n Ex abusive parents abusive child But not really responsible for child s personalitiesmost traits o Peer Influence 0 Parents and peers are complimentary as parents can help choose who and what surrounds their children 0 Ultimately peers are typically more powerful influences Cultural Influences o Culture enduring behaviors ideas attitudes values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next o Variation Across Cultures o Cultures vary over the world 0 Each have their own norms Big norm difference between cultures in regards to personal space expressiveness and pace of life o Variation Over Time 0 Cultures adjust over time o Culture and the Self 0 Some cultures preach individualism while others prefer collectivism o Individualism giving priority to one s own goals over group goals and defining one s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications o Collectivism giving priority to group goals often those of extended family or work group and defining one s identity accordingly o Culture and ChildRearing 0 Family self a feeling that what shames the child shames the family Part of Asian and African cultures 0 Many different forms of childrearing 0 None is inherently the right way o Developmental Similarities Across Groups 0 Humans are more alike than different 0 Applies with different cultures and inside the same one Gender Development o Gender Similarities and Differences 0 Each gender has its own issues and perks but they are overall quite similar 0 Gender and Aggression Aggression physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone Men tend to be more physically aggressive getting into fights Women more verbally gossip 0 Gender and Social Power In most societies men are more socially dominant As leaders men tend to be more autocratic while women are democratic Such behaviors help sustain social power inequities 0 Gender and Social Connectedness Females more interdependent than males Tend to spend more time talking to friends while guys like to do activities o The Nature of Gender 0 Believed that gender differences are based on nature and nurture 0 Biological influences sex chromosomes and sex hormones o The Nurture of Gender 0 Gender Roles Role set of expectations about social position defining how those in the position ought to behave Gender role set of expected behaviors for males or for females n Vary intensely by culture 0 Gender and ChildRearing Gender identity our sense of being male or female Gender typing acquisition of traditional masculine or feminine role Social learning theory theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished Gender is big deal for kids a Divide world into two groups boy and girl a Assume their gender is the better one and only associate with others of same sex Developmental Issues Prenatal Development and the Newborn1132011 92600 PM Two Major Developmental Issues o Already discussed nature or nurture o Is development gradual and continual or a series of discrete stages o Is it characterized over time more by stability or change o Continuity and Stages 0 Stage theories not exactly correct but still useful 0 Brain experiences growth spurts in childhood and puberty o Stability and Change 0 There is a continuity to personality 0 Researchers generally agree on the following First 2 years of life don t really predict traits Older children and adolescents also change As we age our personalities begin to stabilize Temperament and emotionality tend to be consistent over time In some ways we all change with age Shy babies can open up and become outgoing children Some changes occur without changing a person s position relative to others of the same age 0 We need stability and change Stability enables us to depend on others provides our identity and motivates our concern for the healthy development of kids Change motivates our concern about present influences sustains our hope for a brighter future and lets us adapt and grow with experience Conception o 200 million sperm race to the egg o The ones that reach it release digestive enzymes that eat its protective coating o One sperm enters and if it is accepted others are blocked out Prenatal Development o Zygote fertilized egg enters a 2week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo o 10 days later zygote attached to uterine wall Remains here for 37 weeks Zygote s inner cells become the embryo o Embryo developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month Over next 6 weeks organs start to form and function 9 weeks after conception it is now a fetus o Fetus developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth Teratogens agents such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm Placenta provides nutrients and screens against harm o Teratogens like alcohol and HIV can slip through though and harm the fetus Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman s heavy drinking In severe cases symptoms include noticeable facial disproportions The Competent Newborn Babies come packed with certain reflexes necessary for life Tonguing swallowing and breathing are all important we are born knowing them not taught We are born preferring sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness Infancy and Childhood 1132011 92600 PM Physical Development o Brain Development 0 Neurons not fully developed at birth Ages 3 6 most rapid growth in front lobes Association areas last to develop Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience o Motor Development 0 Maturation of muscles and nervous system enables emergence of skills 0 Tend to learn skills in same order but timing differs Roll over 9 sitting 9 crawling 9 walking 0 Maturations and Infant Memory Average age of conscious memory is 35 years Babies capable of learning before that time Cognitive Development o Cognition all mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating o Children s brains aren t underdeveloped adult brains 0 Kids reason differently in ways that seem extremely illogical to adults o Piaget believed kid s brains developed in a series of stages o Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets info o Assimilation interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas o Accommodation adapting our current understandings schemas to incorporate new info o Piaget s theory and Current Thinking o 4 stages of cognitive development 0 Sensorimotor Stage Spans from birth to about 2 years Infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities Babies live in the moment out of sight out of mind 0 O O Before 8 months lack object permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Develop object permanence and stranger anxiety 0 Preoperational Stage Ages 2 about 6 or 7 The stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete language Develop pretend play and egocentrism Egocentrism n Preoperational child s difficulty taking another s point of view Theory of Mind n People s ideas about their own and others mental states about their feelings perceptions and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict 0 Concrete Operational Stage From 6 or 7 11 years of age Children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events Can comprehend math and conservation theory a CT two containers experiment 0 Formal Operational Stage Begins around age 12 People begin to think logically about abstract concepts Abstract logic and potential for mature moral reasoning o Reflecting on Piaget s Theory 0 Today s researchers see development as more continuous than did Piaget 0 Implications for Parents and Teachers Young children incapable of adult logic Social Development o Stranger anxiety fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning by about 8 months of age o The Brain mind and socialemotional behavior develop together o Origins of Attachment 0 Body Contact Infants become attached to warm loving caregivers Much parentinfant interaction occurs through touch 0 Familiarity Critical period optimal period shortly after birth when an organism s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Imprinting process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life a Can be seen in many birds Human children don t imprint but do become attached to people they know 0 Attachment Differences Attachment and Adult Relationships 1 Basic trust a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers o Forms in securely attached children Deprivation of Attachment o Abusedneglected kids lack attachment o Become sad withdrawn frightened etc o Most abusive parents were abused or neglected as children Parenting Styles o Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience no wiggle room o Permissive parents submit to children s desires make few demands and use little punishment o Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive exert control by setting and enforcing rules but also explain the reasons for the rules And especially with older kids encourage open discussion and allow some exceptions to rules Adolescence Adolescence 1132011 92600 PM Adolescence time between childhood and adulthood Physical Development Puberty period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing Primary sex characteristics body structures that make sexual reproduction possible Secondary sex characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as female breasts and hips male voice quality and body hair Girls have earlier pubertal growth spurt Boys keep growing and become taller than girls after age 14 Menarche first menstrual period Cognitive Development Developing Reasoning Power 0 0 Can now begin to engage in abstract thinking But frontal lobe doesn t fully develop until age 25 Developing Morality O O Discerning right from wrong Preconventional morality before age 9 most children s morality focuses on selfinterest they obey rules either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards Conventional morality by early adolescence morality focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules Postconventional morality with the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought people may reach a third moral level Actions are judged right because they flow from people s rights or from selfdefined basic ethical principles Social Development Increased level of social awareness O O O 0 About their own thinking What others are thinking What others are thinking about them How ideals can be reached They criticize society parents and even themselves o Forming an Identity 0 We all have different selves based on where we are and who we re with Identity our sense of self according to Erikson the adolescent s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles Social identity the we aspect of our selfconcept the part of our answer to Who am I that comes from our group memberships Intimacy in Erikson s theory the ability to form close loving relationships a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood o Parent and Peer Relationships 0 0 By adolescence kids begin to pull away from parents and become closer with friend groups Teens who feel outcast suffer greatly usually in silence Few lash out physically at peers o Emerging Adulthood O O O Spans ages 1825 On average emerging adults marry in their midtwenties Inbetween time of adolescent dependence and full independence of responsible adulthood Adulthood 1132011 92600 PM Physical Development o Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood o Menopause time of natural cessation of menstruation also refers to biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines o Physical Changes in Later Life 0 Sensory Abilities Muscle strength reaction time stamina and the senses all diminish with time 0 Health Immune system weakens with age leaving elderly more susceptible to lifethreatening ailments cancer But because of the accumulation of antibodies suffer fewer shortterm ailments cold or flu Important brain regions begin to atrophy Cognitive Development o Aging and Memory 0 As we age we can remember some things well Traumatic or really important experiences Can typically recognize if not recall words Older people s capacity to learn and remember skills also declines less than verbal recall o Aging and Intelligence 0 Crystallized intelligence our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tends to increase with age 0 Fluid intelligence our ability to reason speedily and abstractly tends to decrease during late adulthood Social Development o Adulthood s Ages and Stages 0 Most life crises think midlife crisis don t stem from age but from a major event illness divorce etc 0 Social clock culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage parenthood and retirement Varies between eras and cultures o Adulthood s Commitments o Intimacy forming close relationships 0 O 17 18 19 22 23 24 Guest Lecture Module 17 Classical Conditioning review I 247 Ivan Pavlov and dog Classical conditioning a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Times of Stimuli and Responses 0 Neutral Stimuli 7elicit no response before conditioning tone 0 Unconditioned Response 7the naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus salivating o Unconditioned Stimulus 7 triggers without previous conditioning a response food 0 Conditioned Response 7 a previously neutral stimulus that is conditioned because it now reacts to the unconditioned stimulus tone causing saliva Example on Page 240 Higherorder conditioning OR secondorder conditioning 7 a new neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus if it s associated with a previously conditioned stimulus EX Page 242 Associative learning is when we learn to associate two stimuli classical or a response and its consequences operant Stages of Classical Conditioning Acquisition 7 initial learning stage 9 timing is key about 12 a second 0 Neutral stimulus must come before unconditioned stimulus Extinction 7 If conditioned response recurs repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus the conditioned response weakens and returns to being an NS 0 Ex If the dog hears the tone without getting food over and over again he will stop salivating at the mere sound of the tone Spontaneous Recovery 7 the reappearance of a weakened conditioned response after a pause Stimulus Generalization 7 the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the conditioned response 0 Like Pavlov s dog salivating to a different tone Stimulus Discrimination 7 the ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli 0 Being able to recognize the right tone to salivate to as opposed to salivating to a tone of a different pitch Extending Pavlov s Understanding 0 Cognitive and biological processes were overlooked by Pavlov and Watson in their experiments Animals can learn predictability and expectancy so cognition needs to be taken into account cognitive processes the more reliable the stimulus is at predicting the impending event the stronger the association will be between the two Pavlov and Watson assumed that the basic laws of learning were the same for both humans and animals Learning enables organisms to adapt to their environments Pavlov s Legacy Many responses can be classically conditioned in many different organisms 7 Pavlov didn t just teach us that you can teach an old dog new tricks Showed us how a process such as learning can be studied objectively Isolating elementary behaviors Laid the foundation for behaviorism Applications of Classical Conditioning treatment of drug abuse advertising Little Albert s fear of rats Module 18 Operant Conditioning 0 Organisms associate their own actions with consequences 0 Actions followed by reinforcers increase 0 Actions followed by punishers decrease Skinner s Experiments 0 Law of effect 7 rewarded behavior is likely to recur o Operant chamber Skinner box 0 Barlever to get food out with 7 reinforce food 0 Used shaping 7 a procedure in which reinforcers gradually guide an animal s actions toward a desired behavior Shaping Behavior Reinforcers guide an animal to a desired behavior Build on animal s existing behaviors Successive approximations 7 reward responses that get the animal closer to the desired behavior Types of Reinforcers Reinforcers 7 anything that increases the frequency of a preceding response any consequence that strengthens behavior 0 Ex Attention food money Positive reinforcement 7 strengthens a response by presenting a pleasurable stimulus after a response Negative reinforcement 7 strengthens a response by reducing or removing something undesirable or unpleasant 0 Ex Snooze button on alarm clock 7 increases the odds that you will perform this action again Negative reinforcement is NOT punishment 0 It REMOVES punishing event Prima and Secondary Reinforcers Primary reinforcer 7 an innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need 0 Getting food when hungry 0 Having a headache go away o Conditioned reinforce 7 a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce 0 Ex Money is a conditioned reinforce if their desire for monet is derived from their desire for food T I and Delayed Reinfnrr erq 0 Immediate Reinforcer a reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior 0 A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press 0 Delayed Reinforcer a reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior 0 A paycheck that comes at the end of a week Reinforcement Schedules 0 Continuous reinforcement 7 reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs 0 Learning occurs rapidly 0 Partial Reinforcement 7 responses are sometimes reinforced sometimes not 0 Ex A salesman doesn t always make a sale after a sales pitch 0 Produces a greater resistance to extinction o FixedRatio Schedules 7 reinforce after every so many 0 Ex Free coffee after every 10 you buy 0 FixedInterval Schedules 7 reinforce the behavior every so often 0 Reinforcement after a xed time such as checking the mail 0 VariableRatio Schedules 7 reinforces after an unpredictable number 0 Ex Slot machines 0 VariableInterval Schedules 7 reinforces unpredictany often 0 Ex Checking for texts Punishment 0 Punisher 7 any consequence that decreases the frequency of a behavior 0 Opposite of a reinforcer Punished behavior is suppressed not forgotten Punishment teaches discrimination 0 Not okay to swear in the house but okay to swear elsewhere 0 Punishment can teach fear 0 Associates the punishment with fear 0 Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems 0 Tells you what NOT to do rather than a reinforce which tells you what TO do WAYS TO DECREASE BEHAVIOR Type of Possible Punisher Description Examples Spanking punishment an aversive stimulus a parking ticket Negative Withdraw a Timeout frurn punishment desirable stimulus privileges such as time with friends revoked driver s license Extending Skinner s Understanding o Latent learning learning that only becomes apparent when there is an incentive to demonstrate it 0 ex a rat put in a maze with nothing in goal box is like a person sightseeing just wandering around looking at everything but when you put something in the goal box later the rat will run that maze as quickly as a rat taught to run the maze o cognitive map 7 eX A rat s mental representation of the maze o biological predisposition Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive 0 Applications of Operant Conditioning 0 Intrinsic Motivation The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake o Extrinsic Motivation The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments 0 An individualized approach to teaching 0 Kids will learn better when the teaching is adapted toward their own biological predispositions 0 At work bosses should reward speci c achievable behaviors with immediate reinforcement instinctive drift occurs as the animals revert back to ther biologically predisposed patterns 0 Reinforcers affect productivity Many companies now allow employees to share profits and participate in company ownership 0 At home reinforcing good behavior increases the occurrence of these behaviors Ignoring unwanted behavior decreases their occurrence COMPARISON OF CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Response Involuntary automatic Voluntary operates on environment Acquisition Associating events CS Associating response with a announces US consequence reinforcer or punisher Extinction CR decreases when CS Responding decreases when is repeatedly presented alone reinforcement stops Cognitive Organisms develop expectation that Organisms develop expectation that processes CS signals the arrival of US a response will be reinforced or punished they also exhibit latent learning without reinforcement Biological Natural predispositions constrain Organisms best learn behaviors predispositions what stimuli and responses can easily be associated similar to their natural behaviors unnatural behaviors instinctively drift back toward natural ones Module 19 Learning By Observation 0 Observational learning 7 learning by observing and imitating others 0 Mirror neurons 7 frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so 0 The brain s mirroring of another s action may enable imitation and empathy o Bandura s Bobo Doll experiments 0 Previous exposure to the adult s aggressive behavior toward the Bobo doll lowered the child s inhibitions and they too lashed out at the Bobo doll 0 We watch others behaviors and learn to anticipate consequences associated with those behaviors Applications of Observational Learning 0 Prosocial learning lead to prosocial effects 0 eX to encourage your child to read surround them with books and read towith them 0 Antisocial learning 0 abusive parents tend to produce more aggressive children 0 children learn from TV that bullying is an effective way to control others Module 22 Thinking 0 Thinking or cognition refers to a process that involves knowing understanding remembering and communicating Thinking involves a number of mental activities 0 Concepts Problem solving Decision making Judgment formation OOO Concepts 0 Concepts 7 mental groupings of similar objects events ideas and people 0 EX Chair highchair reclining chair kitchen chair dentist s chair 0 Without concepts we would need a different name for every object and idea 0 EX Speci c balls the definitionidea of anger 0 We organize concepts into hierarchies 0 Once our categories eXist we use them ef ciently wild nun sued i am mummy mllir nimzd u o 7 We form some concepts by definition 0 EX Triangle 0 Prototype 7 a mental image or example that incorporates all the features we associate with a category 0 Ex A robin and a penguin are both birds but we more readily identify a robin as a bird 0 The bird prototype is a bipedal animal with wings and feathers 0 As you move from prototypes boundaries begin to blur o Is a whale a sh or a mammal Problem Solving Trial and Error Algorithm exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution 0 Ex Walking down every aisle of a grocery store to find a product Heuristics simple thinking strategies that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently Insight 7 we puzzle over an answer and suddenly come to it in a ash of insight 0 involves a sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem Obstacles of Problem Solving 0 Confirmation Bias 7 we tend to seek evidence verifying our ideas more eagerly than we seek evidence that might refute our ideas 0 2 7 4 7 6 pattern example 7 3 ascending 3s people assumed they were counting by twos o Fixation 7the inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective 0 A mental set predisposes how we think I We approach things in certain ways because that approach has worked for us in the past 0 Ex Matchstick example 0 Perceptual Set Presented with ambiguous information people tend to see what they want to see Types of Heuristics o Representativeness Heuristic 7 to judge the likelihood of things in terms of how well they represent a particular prototype 0 Ex Of the short slim pretty girl that like to read poetry 7truck driver or Ivy League professor Better chance realistically of being a truck driver 0 Availability Heuristic 0 When we base our judgment on the mental availability of info 0 Recency vividness and how distinct something is gives it perceived increased availability 0 Makes us overfeel and underthink Overconfidence 0 People overestimate their performance times 0 Opposite exaggerated fear Belief Perseverance Clinging to one s initial conceptions even after the basis on which they were founded has been discredited The tendency to cling to our beliefs inthe face of contrary evidence Fuels social con ict o Remedy consider the opposite Intuition Effects of Framing 0 Decisions and judgments may be signi cantly affected depending upon how an issue is framed 0 Ex in countries where the default option is yes but you can opt out of being an organ donor almost 100 of people are donors In countries where the default option is no but you can opt in to being an organ donor only 25 of people choose to be a donor Module 23 Language and Th0ugl1t o The way in which we communicate meaning to ourselves and others 0 Can be verbal written or signed Language Development 0 Kids learn language fast and early 0 Learn 3500 wordsyear after age 1 0 60000 words by the time we graduate high school Learn by observation and mimicking Crying is an early primitive language All babies babble the same way so we know that they re very malleable to learning new languages 7 start at about 4 months Oneword stage of speech around lSt birthday TwoWord stage around 2nd birthday 7 called telegraphic speech Receptive language ability to comprehend speech Productive language ability to produce speech SUMMARY OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Month approximate Stage 4 Babbles many speech sounds 1o Babbling resembles household language 24 Twoword telegraphic speech Language develops rapidly into complete sentences Explaining Language Development 0 Skinner 7 Operant Learning39 Can eXplain language development with familiar leaning principles 0 Association 7 sights and sounds with the words of sounds o Imitation 7 of the words and syntaX uttered by others 0 Reinforcement 7with smiles and hugs when a child says something right 0 Chomsky 7 Inborn Universal Grammar39 We have an innate ability to acquire language 0 explains the rapid pace with which we learn new words sentences and the errors we tend to make when we re young we tend to generalize grammatical rules 0 All human languages have the same grammatical building blocks subjects nouns verbs etc I Critical Periods 7 learning a language must occur at a young age or else the brain s languagelearning capacity never fully develops 0 It s betvveenbirth and age 7 Thinking and Language I Linguistic Determinism 7 language imposes different conceptions of reality 0 Ex the Hopi have no past tense for verbs and they tend not to think about the past as much as other population Language can shape how you think of yourself depending on the vocabulary you are given to develop a sense of selfwith 0 Words don t determine what we think but they do in uence our thinking Animal Thinkng and Language I They can form concepm display insight and display numerical ability and are natural tool users I Things humans and animals have in common 0 Concept Formation o sig 0 Problem Solving 0 Culture 0 I Can animals learn Well what is intelligence 0 How much one can actuall learn 0 There are different types of intelligence I Animals have various ways of communicating with one another I Gardner and Gardner used American Sign Language to train Washoe a chimp who learned 181 signs by the age of 32 Module 24 Intelligence I Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience solve problems anduse knowledge to adapt to new situations I Charles Spearman7 general intelligence g o Developed factor analysis 7 a stat procedure that identi es clusters of related items 0 A common set of intelligence the g factor underlies all our intelligent behav1or Theories of Multiple lntelligences 1i Linguistic T 5 Eliot poet Howard Gardner 7 multiple abilities 2 Logicalmathematical Albert Einstein scientist that come in packages 3 Musical Igor Stravinsky composer I avant syndrome excel in 4 Spatial Pablo Picasso artist ablhtlesunrelated to general 5 Bodily kinesthetic Martha GrahaM dancer intelligence I I 6 lntrapersanal self Sigmund Freud psychiatrist 7 Interpersonal other people Mahatma Gandhi leader 8 Naturalist Charles Darwin naturalist 0 Very brilliant in random things but do not have basic abilities like language 0 Robert Sternberg s 3 Intelligences 0 Analytical academic problemsolving 7 assessed by IQ tests I Welldefined problems with a single answer 0 Creative 7 reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating ideas 0 Practical Intelligence that is required for everyday tasks street smarts Intelligence and Creativity 0 Creativity 7 the ability to produce novel and interesting ideas 0 Intelligence tests require convergent thinking39 a single correct answer 0 Creativity tests require divergent thinking 0 Sternberg s 5 components of creativity 0 Expertise 7 a welldeveloped knowledge base that we use as mental building blocks Imaginative thinking skills 7 provide the ability to see things in novel ways recognize patterns and make connections 0 Venturesome personality 7 seeks new experiences rather than following the pack 0 Intrinsic motivation 7 a motivation from within to be creative 0 A creative environment 7 sparks supports and re nes creative ideas Emotional Intelligence 0 An aspect of social intelligence 0 4 components 0 Perceive emotions Recognize emotions in faces music and stories 0 Understand emotion Predict emotions how they change and blend 0 Manage emotions Express emotions in different situations 0 Use emotions Utilize emotions to adapt or be creative 0 People that do well with emotional intelligence enjoy hi gherquality interactions with friend Assessing Intelligence 0 Alfred Binet 7developed an IQ test when France began requiring all students to attend school 0 Said each child has a mental age 7 the level of performance of the typical kid that age 0 Test originally designed to improve education but feared it would be used to label children and limit their opportunities 0 Lewis Terman 7 the Innate IQ O I mental age x100 O chronological age 0 Intelligence quotient o Testtaker s performance relative to the average performance of others of the same age 0 Extremes 2 in each group I Mental retardation IQ atbelow 70 I High intelligence IQ atabove 135 0 David Wechsler 7 Verbal And Performance Subtests o WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 0 Consists of 11 subtests 0 Age 6 7 adults Principles of Test Construction 0 Standardization 7 Comparing individual performance with that of the group 0 Reliability 7 the extent to which a test yields consistent results 0 Splithalf Reliability Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are 0 TestRetest Reliability Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency o Validity 7 the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it was designed to 0 Content Validity Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait o Predictive Validity Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait Genetic and E 39 39 In uences on 0 Genetic in uences twin studies show that identical twins score very similarly on tests and their brains appear almost identical in regions associated with verbal and spatial intelligence 0 Environmental in uences adoption studies show that genetic in uences rather than environmental ones become more apparent as we age this isn t always the case though among the poor in which environmental conditions can override genetic in uences 0 Early intervention affects 7 ex Romanian orphans with minimalhuman interaction are delayed in their development 0 Heritability 7 the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes 0 Never pertains to an individual only how people differ from others 0 We credit heredity with 50 of the variation in intelligence among people being studied Group Differences in 39 quot39 Scores 0 Males and females differ in 7 ways 0 1 Girls are better spellers 2 Girls are verbally uent and have large vocabularies 3 Girls are better at locating objects 4 Girls are more sensitive to touch taste and color 5 Boys outnumber girls in counts of underachievement 6 Boys outperform girls at math problem solving but under perform at math computation o 7 Women detect emotions more easily than men do 0 Social and biological reasons for this 0 Ethnic Similarities and Differences o Racial groups differ in their average intelligence test scores 141139 00000
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