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by: Spencer Smitham


Spencer Smitham
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Smitham on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3980 at University of Georgia taught by Welsh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/202462/psyc-3980-university-of-georgia in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter7 928 Thursday Summarizing and interpreting data 00 Descriptive statistics Used to describe our data set o Measures of central Tendency a single number that represents o Mean the average of a group of scores Calculated by Adding up all scores Dividing by total number of scores Always Round to 2nd decimal place o Median It s the middle score To calculate put scores in numerical order gt EX 3524163 Put in order If you have even number of scores find middle two score and average them o MODE score that occurs most often to calculate put scores in order choose score that occurs most often If more than one score ties for most frequent they are both mode Mean is used most often in statistical tests When data is normal curve mean mode and median are equal or very close Data is not always normal though OUTLIERS any score that is very different from the majority of other scores o Affect mean by pulling the mean toward them o Make mean not good at representing entire data set When this happen report median also o Mode used for nominal and ordinal data 00 Measure of Variability Variability the difference bt an individual score and the mean How spared out the scores are gt EX Which data set had more variability Several way of measure variability 9 Range difference bt smallest and largest scores To calculate subtract smallest score form largest score EX using numbers from DISADVANTAGE only uses 2most extreme scores to calculate telling us nothing about scores in between gt EX 150156154200157 Range is 50 even though most scored bt 150157 830 CHAPTER 3 INTRO TO OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES AND RESEARCH METHODS Observation Techniques A Must start by de ning what you want to observe Conceptual definition dictionaryeveryday definition of a concept Operation definition take conceptual definition and turn it into an observable operation that can be measured in research Gather Data Naturalistic Observation careful observation of behavior in the natural environment without intervening directly a Observe in natural environment b Researcher does NOT interfere c Pro i realistic view of behavior d Con i hard to be unobtrusive ii Time consuming iii Doesn t allow discovery of causes iv Could be unethical no consent Survey questionnaires or interviews used to gather info a Pro i Fast and cheap ii Includes lots of people iii Can be used when you cannot directly observe behavior 1 Sex b Con i Can only describe cant talk about cause ii Relies on selfreport social desirability bias Systematic Observation researchers have high degree of control over situation in which behaviors are observed a Pro i Can control extraneous factors ii Can create conditions that make behavior of interest happen 1 ie children failing with puzzle b Con i lack of realism Archival Research technique that involves analyzing already collected data a Pros Psychology 3980 Research and Design EXAM l 816g11 Chapter 1 Psychological Research Introduction to Research Design This class focuses on How psychologists go about collecting info about how people think act and feel Critically evaluate info from research How is knowledge acquired 0 Authority Acceptance of an idea bc a respected source says it I Problems Authority may be wrong Authority may be misrepresenting facts 0 Deduction Acceptance ofan idea though the use of logical reasoning and current knowledge Use of deduction to make inferences based on previous experiences assumptions I Problem If original assumption is wrong or experiences are limited reach the wrong conclusions EX you are familiar with going to a FL beach you go ever year you know everything about what you need wear act etc But then you go to a CA beach what you are used to is not what you need to do there assumptions you make lead to wrong conclusion 0 Observation Acquiring knowledge by relying on what you observe in the world around you Ex Fundamental attribution errorPonozo Illusion I Problems People engage in errors in thinking perception amp judgment Limits knowledge to only things we ve directly observed SCIENCE The most widely accepted way of gaining knowledge Attempts to answer questions through careful observation amp collection of data Requires a systematic method of collecting amp understanding data Principles of Science I Empiricism Gaining knowledge through systematic observation I Determinism Assumption that phenomena have identifiable cause Peoples thoughts actions and behaviors all have quotcausesquot I Parsimony Assumption that the simplest explanation is the best EX you have a five year old that imitates his father so why does he imitate his father Some say he does it because he gets positive reward so he does it Freud would say it would have to do with the sexual desires etc I T t Hquot I 39 that I 39 39 can be tested and falsified through observation EX a lot of Freud s ideas cannot be tested because the reason was always it is in the unconscious Replication Assumption that using similar methods will result in similar outcomes if explanations are correct We use replication to make sure our conclusions are accurate Double check findings for example quotthe horse who does mathquot Objectives of Science I Description To define the phenomena identify variables that affect it Explanation Knowing why a phenomenon exists amp what causes it So why does my quotgreen liquid cause people to throw up and others to get dizzy does it have to do with the taste the brain etc I Prediction ability to anticipate the occurrence of an event I know the causes so now I can prediction if I give this drink to Jill or Bill what will happen I Optimization Using knowledge to help people be as happy productive and satisfied as possible So if I know what the green liquid does I will be able to help Jill if she becomes addicted to it STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS I Choosing a research question I Conducting a literature review I Developing a hypothesis Designing the study I Conducting the study Analyzing the data 8118111 Chapter 2 Hypothesis Development Reviewing the Literature Conducting a search of the literature on the topic Using databases of resources like Psyclnfo on Galileo to find articlesbooks written on topic Reading all legitimate sources on topic Reviewing the Literature Why I To see if topic has already been researched You don t want to do another study that s already been done We want to do something different that has not been done so that our field of study advances Tweaking and making a study different adding new aspects and maybe changing the subject group to make a difference to come up with a new idea Don t redo something that s already been done I To learn about experimental procedures and Methodological concerns To learn from what other people have done in their research learning on other people mistakes procedures etc I To be able to propose and educated hypothesis Being able to make a hypothesis based on previous research in order to make a better assumptions Hypothesis Developing a hypothesis I DataDriven Hypotheses Based on results of previous studies I Inductive Reasoning Using specific info to form a general theory Teacher starts noticing students start doing worse when they don t come to class She then draws a conclusion that students progress more and do well in college classes if they attend class I TheoryDriven Hypotheses 0 Based on theories o Deductive Reasoning Types of research questionshypotheses I Descriptive Research Question Asks about the presence ofa behaviorthoughtfeeling how frequently it is exhibited andor whether there is a relationship between behaviorsthoughtsfeelings Examples if workers work better and have better productivity if they are being watched or athletes perform better when there is a crowd and they are cheering then when heshe is alone 0 Descriptive Hypothesis a prediction about the presence frequency or relationship between behaviorsthoughtsfeelings Casual Research Question Asks what causes specific behaviorthoughtsfeelings to occur Examples Is aggression in children caused by a lack of something in the brain that s not developed yet or by parenting 0 Casual Hypothesis A prediction about the causes of a particular behavior What causes athletes to perform better in a particular weather The type of research question affects the type of research design you use PSYCHOLOGY3980PAPER Research Proposal A paper in which you propose a study that you would like to do in the future You will NOT be collecting data APA Style Empirical Journal Article Usually composed of Title Page Abstract Introduction Always ends with the hypothesis Method How many participates characteristics materials and a step by step of your procedure Results Where data is displayed statistics the significance of your results in this class you put quotyour planquot for you results very simple short up to a paragraph Discussion Does the studyresults support hypothesis what went wrong how did research and this study relate what s the next step after this study References charts where you got research copies of stuff YOUR FINAL PAPER WILL CONTAIN ALL OF THESE SECTIONS BUT MODIFIED BC YOU ARE PROPOSING RESEARCH Choosing a Topic Sources of Ideas Previous Interests Classes Textbooks Articles Browse Psych Indo for interesting titles Use cited references for more sources Find other articles that cite yours Internet Personal Life Brainstorming Process intended to develop as many ideas as possible in a set amount of time 823Z11 Use for research 0 eLC o APA Folder I Psych 3980 page UGA Library I Writing help 0 Purdue Owl o APA style and formatting o UGA Library page 0 Galileo UGA PW appeal I Choose subject 0 This gives databases that are related to psychological research I PsycArticles 0 Good but only gives articles that are available as full text on internet I USE PsleFO Has full text and other articles 0 Click on Advanced Search 0 Enter term into box 0 Limit results I Specific search terms I Side bar of refining results 0 Peer Review 0 Publication date 0 Subject heading 0 Suggests a better topic wording for search 0 Publication 0 Age 0 Gender 0 Can refine search by searching not ex violence 0 Look at titles of articles 0 Check out abstract o If not full text click Find it UGA I To find print Gil UGA libraries catalog 0 Look for journal 0 To find more articles similar to the one you like Cited references 0 Way to save articles Add to folder only saves until computer is shut down Go to folder Email it to yourself Save as a file Export it 0000 Writing assignment due 83011 Scientific Writing 0 Communication in science 0 Communication of findings I Permits replication and verification o Allows people to redo your experiment and verify that it s correct I Allows researchers to build on each other s work I Stops reinventing the wheel Stops from re replication I Allows for general public to benefit from findings 0 Communicate through peer reviewed journal articles 0 Using one set method of writing makes communication easier I APA style I American Psychological association I APA writing style rules for writing in the social sciences o What is scientific writing I Is formal objective evidencebased clear and concise I General Rules 0 Use the active voice not passive voice 0 Active SubjectverbObject 0 Passive Objectverb subject 825Z11 General Rules 0 Can use 151 person when necessary and to avoid passive voice and ambiguity 0 Don t overdo it keep tone formal 0 Specific and evidence based 6 e Sinee the elawn ef time 9 0 Use correct verb tense 0 Intro past 0 Hypothesis Present 0 Method future 0 Don t use contractions 0 Avoid Biased language 0 People are individuals not defined by labels 0 Use adjectives as descriptors not as nouns I Not the elderly but older people I Not autistics but people with autism 0 Sexual Orientation I Gay men I Lesbians I Bisexual menwomen 0 Be specific when describing raceethnicity I Don t use minorities or nonwhite 0 Avoid emotionally charged words I Don t use handicapped or retarded 0 Use participants not subjects Never say proved or proof I Support Suggest agree with provided evidence 0 8130111 Intro to Observation techniques and research method 0 Observation techniques 0 Must start by defining what you want to observe I Conceptual definition dictionaryeveryday definition of a concept I Operational Definition Takes a conceptual definition and turns it into an observable operation that can be measured in research 0 Naturalistic Observation Careful observation of behavior in the natural environment without intervening directly I Observe behavior in natural environment I Researchers do not interfere I Pro realistic view of behavior I Cons 0 Hard to be unobtrusive 0 Time consuming 0 Doesn t allow discovery of causes of behavior 0 Survey I Questionnaires or interviews used to gather info I Pros 0 Fast cheap can include lots of people can be used when you can t directly observe I Cons 0 Can only describe not talking about cause 0 Relies on self report participants verbalwritten accounts of their own behavior 0 Social desirability bias tendency to give socially approved answers to make self look better 0 Systematic Observation I Researchers have a high degree of control over situation in which behaviors are observed I Pros 0 Can control extraneous factors 0 Can create conditions that make the behavior of interest happen I Cons 0 Lack of realism o Archival Research I Analyzing data that already exists I Pros 0 Quick and cheap 0 Don t need access to participants I Cons o No control over methods 0 May be hard to compare data from different sources 0 Main Categories of Research Designs 0 Case study in depth investigation of an individual I May use naturalistic observation surveys structured observations andor archival research I Useful when looking at rare conditions behaviors I Main disadvantage Can t generalize results to others because you have only studied one person 0 CorrelationalStudies I Examine relationship between two or more variables I Useful when it s impossible or unethical to manipulate variables Positive Correlation The variables move in the same direction Negative Correlation The variables move in the opposite direction Correlation does not imply causation 0 Ice cream sales and murder 0 Smoking and major depression Third variable problem extraneous variable that researchers did not control causes changes in both variables Only talk about cause with experiments 0 Experimental Studies 0 Scientific approach based on strict control in which a variable is manipulated to see the effect I Variable anything that can change in the value and is measured manipulated controlled 0 Independent variable manipulated by the researcher 0 Different variations Levels Whiskyv Beer 0 Experimental group the one that gets the change 0 Control group does not receive treatment 0 Dependent variable the variable that is measured response of participant 0 Change in IV will cause a change in DV 0 ConfoundingExtraneous variables outside variables that impact results but arent purposely measured or manipulated 91Z11 0 Experimental Studies Cont 0 Random assignment all participants have equally likely chance of receiving each level of the independent variable 0 Quasiexperimentalstudies 0 Type of design in which the experimenter does not manipulate the independent variable or randomly assign participants to groups I Can t randomly assign people into groups that they already belong to men v women ages etc For your paper you will choose 1 Correlation bw two variables 2 Experiment with o 1 Independent variable max of 3 levels 0 1 Dependent variable 3 Quasi experiment 0 1 independent variable max of 3 levels 0 1 Dependent variable Chapter 4 Types of Variables o Dependent variable is measuredobserved by the researcher 0 Reliability Consistency I Want the same results every time measure is used with same person in similar situations I nterrater reliability The degree to which two or more independent observers aggress 0 Valid Accuracy I Want a measure that gives you a true accurate result 0 Can have reliability without validity Cannot have validity without reliability Construct Validity Does dependent variable actually measure construct you re interested in I Good operation definition good construct validity I How can you tell 0 Face validity does chosen measure look like it measures the variable to test shy survey about how you feel with people not if you rode a bike at a young age 0 Not the best method high face validity doesn t always equal high construct validity low face validity doesn t always equal low construct validity Convergent Validity extent to which scores on chosen measure are related to scores on other measures of same construct Discriminant Validity degree to which chosen measure can discriminate between the construct your interested in measuring and other unrelated constructs does it really measures intelligence or something similar like creativity 0 Scales of Measurement 0 Nominal categories with no numerical scale I Ex Gender political party marital status I Qualitative data that is non numerical 0 Numbers may be used to represent each category but have no real numerical value 0 Nominal categories to set up levels of independent variable 0 Ordinal Scale of measurement that involves ordered categorical responses I Scores can be ranked represent an underlying continuum 0 Ex Olympic medals movie ratings headache scale I Intervals between values not specified I If numbers used to represent categories order matters but still can t do mathematical operations 0 Interval scale that involves numerical responses that are equally spaced but does not have absolute zero and numbers are not ratios of each other I Similar to Ordinal but intervals are specified 0 So you can perform some mathematical operations 0 Quantitative data numerical I No absolute zero so numbers are not true ratios of each other 0 Temperature 00 96Z11 o Scales of Measurement 0 Ratio scale of measurement in which there is an absolute zero and ratios between numbers are equivalent Can perform all mathematical operations Height length time o IndependentVariables o Manipulated or changed by researcher to see impact PresenceAbsence Variable involves manipulating the presence of the variable to create levels of IV 0 IV of bystanders o 1 Bystanders or no bystanders Type variable involves manipulation of the type of the variable to create levels 0 IV type of bystanders 0 Female Male Amount Variable 0 IV of bystanders o 135 bystanders QuasiExperimental Variable 0 Variable that allows comparisons of groups of participants without manipulation and random assignment 0 Internal Validity 0 Degree to which a study can determine causes of behavior Must Carefully design study to avoid confounds which create alternative explanations for the results 0 Common threats to internal validity History results affected by specific events that take place between measurements warfeelings Maturation results are affected by people changing over time 0 Long time period between measurements 0 Both helped by having a control group Testing results affected by repeated testing 0 Practice effects people improve after being tested multiple times 0 Fatigue effects People get worse after being tested multiple times 0 Problem when having same group of Ps receive for all levels of o Helped by using different materials for each measurements practice trials breaks Instrumentation results affected by changes in the quality of measurement after experiment is performed multiple times 0 Careful training practice checking materials regularly can help Regression toward the mean results affected because people who get extreme scores the first time often get scores closer to mean the next time 0 Cutting out extreme scores Selection results affected by differences that existed between groups at beginning of experiment 0 Careful sampling random assignment can help Diffusion results affected by participants talking to each other about study imitating each other 0 Helped by asking participants not to talk about experiment testing people alone Attrition mortality results affected by participants dropping out of the study Demand Characteristics occurs when participants change their behavior because of expectations about the study or hypothesis 0 Single blind studies Don t know what level of IV they are given Experimenter Bias occurs when a researcher unknowingly treats participants differently because heshe knows hypothesis 0 Double Blind studies researchers who interact with participants don t know which level of the IV they have received 0 External Validity 0 Degree to which results of study can be generalized to the population 0 Typically internal and external validity are inversely related 98Z11 0 Exam More Control higher internal validity But more control less external validity 0 Fill in the blanks 0 Multiple Choice 0 Short Answer 0 Ethical Guidelines for Psychological Research 0 Milgram How high would you go When do you think the majority of people stopped o 65 of participants went to 450 volts Deceived Participants 0 Testing obedience to authority not punishment and learning 0 Learner was 39 39 quot g to be part of experiment 0 No one was actually shocked What do you think about this Was this study ethical Why or Why not dSSISLdIIL o What are ethics Ethics are the values we use to evaluate character or behavior of people Ethics in research values used to evaluate conduct and morality of the researcherresearch projects National Research Act 1974 and Belmont Report 1979 established ethical guidelines for research in the United States American Psychological Association developed Belmont Report into code of Ethics Institutional review board irb group of people at a federally funded institution who examine the ethics of proposed research 0 All research must be approved by IRB o IRB UGA o htt Do no harm do good 0 Never create lasting physical or psychological harm to people 0 Screen out individuals who might be harmed wwwov ru aedu hso indexhtml o Weigh research using costbenefit approach 0 If possible benefits outweigh possible harm research is approved I Voluntary Participation 0 Participants must agree to participate 0 Free to leave have data destroyed at any time 0 Volunteer Bias differences between types of people who volunteer and those who don t reduce generalizability of results Informed Consent 0 Right to be given complete information before deciding to participate 0 Give participants basic idea of what will happen 0 Must tell risks and benefits 0 For minors parental consent and consent from child Deception 0 Certain types of research require deception o What about informed consent 0 Some argue this violates informed consent 0 APA says it s ok as long as I It s justifiable I Provide as much information as possible I Explain deception and debriefing Debriefing 0 After study explain research to participants answer any questions concerns Participants Rights 0 Privacy 0 Certain areas that are off limits for observation without consent 0 Anonymity o No link between their identity and their data 0 Confidentiality 0 Only authorized people can see data 0 Data can only be used for agreed upon uses 0 Research with animals 0 7 to 8 use animals for psychological research 0 Must have good reason 0 Mustjustify any harmpain to animal 0 Must keep animals in good living conditions EXAM 2 o APA Style Research Paper Intro Citations and References 0 General Guidelines I Times New Roman 1012pt font I Double spaced with 1 inch margins o Page Header I Include page header on top of every page I Insert Page number on right side I Title Page o The title page Insert running head flush left Running head 0 Cannot be longer than 50 characters All other pages Insert running head without words running head Page header at the top Include words running head In center of upper half of page title in title case 0 Introduction Follows title page and abstract Provides background of your topic 0 Using Sources 0 Reference Page Around 1012 words 0 The effect of Iv on Dv Centered Author s name Institutional affiliation UGA Demonstrates how your study builds on past research Explains why proposed study is important Introduces research question hypothesis Structure Format Intro funnel moves from general to specific Start out with interesting statement about topic to gain readers attention move to general description of purpose of study Next provide background info by describing research 0 Describe methodology relevant findings and conclusions Next explain rationale behind study using previous research Finally end section by stating hypothesis Starts on its own page Header at top of page Title centered 0 Do not put intro at top Start typing intro right below title Citing sources way to credit author Not citing plagiarism Can only use one direct quote To cite in APA style provide authors name and year of publication Ray 2009 1st provide all names tool Behall S Smitty 2008 Then use et al tool et al 2008 Direct quotation Jones 1998 p 199 All citations must be in reference page All references must be cited manuscript On its own page Center references at top of page Alphabetical order first authors last name I All references have hanging indent I Double Spaced 9127111 Sampling Chapter 6 0 Sampling Terms 0 Population The entire set of people you are interested in study 0 Sampling frame Detailed characteristics of the population a researcher is interested in I Operational definition of Population I only undergraduate at least 1 class at UGA 0 Sample all of the participants selected to take part in study I nfer attitudes of 50 people to general population 0 Representativeness the extent that a sample matches the population in characteristics 0 Sampling Error Difference between observations of the population and the sample that represents the population I Some sampling error always exists 0 Selection Bias Procedures used to select sample result in part of the population being overorunderrepresented in the sample 0 Two Main approaches to sampling 0 Probability sampling I Can specify probability that each member of the population will be included in the sample 0 Convenience non probability sampling I Can NOT specify probability that each member will be included 0 Probability sampling is more likely to create representative sample 0 Types of Probability Samples 0 Simple random sampling each person in the population has an equal chance of being selected I Usually creates the most representative sample But can be difficult to achieve I Random Number tables 0 Systematic sampling I Choose ever nth person from the population to be in sample I Easier than simple random I Watch out for selection bias if list is in order 0 Stratified Random Sampling I Ensures that all groups in population are represented in the same proportion in sample 0 Cluster Sampling I Randomly select a certain number of population units clusters I Then enlist participation from people in those units 0 Select 25 classes and everyone in that class takes survey 0 Multistage Cluster sampling I Randomly sample multiple levels of clusters 0 Types of Convenience Nonprobability sampling 0 Lower in internal and external validity 0 Volunteer Sampling I Nonrandom sample chosen for practical reasons from people who are easily available I Not representative of population 0 Quota Sampling I Select participants based on a set quota for how many of each type of person wanted in sample NOT RANDOM 0 Similar to stratified random but no random 0 Snowball sampling I Researcher enlists the help of participants to recruit other people to participate in study I Illegalnot socially acceptedetc 9129111 Summarizing and interpreting data Chapter 7 0 Descriptive Statistics 0 Used to describe our data 0 Measures of central tendancy I Single number that represents the typical score in your distribution I Three Types 0 Mean 0 The average of group scores 0 Always round to 2quotd decimal place 35 350 0 Median o The middle score 0 Put scores in numerical order o If you have an even number average two middle numbers 0 Mode 0 Scores that occur most often 0 Put scores in order then count 0 It s possible to have more than one mode I Mean is used most often in statistical tests I When data is normal curve mean mode and median are equal or very close I Data is not always normal 0 Outliers any scores that are very different from the majority of other scores 0 Affect the mean by pulling the mean towards them 0 Makes mean not good at representing entire data set 0 When this happens report median too I Use mode for nominal or ordinal data 0 Measure of Variability I Variability the difference between an individual score and the mean 0 How spread out the scores are 0 Several ways to measure variability 0 Range Difference between smallest and largest score I Disadvantage only uses 2 most extreme scores to calculate telling use nothing about the scores in between o Variance Average amount of difference between each score and the mean I To Calculate 0 Must get rid of negative numbers in our differences 0 Square them 0 Sum of squares SS 2 Xmean2 First get all differences then square them Next add squared differences together Must use SS to get average deviation To calculate 0 Divide SS by n1 0 Standard deviation I Putting things back into a nonsquared state I Standard deviation variance 0 Graphs I Frequency Distribution 0 Give picture of how often each score appears 0 HA all possible valuesscores 0 VA of people who gave each score 0 Normal Distribution I Most of scores concentrated around center 0 Bimodal I Scores are concentrated around two points on xaxis o Skewed I Scores are concentrated on one side of xaxis 0 Left side group positively skewed 0 Right side group Negatively skewed I Scatterplots 0 Graph that shows relationship between two different variables 0 Used when you have two pieces of data from each person 0 Height and weight GPA and age etc 0 Each person s data will be plotted separately on a graph as a single point Doesn t matter which is on xaxis or yaxis Numerical data Can be useful when you are interested in a correlation Scatterplots can tell 0 Strength of Correlation I Points Grouped close together Strong correlation I Points spread out random Weak correlation 1014111 0 Direction of Correlation I Positive Correlation Variables move in the same direction As one increases the other increases I Negative Correlation Variables move in the opposite direction As one increases the other decreases o Inferential Statistics 0 A set of statistical r 39 used by population I Hypothesis 0 Alternative Hypothesis hl o Hypothesis that an effect or relationship exists in the population 0 Experimental research States there will be a difference in DV for different levels of IV 0 Correlational research States there will be a relationship between the variables Positive relationship between GPA and study hours 0 Twotailed hypothesis does not specify the direction of the difference or relationship I Caffeine will affect memory I There is a relationship between lQand number of siblings o Onetailed hypothesis Predicts a specific direction of the difference or relationship I Caffeine will improve memory I There is a negative correlation between IQ and to test 39 about number of siblings o Null hypothesis 0 Hypothesis that an effect or relationship does not exist in the population 0 Experimental research states that the levels of IV have no effect on DV 0 Correlation Research states that there is no relationship between variables I When we conduct statistical tests we are testing the null hypothesis NOT alternative hypothesis 0 Calculate the probability that the data from the sample could have occurred if the null was true for the population 0 If probability is high we fail to reject null and can t accept alternative hypothesis 0 If the probability is very low we can reject null and accept alternative hypothesis I Statistical significance a significant result is one that has a very low probability of occurring in the population assuming the null was correct I Alpha level The highest probability value that will allow us to reject the null o P value probability value indicates the likelihood of obtaining the data if the null hypothesis is true o In psychology alpha usually set at p 305 I Four possible outcomes when interpreting results 0 Null is true you fail to reject null Correct acceptance of null hl was wrong and you know it o Null is trueyou reject null Type I error H1 was wrong but you think it s right 0 Null is false you fail to reject null Type II error H1 is correct but you think it s wrong Null is false you reject null Correct rejection of null H1 is correct and you know it 0 Type 1 error reject null even though it s correct I Think sample data not possible id the null is true for the population so reject null but null is actually true 0 Probability of type I error same as p value 0 Type 2 error Fail to reject null even though it s wrong I Think that sample data is within expectations if null were true for population but in reality null is not true I Probability of type 2 error statistical error statistical power 0 AKA Beta level 0 Type 1 and Type 2 errors are inversely related I As chance of making one goes up chance of making other goes down 106Z11 Survey Research 0 Designed to allow researchers to learn about things they cannot directly observe 0 Descriptive research questions asks about the presence of behaviorsthoughtsfeelings how frequently they happen and or whether there is a relationship between them 0 Predictive research question asks if one behavior can be predicted from another behavior 0 Causal Research question asks what causes specific behaviors to occur 0 Surveys can be dependent variables 0 Designing Surveys 0 Types of questions I Openended question have no fixed answers 0 Advantages 0 Flexible 0 Get lots of info 0 Disadvantages o Difficult to analyze 0 Open to interpretation which may lead to experimenter bias 0 May get irrelevant info I Closedended questions include set of answers participants must choose from 0 Types 0 Yesnotruefalse 0 Multiple choice 0 Semantic Differentials I Good xBad Likert Scales O I How stroneg agreedisagree with statement I 1 strongly disagree2 disagree 0 Nonverbal Scales I The picture that shows how you feel 0 Advantages o Easier to answer 0 Easier to analyze o Eliminates irrelevant information o Uniformity of responses 0 Disadvantages o No flexibility 0 Less information provided Some surveys include both types of questions 0 Funneling 0 Start with an openended question follow with close ended questions or vice versa 0 Have a closeended question with one openminded choice 0 Having Other as a choice in a survey Psychometrics Psychological research that involves the development validation and refinement of surveys and tests for measuring psychological constructs 0 When designing surveys 0 Instructional needs to be clear easy to follow I grade reading level 0 Avoid I Ambiguity exercise Once in awhile I Double negatives negative wording I Double barreled questions questions that ask about 2 things at once Loaded questions questions that include emotionally charged words or words with strong connotations 0 Be careful when asking people to present selves in unfavorable way I Social desirability bias bias created from participants desire to be viewed favorably by the researcher I Can help by framing question creating feeling of anonymity including measure of social desirability giving statistics 0 Reverse wording of some items to avoid response sets tendency of participants to answer all questions in a certain way regardless of content 0 Order questions carefully Pretest I Pilot study preliminary research conducted before quotrealquot data collection to make sure that research methodology works 0 0 Want surveys to valid and reliable o How can we check reliability I Testretest reliability checking to see if scores on the measure are consistent over time by giving measure to same people multiple times 0 Problems 0 Testing look back in notes 0 Some variables are supposed to change over time o Mortalityattrition may be hard to get same participants to take tests multiple times I Internal consistency reliability tests reliability by looking at relationships between different items within the same survey 0 Splithalf reliability split measure in half and then correlate the score on one half with the score on the other half 0 Two halves created by randomly dividing survey into two parts 0 Doesn t look at reliability of each item 0 Chronbach s alpha correlate each item with every other item on measure 10111111 Methods and Results 0 Follows intro on same page 0 Detailed description of how study is or will be conducted 0 Completed Study Past tense o In proposal Future tense 0 Purpose of methods 0 Replication o Evaluations 0 Format 0 On line below intro type Method centered in bold 0 Start typing immediately below heading 0 Will have three subsections I Participants I Materials I Procedures 0 All must be labeled on left side of page bold 0 Participants I Describe participants 0 Be detailed but only include relevant info 0 For humans 0 of participants 0 Demographic 5 Age Range Sex 0 How did you select them and where will you recruit them I Details about how you will choose participants I Rewardscompensation for participation 0 How many people were assigned to each conditiongroup level of IV 0 For non humans NA 0 ApparatusMaterials I Describe materialsequipment o Surveys computers speakers etc o No detailed required Pens paper 0 For electronics Brand and model o For Surveys 0 Using a survey from previous research name give citation I Briefly describe survey what does it measure format of s one sample questions from survey 0 Surveys you construct I Briefly describe survey what does it measure format of s one sample questions from survey I Refer reader to survey in appendix 0 Include survey in appendix 0 Procedures I Step by step summary of experiment o In chronological order 0 Start at beginning and describe each step 0 Give enough detail to someone else could follow along and complete study 0 Results I Tells the reader what was found during study I Completed Study Report Stats 0 Name of statistical test used means and standard deviations of DV for each level of iv alpha level pvalue I Proposal 0 Explain what you expect results to look like if hypothesis is supported 0 Started by stating what data you plan to collect 0 Then state what you plan to do with data and which statistical teat you ll use to analyze data I For experimental or quasi with two levels ttest I For experimental or quasi with three or more levels ANOVA State what you expect to find if hypothesis is supported I Experimental 0 State which level or group will have highest or lowest mean 0 Use words statistically significant to explain the expected difference between groupsconditions o DO NOT USE THE WORD CORRELATE I Correlation 0 State expectations for positive or negative correlations 0 Don t want to talk about explanations or implications 0 Format for results I On line immediately below last word of method center in bold I Don t put a space in between start right below the word results O 10 2011 For test 0 Bring Calculator 0 No 2 Pencils o No fill in the blanks on this one 0 Ways to administer surveys 0 Mail Most Common method of conducting surveys 0 Advantages 0 Cheap and Fast 0 Feels more anonymous good way to ask about sensitive topics 0 Avoid interviewer bias 0 Disadvantages o Selfadministered so questions must me self explanatory No control over order questions are answered May end up with biased sample and low external validity 0 Low completion rates I 50 considered adequate 70 excellent I Most less than 30 response rate 0 Tips to increase response rate I Professional Look I Letter of explanation I Include postage paid response envelope I Contacting people multiple times I Bribes OO 0 Face to Face Participants interviewed by experimenter Advantages 0 Greater Flexibility 0 Can observe participant 0 Best method for older adults or young children 0 Can control order of questions 0 Completion rate is higher Disadvantages o Interviewer Bias Intentional or unintentional influence exerted by an interviewer 0 Most expensive and time consuming of all methods 0 Sensitive topics may be hard to discuss 0 Telephone Surveys Used in many largescale surveys today Advantages 0 Less time and money than face to face 0 Can clarify questions and control order 0 May be more honest due to more anonymous feel 0 Easier for researcher to supervise interviewers o Safer than face to face 0 Completion rates higher than mailed surveys Disadvantages o Biased sample due to lower responsecompletion rates 0 Interviewer bias 0 Must keep survey short 0 Completion rates lower than with face to face 0 Internet Surveys I Newest way to conduct surveys is online Similar pros and cons to mailed surveys 0 Easy fast and cheap 0 Covers a wide area 0 More diverse population than in person surveys Biased samples less likely if population has high rate of internet usage 0 Correlational Studies 0 Examine the relationship between two variables I Can be descriptive Can be predictive O Predictor variable DV in Correlational study that is used to predict the score on another variable 0 Outcome Variable DV in Correlational study that is being predicted by the predictor variable Pearson r Correlation Coefficent statistical test used to determine the relationship between two variables I Always between 1 and 1 I Indicates 0 Strength of relationship 0 0 Close to 1 regardless of sign strong relationship 0 Close to 0 weak relationship 0 Example IQfor siblings o Direction of relationship 0 Positive Positive correlation 0 Negative Negative correlation Exam 3 102711 0 Discussion and Abstract 0 Discussion I Purpose to interpret evaluate results I 5 parts 0 Start with broad introductory sentence about results and hypothesis 0 Supported refuted explain I For research proposal 0 State what it would like if your hypothesis was supported in plain language o DON T SAY PROVE o Interpret and examine results 0 Explain what results mean 0 Give implications of findings 0 For proposal I Explain implications of your hypothesis being supported 0 Compare results to past studies 1118111 0 Relate findings to studies in intro 0 For Proposal I State how your findings assuming hypothesis supported would fit previous research 0 State limitations way to improve 0 Listexplains problems 0 Discuss alternative explanations for results and indicate why you believe your explanation is correct 0 List ways research can be improved 0 For proposal I Talk about ways study could be improved potential problems that may arise 0 Talk about future directions 0 What comes next I Describe ideas for future research to expand on topic clarify areas etc o For proposal I Talk about what you d do next if you ran your study and hypothesis was supported Format 0 Line underneath the last words of results 0 Center and bold 0 Right underneath indent and start writing Purpose provide quick summary ofentire research paper Include 12 sentences to summarize each part of paper 0 12 sentences to summarize intro explain purpose of study give hypothesis 0 12 sentences to summarize participants levels of iv o 12 sentences to briefly summarize materialsprocedure o 1 sentence to explain expected results 0 12 sentences to give implications of findings if hypothesis is supported future directions for research DO NOT INCLUDE 0 Abbreviations 0 Any nonessential info Format 0 Located on first page after title page 0 Center word Abstract at top no bold no underline 0 Begin writing right after heading 0 No indenting 0 Must be between 150250 words 0 Keywords 0 Immediately below last line ofabstract centered 0 Type Keywords in italics then list keywords separated by commas o 45 keywords 0 Experimental Designs 0 Only type in which experimenter manipulates the independent variable I Researcher controls the administration of different levels of the IV I Participants randomly assigned to levels 0 Two main categories to experimental designs I Between subjects 0 Different participants will receive each level of the IV 0 Ex Does viewing violent TV increase aggression level 0 Two levels Violent TV and nonviolent TV I One groups experimenter I Other group control I Measure and compare aggression levels of groups I Within subjects 0 The same participant receives all levels of the IV 0 Ex Same person gets violence measure non violence measure and compare I Why use within subjects 0 Don t need as many people 0 Can be sure that the participants are getting each level of IV have same characteristics Statistically more sensitive to effects of IV 0 Due to reduced levels of error I Error reduced because instead of comparing different people compares person to themselves 0 Disadvantages 0 Can t use within subjects if N has llcarryover effectsquot I When one level is presented it causes lasting effects 0 Sensitive to time related effects testing I If DV repeated may have practice or fatigue effects 0 Sensitive to mortalityattrition o Require more time and effort with participants 0 Control in between subjects design I Main concerns differences between participants and their experiences Elimination researcher attempts to remove extraneous variable from research 0 Some variables may be difficult to eliminate gender age socio economic status Constancy Reduce extraneous variable to a single constant value that is experienced by all participants 0 Easier than elimination 0 Can be used for some personal variables Equating groups distributed extraneous variables equally to all groups 0 Ex With gender may have 10 males and 10 females in each IV 0 Problem with these 3 techniques I Have to know the variable that you want to control I Can t take care of unknown factors I Randomization Controls for extraneous variables by making sure that every person has an equally likely chance of being in the experimentgroup o Relies on chance which is not always effective 0 Researcher not aware of all variables being controlled for how effective the group is 0 Types 0 Random sampling 0 Random assignment 0 Control in within subjects designs I Order effects how does the order in which they receive the IV 0 Counterbalancing presents levels of IV in different orders for different participants 0 Some who did one first and some who did the other first 0 Complete Counterbalancing every possible order of conditions is used equally I Red screen Blue screen I Blue Screen Red screen I More than two levels 0 Blue Red Yellow 0 6 possibilities o 5 conditions 0 100 possible orders 0 Incomplete counterbalancing Only a portion of the possible sequences are used I Latin Square Every level gets a chance to go in each place in the sequence once 0 Design with 1 IV Between Subjects 0 Completely randomized design CRD I One IV two levels I Two groups of Ps I Random assignment to groups 0 Multilevel Completely Randomized design I One IV more than 2 levels I More than two groups of participants I Random assignment to groups 1110Z11 0 Designs with 1 IV Between subjects 0 Matched subjects design I Ps are matched on factor thought to influence the results 0 Then each pair of PS is randomly assigned to one of the levels of IV I After the experiment compare each pair of Ps I Like within subjects helps control differences between participants because each participant is compared with someone similar 0 This makes it more sensitive test of the IV 0 Designs with 1 IV Within Subjects 0 Repeated measures design I Most common type of within subjects design Typically involves giving DV then introducing IV then give DV again 0 Ex How does failure affect selfconfidence 0 Measure self confidence Introduce failure Measure self confidence again Compare self confidence before IV and after IV 000 0 Designs with more than 1 IV 0 Between subjects factorial design I Two or more between subjects IV I Examine the effect of more than one IV on the Dv I More than two groups of participants I Random assignment to groups I Two CRDs can be converted into one factorial design 0 Could study the effect of TV violence on aggression 0 Could study heat on aggression 0 Make things faster less Ps needed 0 Allows us to examine the interaction between IVs 0 Does the combination of violent tv and heat make a difference 0 Determine effects of using factorial designs I ANOVA Analysis of variance I Most common statistical test used with factorial designs I Allows researchers to see if each IV aka factor had an effect I Also allows researchers to see if combination of IVs had an effect I Main effects 0 The effect of each IV on the DV 0 You will be looking for a main effect for each factor 0 Factor A Violence of TV show I Compare groups who saw violent shows to ones who do not 0 If so main effect for factor A 0 Factor B Tem p of room I Compare groups who were in hot room to those in cold room are they significantly different 0 If so main effect for factor B 0 Can have main effects for some none or all of your factors I Interactions effects 0 Combine effects of IV on DV 0 Main effects and interactions in 2x2 designs I To determine if you have main effects and or an interaction start by drawing results inside I Violent show I Non violent show Cool 10 5 Hot 20 10 I For main effects you average across the cells 0 Violent show 10 20 302 15 0 Non Violent show 5 10 152 75 o If the averages are different you have a main effect for that factor 0 Cool Room 105 152 75 0 Hot room 20 10 302 15 o In research use an ANOVA to determine averages for significantly different I We assume it s sig different in this class 0 To determine if there is an interaction draw graph of results Start by choosing one factor to be on x axis 0 DV goes on y axis Look at lines to determine if there is an interaction 0 Lines on graph Not parallel interaction 0 Lines on graph parallel no interaction ViolenceTemp v aggression E 40 3 e 30 m 20 o g 10 g 3 0 Violent show Non violent show Factor A In class assignment Hot Mean Violence V Room Temp and Aggression Nwhm oooo H 00 Level of aggression Violent show Non violent show FactorA There s no interaction between violent shows room temp and the level of aggression because the line are parallel 0 Main effects and interactions in 2x2 designs 0 With factorial design have multiple hypotheses one for each main effect one for interaction 00 11115111 Will also have multiple null hypotheses Can use tables and graphs to determine if hypotheses are correct People watching violent show will be more aggressive 0 Check for main effect then see if direction is correct 0 No main effect for TV show so hypothesis was not supported People in the hot room will be more aggressive 0 Check for main effect then see if direction is correct 0 Main effect present 0 Direction Hot 30 Cold 10 Hot scored higher correct People in hot roomviolent show will be more aggressive 0 Check for interaction if none automatically wrong 0 Look inside table to compare direction 0 Then look at each cell in table to see if prediction matches data 0 Designs with more than 1 IV 0 Mixed design Combination of between and within subjects designs 0 At least one IV is between subjects and one IV is within subjects Most common type of experimental design Examples 0 Interested in effect of medication and listening to music on anxiety 0 Medication Between subjects 0 Music Within subjects 0 DV BDI given after each level of the within subjects IV Benefits 0 Less participants than if completely between subjects 0 Like factorial design can examine main effects and interaction 0 More sensitive to effects 0 Notations for designs Researchers rely on shorthand notations to give info about designs 0 Example 2 X 2 The number of numbers number of IVs 0 Two independentvariables The actual number represents one IV and tells uoi how many levels it has 0 2 levels Usually arranged in numerical order 0 3x5x8 0 Three independent Variables 0 One w 3 levels 5 levels 8 levels 0 3 IVs 0 True Experiments v Quasi Experiments 0 True Experiments Closed system researcher has lots of control over outside factors O O 0000 O O O I High internal validity I Low external validity I Internal and external validity are inversely related Quasi Experiments I Open system researcher has little control over outside factors I Low internal validity I High external validity QuasiExperiment Resembles true experiment but does not meet all requirements I Typically missing random assignment Anytime IV occurs naturally you don t manipulate it Anytime IV can t be manipulate Can t say causation Pretestposttest design I Within subjects but no random assignment Measure DV Pretest Then give IV Measure DV Posttest Looking for change from pre to posttest Does not take into account normal fluctuations of scores into account Time Series Design I Like Pretest Posttest but adds several pre and post tests to measure normal fluctuations I Compare average score on pre and post tests I Also allows researcher to check long term effects I Still can t know if factor other than IV caused change Multiple time series design I Like time series design but adds control group I Participants in two groups matched carefully to eliminate confounds I Posttest scores of the groups compared If groups are different provides stronger evidence than previous QED that IV caused changes in DV Nonequivalent before after design I Like multiple time series but comparing groups that were different before experiment began I No control group just experimental groups I Can t just compare posttests because groups started from different places Instead Compare amount of change that occurred between pretest and posttest in each group Chapter 13 Specialized Designs Developmental Research Designs I Crosssectional design 0 Children in different age groups measured at same time Age between subjects quasiexperimental IV 0 Compare memory of 3 groups 79 11 years old Pros o Relatively fast and inexpensive to conduct Cons o Cohort effects effect of being born in one particular historical context 0 No info about development of individuals I Longitudinal design 0 Same group of participants measured at different ages 0 Age within subjects quasi experimental IV 0 Compare memory of 1 group of kids when they are 79 and 11 0 Pros 0 Can study development of individual participants 0 Can examine relationships between early behavior and later behavior 0 No concern about Cohort effects 0 Cons o Crossgenerational problem hard to generalize to groups not part of that cohort Expensive Time consuming Initial questions measures may become uninteresting inadequate o Attrition and mortality 00 1117Z11 0 Development Research Designs 0 Cross Sequential Design I Combines crosssectional and longitudinal approaches 0 Follows two or more groups of people for short longitudinal period I Age Both between and within subjects IV Age 1st test Two years later 2quotd test 4 years later 3rd test 7 9 ll 9 ll 13 ll 13 15 I Can separate effects due to development cohort effects and reduce cross generational problem 0 Small n Design Used to study one or a small sample of participants I Case studies 0 Indepth description analysis of one person 0 Often used in clinical settings 0 Advantages 0 Provide new hypotheses o Chance to test out new treatments 0 Chance to study rare phenomena 0 Disadvantages o No casual statements 0 Observer bias may make data less accurate 0 Low external validity I Baseline Designs 0 Start by getting a baseline measure behavior before treatment to see what typical behavior looks like


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