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by: Spencer Smitham


Spencer Smitham
GPA 3.97


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Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Smitham on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4120 at University of Georgia taught by Hammond in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see /class/202465/psyc-4120-university-of-georgia in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
SENSE AND PERCEPTION EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Psychopysical Methods Psychophysics deal with the understanding of the de nitive relationships between physical and psychological The Psychophysical methods are the scienti c study of the relation between stimulus and sensation Absolute Threshold Is de ned as the minimum amount of simulation necessary for a person to detect a stimulus 50 of the time Differential Threshold Can be de ned as the same de nition as Just noticeable quot The quot J L39 quot L two stimuli or the minimum change in a stimulus that enables it to be correctly judged as different from a reference stimulus Psychophysical scaling NEURON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Glial cells Any of the cells making up the glia such as the starshaped cells called astrocytes are nonneuronal cells that maintain homeostasis form myelin and provide support and protection for the brain39s neurons In the human brain there is roughly one glia for every neuron with a ratio of about two neurons for every three glia in the cerebral gray matte Neural Plasticity The natural ability of neural circuits to undergo changes in function or organization as a result of previous activity Chemical and iongated channels Ion channels are poreforming proteins that help establish and control the small voltage gradient across the plasma membrane of see cell potential by allowing the ow ofioi down their electrochemical gradient Action potential is the change in electrical potential that occurs between the inside and outside of a nerve or muscle ber when it is stimulated serving to transmit nerve signals Resting potential As described in the section Ions and the forces driving their motion equilibrium or reversal potential of an ion is the value of transmembrane voltage at which the electric force generated by diffusional movement of the ion down its concentration gradient becomes equal to the molecular force of that diffusion the imbalance of electrical charge that exists between the interior of electrically excitable nerve cells and their surroundings The resting potential of electrically excitable cells lies in the range of 60 to 95 millivolts 1 millivolt 0001 volt with the inside of the cell negatively charged If the inside of a cell becomes more electronegative ie if the potential is made greater than the resting potential the membrane or the cell is said to be hyperpolarized If the inside of the cell L less 4 quot ie the r quot 39 4 below the resting potential the process is called depolarization Central nervous system the part ofthe nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord the part of the nervous system which in vertebrates consists of the brain and spinal cord to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out and which supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system compare Peripheral nervous system the portion ofthe nervous system lying outside the m and spinal cord the part of the nervous system that is outside the central nervous system and comprises the cranial nerves excepting the optic nerve the spinal nerves and the autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system The part of the nervous system that controls voluntary movements in the body such as those performed by the skeletal muscles see muscular system The somatic nervous system also includes the special nerve bers that help keep the body in touch with its surroundings such as those involved in touch hearing and sight Autonomic nervous system the system of nerves and ganglia that innervates the blood vessels heart smooth muscles viscera and glands and controls their involuntary functions consisting of sympathetic and parasympathetic portions a part of the vertebrate nervous system that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glandular tissues and governs involuntary actions as secretion vasoconstriction or peristalsis and that consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous Sympathetic nervous system the part of the autonomic nervous system that is J r 39 quot with r r 39 g the body to react to situations of stress or emergency that contains chie y adrenergic bers and tends to depress secretion decrease the tone and contractility of smooth muscle increase heart rate and that consists essentially of preganglionic bers arising in the thoracic and upper lumbar parts of the spinal cord and passing through delicate white rami communicantes to ganglia located in a pair of sympathetic chains situated one on each side of the spinal column or to more peripheral ganglia or ganglionated plexuses and postganglionic bers passing typically through gray rami communicantes to spinal nerves with which they are distributed to various end organs Parasympathetic nervous system the part of the autonomic nervous system that contains chie y cholinergic bers that tends to induce secretion to increase the tone and contractility of smooth muscle and to slow the heart rate and that consists of 1 a cranial part made up of preganglionic bers leaving and passing the midbrain by the oculomotor nerves and the hindbrain by the facial glossopharyngeal vagus and accessory nerves and passing to the ciliary sphenopalatine submandibular and otic ganglia of the head or to ganglionated plexuses of the thorax and abdomen and postganglionic bers passing from these ganglia to end organs of the head and upper trunk and 2 a sacral part made up of preganglionic bers emerging and passing in the sacral nerves and passing to ganglionated plexuses of the lower trunk and postganglionic bers passing from these plexuses chie y to the viscera of the lower abdomen and the external genital organs Afferent dorsal nerves In the nervous system afferent neurons otherwise known as sensory or receptor neurons carry nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs toward the central nervous system Efferent ventral nerves a nerve that conveys impulses toward or to muscles or glands Re exes noting or pertaining to an 39 y r to a quot the nerve impulse from a receptor being transmitted inward to a nerve center that in turn transmits it outward to an effector 39 Izmh Mlul BRAIN STRUCTURES Frontal Lobe The largest and forwardmost lobe of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for the control of skilled motor activity including speech Mood and ability to think are also controlled by the frontal lobe Eerebral cortex Occipital Lobe The posterior lobe of each cerebral hemisphere having the shape of a threesided pyramid and containing the visual center of the brain Temporal Lobe temporal lobe The lobe of each cerebral hemisphere lying to the side and rear of the frontal lobe The temporal lobe controls hearing and some aspects of language perception emotion and memory Cerebral Cortex the furrowed outer layer of gray matter in the cerebrum of the brain associated with the higher brain functions as voluntary movement coordination of sensory information learning and memory and the expression of individuality Corpus Callosum The band of white bers that connect th cerebral hemispheres in mammals Wernicke s Area is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked since the late nineteenth century to speech the other is Broca39s area It is involved in the understanding of written and spoken language Broca s Area An area located in the frontal lobe of the brain usually in the left cerebral hemisphere It is associated with the motor control of speech Basal Ganglia Substantia nigra any of four deeply placed masses of gray matter within each cerebral hemisphere comprising the caudate nucleus the Ientiform nucleus the amygdala and the claustrum usually used in plural called also basal nucleus Cerebellum one of the major divisions of the vertebrate brain situated in man above the medulla oblongata and beneath the cerebrum whose function is coordination of voluntary movements and maintenance of bodily equilibrium Hippocampus an area of cerebral cortex that forms a ridge in the oor of the lateral ventricle of the brain which in cross section has the shape of a sea horse It functions as part of the Iimbic system Hypothalamus a basal part of the diencephalon that lies beneath the thalamus on each side forms the oor of the third ventricle and includes vital autonomic regulatory centers as for the control of food intake Suprachiasmatic Nucleus either of a pair of neuron clusters in the hypothalamus situated directly above the optic chiasma that receive photic input from the retina via the optic nerve and that regulate the body39s circadian rhythms Circadian rhythms Circadian rhythm can be de ned as inherent cyclical and persistent patterns that recur over a period of approximately 24 hours Pineal gland a peasized organ in the brain situated beneath the posterior part of the corpus callosum that secretes melatonin into the bloodstream Endocrine system The system of endocrine glands in the body The endocrine system chemically controls the various functions of tissues and organs through the secretion of hormones The endocrine system includes the adrenal glands parathyroid gland pituitary gland and thyroid gland as well as the ovaries pancreas and testes Thalamus the middle part ofthe diencephalon through which sensory impulses pass to reach the cerebral cortex Medulla Oblongata the lower stalklike section of the brain continuous with the spinal cord containing control centres for the heart and lungs Sulci a groove or ssure esp a ssure between two convolutions ofthe brain Gyri A rounded ridge as on the surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres Meninges The three membranes that enclose the vertebrate brain and spinal cord the pia mater arachnoid and dura mater Limbic system the part of the brain bordering on the corpus callosum concerned with basic emotion hunger and sex Nucleus Basalis of Meynert the gray matter of the substantia innominata of the forebrain that consists mostly of cholinergic neurons Reticular Activating System The part of the reticular formation in the brainstem that plays a central role in bodily and behavioral alertness its ascending connections affect the function of the cerebral cortex and its descending connections affect bodily posture and re ex mechanisms Ventricles one of the system of communicating cavities in the brain that are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord that like it are derived from the medullary canal of the embryo that are lined with an epithelial ependyma and that contain a serous uid Cerebrospinal Fluid the uid in the ventricles of the brain between the arachnoid and pia mater and surrounding the spinal cord Medial Forebrain Bundle a prominent tract of nerve bers that connects the subcallosal area of the cerebral cortex with the lateral areas of the hypothalamus and that has bers passing to the tuber cinereum the brain stem and the mammillary bodies Physical qualities of light and the psychological correlates


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